Sepsis in adults

References

Key articles

Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):801-10.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):801-10.Full text  Abstract

2. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr;31(4):1250-6. Abstract

3. Nasa P, Juneja D, Singh O. Severe sepsis and septic shock in the elderly: an overview. World J Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb 4;1(1):23-30.Full text  Abstract

4. Castle SC, Norman DC, Yeh M, et al. Fever response in elderly nursing home residents: are the older truly colder? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991 Sep;39(9):853-7. Abstract

5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

6. Epstein L, Dantes R, Magill S, et al. Varying estimates of sepsis mortality using death certificates and administrative codes - United States, 1999-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Apr 8;65(13):342-5.Full text  Abstract

7. Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7):1303-10. Abstract

8. Rhee C, Jones TM, Hamad Y, et al. Prevalence, underlying causes, and preventability of sepsis-associated mortality in US acute care hospitals. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Feb 1;2(2):e187571.Full text  Abstract

9. Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, et al. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 17;348(16):1546-54.Full text  Abstract

10. Angus DC, Wax RS. Epidemiology of sepsis: an update. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(suppl 7):S109-16. Abstract

11. Karlsson S, Varpula M, Ruokonen E. Incidence, treatment, and outcome of severe sepsis in ICU-treated adults in Finland: the Finnsepsis Study. Intensive Care Med. 2007 Mar;33(3):435-43. Abstract

12. Blanco J, Muriel-Bombin A, Sagredo V, et al. Incidence, organ dysfunction and mortality in severe sepsis: a Spanish multicentre study. Crit Care. 2008;12(6):R158.Full text  Abstract

13. Laupland KB, Gregson DB, Zygun DA, et al. Severe bloodstream infections: a population-based assessment. Crit Care Med. 2004 Apr;32(4):992-7. Abstract

14. Fleischmann C, Scherag A, Adhikari NK, et al. Assessment of global incidence and mortality of hospital-treated sepsis. Current estimates and limitations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb 1;193(3):259-72.Full text  Abstract

15. Martin GS, Mannino DM, Moss M. The effect of age on the development and outcome of adult sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan;34(1):15-21. Abstract

16. Annane D, Aegerter P, Jars-Guincestre MC, et al. Current epidemiology of septic shock: the CUB-Réa Network. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Jul 15;168(2):165-72.Full text  Abstract

17. Pronovost P, Needham D, Berenholtz S, et al. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 28;355(26):2725-32.Full text  Abstract

18. Arduino MJ, Tokars JI. Why is an infection control program needed in the hemodialysis setting? Nephrol News Issues. 2005 Jun;19(7):44;46-9. Abstract

19. Berenholtz SM, Milanovich S, Faircloth A, et al. Improving care for the ventilated patient. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2004 Apr;30(4):195-204. Abstract

20. Boyce JM, Pittet D; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee; HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002 Oct 25;51(RR-16):1-45;quiz CE1-4.Full text  Abstract

21. Llop J, Badia MB, Comas D, et al. Colonization and bacteremia risk factors in parenteral nutrition catheterization. Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;20(6):527-34. Abstract

22. Danai PA, Sinha S, Moss M, et al. Seasonal variation in the epidemiology of sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb;35(2):410-5. Abstract

23. Raymond NJ, Blackmore TK, Humble MW, et al. Bloodstream infections in a secondary and tertiary care hospital setting. Intern Med J. 2006 Dec;36(12):765-72. Abstract

24. Gea-Banacloche JC, Opal SM, Jorgensen J, et al. Sepsis associated with immunosuppressive medications: an evidence based review. Crit Care Med. 2004 Nov;32(suppl 11):S578-90. Abstract

25. Cohen J, Brun-Buisson C, Torres A, et al. Diagnosis of infection in sepsis: an evidenced based review. Crit Care Med. 2004 Nov;32(11 Suppl):S466-94. Abstract

26. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death. Just say sepsis! A review of the process of care received by patients with sepsis. Nov 2015 [internet publication].Full text

27. Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, et al. Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location in the United States in 2001 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol. 2009 Oct;47(10):3185-90.Full text  Abstract

28. Vincent JL, Sakr Y, Sprung CL, et al. Sepsis in European intensive care units: results of the SOAP study. Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb;34(2):344-53. Abstract

29. Levy MM, Dellinger RP, Townsend SR, et al. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: results of an international guideline-based performance improvement program targeting severe sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2010 Feb;38(2):367-74. Abstract

30. Russell JA. Management of sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 19;355(16):1699-713. Abstract

31. Shapiro NI, Wolfe RE, Moore RB, et al. Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score: a prospectively derived and validated clinical prediction rule. Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar;31(3):670-5. Abstract

32. Danai PA, Moss M, Mannino DM, et al. The epidemiology of sepsis in patients with malignancy. Chest. 2006 Jun;129(6):1432-40. Abstract

33. Page DB, Donnelly JP, Wang HE. Community-, healthcare-, and hospital-acquired severe sepsis hospitalizations in the University HealthSystem Consortium. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):1945-51.Full text  Abstract

34. Goldman DA, Huskins WC. Control of nosocomial antimicrobial-resistant bacteria: a strategic priority for hospitals worldwide. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;24(suppl 1):S139-45. Abstract

35. Pitout JD, Laupland KB. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Mar;8(3):159-66. Abstract

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. Trends in pregnancy-related mortality in the United States: 1987-2016. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text

37. Acosta CD, Knight M, Lee HC, et al. The continuum of maternal sepsis severity: incidence and risk factors in a population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67175.Full text  Abstract

38. Plante LA, Pacheco LD, et al; Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). SMFM Consult Series #47: sepsis during pregnancy and the puerperium. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Apr;220(4):B2-10.Full text  Abstract

39. Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter PM, et al. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe: results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. JAMA. 1995 Aug 23-30;274(8):639-44. Abstract

40. Solomkin JS, Mazuski J. Intra-abdominal sepsis: newer interventional and antimicrobial therapies. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009 Sep;23(3):593-608. Abstract

41. Montravers P, Dupont H, Gauzit R, et al. Candida as a risk factor for mortality in peritonitis. Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar;34(3):646-52. Abstract

42. Donelli G. Vascular catheter-related infection and sepsis. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2006;7(suppl 2):S25-7. Abstract

43. Wenzel RP. Treating sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Sep 26;347(13):966-7. Abstract

44. Tsujimoto H, Ono S, Efron PA, et al. Role of Toll-like receptors in the development of sepsis. Shock. 2008 Mar;29(3):315-21. Abstract

45. Hopkins P, Cohen J. Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door? Crit Care. 2002 Apr;6(2):99-101.Full text  Abstract

46. Kumpf O, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Koch A, et al. Influence of genetic variations in TLR4 and TIRAP/Mal on the course of sepsis and pneumonia and cytokine release: an observational study in three cohorts. Crit Care. 2010;14(3):R103.Full text  Abstract

47. Daniels R, Nutbeam T (eds). The ABC of sepsis. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.

48. Hauser B, Bracht H, Matejovic M, et al. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition in sepsis? Lessons learned from large-animal studies. Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):488-98. Abstract

49. Remick DG. Pathophysiology of sepsis. Am J Pathol. 2007 May;170(5):1435-44.Full text  Abstract

50. Faust SN, Heyderman RS, Levin M. Coagulation in severe sepsis: a central role for thrombomodulin and active protein C. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(suppl 7):S62-7;discussion S67-8. Abstract

51. Fourrier F, Chopin C, Goudemand J, et al. Septic shock, multiple organ failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation: compared patterns of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S deficiencies. Chest. 1992 Mar;101(3):816-23. Abstract

52. Ince C. The microcirculation is the motor of sepsis. Crit Care. 2005;9(suppl 4):S13-9.Full text  Abstract

53. Balk RA. Severe sepsis and septic shock. Definitions, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. Crit Care Clin. 2000 Apr;16(2):179-92. Abstract

54. Abraham E, Singer M. Mechanisms of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Crit Care Med. 2007 Oct;35(10):2408-16. Abstract

55. Waljee AK, Rogers MA, Lin P, et al. Short term use of oral corticosteroids and related harms among adults in the United States: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2017 Apr 12;357:j1415.Full text  Abstract

56. Vogel TR, Dombrovskiy VY, Carson JL, et al. Postoperative sepsis in the United States. Ann Surg. 2010 Dec;252(6):1065-71.Full text  Abstract

57. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1368-77.Full text  Abstract

58. Gao F, Melody T, Daniels R, et al. The impact of compliance with 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis bundles on hospital mortality in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective observational study. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):R764-70.Full text  Abstract

59. Jones AE, Focht A, Horton JM, et al. Prospective external validation of the clinical effectiveness of an emergency department-based early goal-directed therapy protocol for severe sepsis and septic shock. Chest. 2007 Aug;132(2):425-32.Full text  Abstract

60. Puskarich MA, Marchick MR, Kline JA, et al. One year mortality of patients treated with an emergency department based early goal directed therapy protocol for severe sepsis and septic shock: a before and after study. Crit Care. 2009;13(5):R167.Full text  Abstract

61. Daniels R, Nutbeam I, McNamara G, et al. The sepsis six and the severe sepsis resuscitation bundle: a prospective observational cohort study. Emerg Med J. 2011 Jun;28(6):507-12. Abstract

62. Sundén-Cullberg J, Rylance R, Svefors J, et al. Fever in the emergency department predicts survival of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr;45(4):591-9. Abstract

63. Esper AM, Moss M, Lewis CA, et al. The role of infection and comorbidity: factors that influence disparities in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct;34(10):2576-82.Full text  Abstract

64. Churpek MM, Snyder A, Han X, et al. Quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, and Early Warning Scores for detecting clinical deterioration in infected patients outside the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr 1;195(7):906-11.Full text  Abstract

65. Fernando SM, Tran A, Taljaard M, et al. Prognostic accuracy of the Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment for mortality in patients with suspected infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Feb 20;168(4):266-75. Abstract

66. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

67. Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Meredith P, et al. The ability of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to discriminate patients at risk of early cardiac arrest, unanticipated intensive care unit admission, and death. Resuscitation. 2013 Apr;84(4):465-70. Abstract

68. Goulden R, Hoyle MC, Monis J, et al. qSOFA, SIRS and NEWS for predicting inhospital mortality and ICU admission in emergency admissions treated as sepsis. Emerg Med J. 2018 Jun;35(6):345-9.Full text  Abstract

69. Keep JW, Messmer AS, Sladden R, et al. National early warning score at emergency department triage may allow earlier identification of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective observational study. Emerg Med J. 2016 Jan;33(1):37-41. Abstract

70. Corfield AR, Lees F, Zealley I, et al; Scottish Trauma Audit Group Sepsis Steering Group. Utility of a single early warning score in patients with sepsis in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2014 Jun;31(6):482-7. Abstract

71. Royal College of Physicians. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2. Dec 2017 [internet publication].Full text

72. NHS England. Sepsis guidance implementation advice for adults. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

73. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Expert Panel on Sepsis. DART: an evidence-driven tool to guide the early recognition and treatment of sepsis and septic shock. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

74. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 1992 Jun;20(6):864-74. Abstract

75. Weinstein MP, Reller RB, Murphy JR, et al. The clinical significance of positive blood cultures: a comprehensive analysis of 500 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. I. Laboratory and epidemiologic observations. Rev Infect Dis. 1983 Jan-Feb;5(1):35-53. Abstract

76. Diament D, Salomão R, Rigatto O, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock: management of the infectious agent - diagnosis. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2011 Jun;23(2):134-44.Full text  Abstract

77. Jimenez MF, Marshall JC. Source control in the management of sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27(suppl 1):S49-62. Abstract

78. Trzeciak S, Chansky ME, Dellinger PR, et al. Operationalizing the use of serum lactate measurement for identifying high risk of death in a clinical practice algorithm for suspected severe sepsis. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:150-1.

79. Schuetz P, Birkhahn R, Sherwin R, et al. Serial procalcitonin predicts mortality in severe sepsis patients: results from the Multicenter Procalcitonin MOnitoring SEpsis (MOSES) Study. Crit Care Med. 2017 May;45(5):781-9.Full text  Abstract

80. Kip MM, Kusters R, Ijzerman MJ, et al. A PCT algorithm for discontinuation of antibiotic therapy is a cost-effective way to reduce antibiotic exposure in adult intensive care patients with sepsis. J Med Econ. 2015;18(11):944-53. Abstract

81. Merx MW, Weber C. Sepsis and the heart. Circulation. 2007 Aug 14;116(7):793-802.Full text  Abstract

82. Nguyen HB, Rivers EP, Knoblich BP, et al. Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2004 Aug;32(8):1637-42. Abstract

83. Jones AE, Shapiro NI, Trzeciak S, et al. Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2010 Feb 24;303(8):739-46.Full text  Abstract

84. Billeter A, Turina M, Seifert B, et al. Early serum procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and 24-hour lactate clearance: useful indicators of septic infections in severely traumatized patients. World J Surg. 2009 Mar;33(3):558-66. Abstract

85. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections: a patient level meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):95-107.Full text  Abstract

86. Shehabi Y, Sterba M, Garrett PM, et al. Procalcitonin algorithm in critically ill adults with undifferentiated infection or suspected sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov 15;190(10):1102-10.Full text  Abstract

87. Andriolo BN, Andriolo RB, Salomão R, et al. Effectiveness and safety of procalcitonin evaluation for reducing mortality in adults with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 18;(1):CD010959.Full text  Abstract

88. Lam SW, Bauer SR, Fowler R, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of procalcitonin-guidance versus usual care for antimicrobial management in critically ill patients: focus on subgroups based on antibiotic initiation, cessation, or mixed strategies. Crit Care Med. 2018 May;46(5):684-90. Abstract

89. Phua J, Koay ES, Lee KH. Lactate, procalcitonin, and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide versus cytokine measurements and clinical severity scores for prognostication in septic shock. Shock. 2008 Mar;29(3):328-33. Abstract

90. Rady MY, Smithline HA, Blake H, et al. Comparison of the shock index and conventional vital signs to identify acute, critical illness in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Oct;24(4):685-90. Abstract

91. Napoli AM, Machan JT, Corl K, et al. The use of impedance cardiography in predicting mortality in emergency department patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Apr;17(4):452-5.Full text  Abstract

92. Havaldar AA. Evaluation of sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction as a predictor of mortality. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2018 Nov 30;16(1):31.Full text  Abstract

93. Lavi R, Yarnitsky D, Rowe JM, et al. Standard vs atraumatic Whitacre needle for diagnostic lumbar puncture: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1492-4. Abstract

94. Arendt K, Demaerschalk BM, Wingerchuk DM, et al. Atraumatic lumbar puncture needles: after all these years, are we still missing the point? Neurologist. 2009 Jan;15(1):17-20. Abstract

95. Nath S, Koziarz A, Badhiwala JH, et al. Atraumatic versus conventional lumbar puncture needles: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Mar 24;391(10126):1197-204. Abstract

96. Rochwerg B, Almenawer SA, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Atraumatic (pencil-point) versus conventional needles for lumbar puncture: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 May 22;361:k1920.Full text  Abstract

97. Ahmed SV, Jayawarna C, Jude E. Post lumbar puncture headache: diagnosis and management. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Nov;82(973):713-6.Full text  Abstract

98. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Ciapponi A, Roqué i Figuls M, et al. Posture and fluids for preventing post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 7;(3):CD009199.Full text  Abstract

99. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA allows marketing of test to identify organisms that cause bloodstream infections and provide antibiotic sensitivity results. Feb 2017 [internet publication].Full text

100. Pancholi P, Carroll KC, Buchan BW, et al. Multicenter evaluation of the Accelerate PhenoTest BC kit for rapid identification and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing using morphokinetic cellular analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Apr;56(4):e01329-17.Full text  Abstract

101. Blauwkamp TA, Thair S, Rosen MJ, et al. Analytical and clinical validation of a microbial cell-free DNA sequencing test for infectious disease. Nat Microbiol. 2019 Apr;4(4):663-74. Abstract

102. Freire AX, Bridges L, Umpierrez GE, et al. Admission hyperglycemia and other risk factors as predictors of hospital mortality in a medical ICU population. Chest. 2005 Nov;128(5):3109-16. Abstract

103. Howell G, Tisherman SA. Management of sepsis. Surg Clin North Am. 2006 Dec;86(6):1523-39. Abstract

104. Simon HB. Hyperthermia. N Engl J Med. 1993 Aug 12;329(7):483-7. Abstract

105. Brandom BW. Genetics of malignant hyperthermia. Anesthesiol Clin North America. 2005 Dec;23(4):615-9;viii. Abstract

106. Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, et al. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit Care Med. 1985 Oct;13(10):818-29. Abstract

107. Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Draper EA, et al. The APACHE III prognostic system. Risk prediction of hospital mortality for critically ill hospitalized adults. Chest. 1991 Dec;100(6):1619-36. Abstract

108. Rivers EP, Nguyen, HB, Amponsah D. Sepsis: a landscape from the emergency department to the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar;31(3):968-9. Abstract

109. Macdonald SP, Arendts G, Fatovich DM, et al. Comparison of PIRO, SOFA, and MEDS scores for predicting mortality in emergency department patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Nov;21(11):1257-63.Full text  Abstract

110. Albright CM, Ali TN, Lopes V, et al. The sepsis in obstetrics score: a model to identify risk of morbidity from sepsis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jul;211(1):39;e1-8. Abstract

111. Vasquez DN, Das Neves AV, Vidal L, et al. Characteristics, outcomes, and predictability of critically ill obstetric patients: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):1887-97. Abstract

112. Warhurst G, Dunn G, Chadwick P, et al. Clinical diagnostic accuracy of rapid detection of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection in critical care using multi-pathogen real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. Health Technol Assess. 2015 May;19(35):1-142.Full text  Abstract

113. Levy MM, Rhodes A, Phillips GS, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: association between performance metrics and outcomes in a 7.5-year study. Intensive Care Med. 2014 Nov;40(11):1623-33.Full text  Abstract

114. Seymour CW, Gesten F, Prescott HC, et al. Time to treatment and mortality during mandated emergency care for sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 8;376(23):2235-44.Full text  Abstract

115. Kahn JM, Davis BS, Yabes JG, et al. Association between state-mandated protocolized sepsis care and in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis. JAMA. 2019 Jul 16;322(3):240-50.Full text  Abstract

116. Levy MM, Evans LE, Rhodes A. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign bundle: 2018 update. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Jun;44(6):925-8.Full text  Abstract

117. Chu DK, Kim LH, Young PJ, et al. Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 28;391(10131):1693-705. Abstract

118. Kumar A, Ellis P, Arabi Y, et al. Initiation of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy results in a fivefold reduction of survival in human septic shock. Chest. 2009 Nov;136(5):1237-48. Abstract

119. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al. Duration of hypotension prior to initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun;34(6):1589-96. Abstract

120. Kalil AC, Johnson DW, Lisco SJ, et al. Early goal-directed therapy for sepsis: a novel solution for discordant survival outcomes in clinical trials. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr;45(4):607-14. Abstract

121. Gaieski DF, Mikkelsen ME, Band RA, et al. Impact of time to antibiotics on survival in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in whom early goal-directed therapy was initiated in the emergency department. Crit Care Med. 2010 Apr;38(4):1045-53. Abstract

122. Johnston AN, Park J, Doi SA, et al. Effect of immediate administration of antibiotics in patients with sepsis in tertiary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2017 Jan;39(1):190-202;e6. Abstract

123. National Institute for Health Research. NIHR Alert: giving immediate antibiotics reduces deaths from sepsis. Apr 2017 [internet publication].Full text

124. Kashiouris MG, Zemore Z, Kimball Z, et al. Supply chain delays in antimicrobial administration after the initial clinician order and mortality in patients with sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct;47(10):1388-95. Abstract

125. Sherwin R, Winters ME, Vilke GM, et al. Does early and appropriate antibiotic administration improve mortality in emergency department patients with severe sepsis or septic shock? J Emerg Med. 2017 Oct;53(4):588-95. Abstract

126. Baghdadi JD, Brook RH, Uslan DZ, et al. Association of a care bundle for early sepsis management with mortality among patients with hospital-onset or community-onset sepsis. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 May 1;180(5):707-16. Abstract

127. Vardakas KZ, Voulgaris GL, Maliaros A, et al. Prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams for patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):108-20. Abstract

128. Paul M, Dickstein Y, Raz-Pasteur A. Antibiotic de-escalation for bloodstream infections and pneumonia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Dec;22(12):960-7. Abstract

129. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

130. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects. Jul 2016 [internet publication].Full text

131. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

132. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

133. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-67.Full text  Abstract

134. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

135. Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, et al. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 12;(9):CD004405.Full text  Abstract

136. Choi PTL, Yip G, Quinonez LG, et al. Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review. Crit Care Med. 1999 Jan;27(1):200-10. Abstract

137. Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, et al; the SAFE Study Investigators. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 27;350(22):2247-56.Full text  Abstract

138. Lewis SR, Pritchard MW, Evans DJ, et al. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 3;(8):CD000567.Full text  Abstract

139. Roberts I, Blackhall K, Alderson P, et al. Human albumin solution for resuscitation and volume expansion in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Nov 9;(11):CD001208.Full text  Abstract

140. Rochwerg B, Alhazzani W, Sindi A, et al. Fluid resuscitation in sepsis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Sep 2;161(5):347-55. Abstract

141. Patel A, Laffan MA, Waheed U, et al. Randomised trials of human albumin for adults with sepsis: systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of all-cause mortality. BMJ. 2014 Jul 22;349:g4561. [Erratum in: BMJ. 2014;349:g4850.]Full text  Abstract

142. Delaney AP, Dan A, McCaffrey J, et al. The role of albumin as a resuscitation fluid for patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):386-91. Abstract

143. Zou Y, Ma K, Xiong JB, et al. Comparison of the effects of albumin and crystalloid on mortality among patients with septic shock: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Sao Paulo Med J. 2018 Sep-Oct;136(5):421-32.Full text  Abstract

144. Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced crystalloids versus saline in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 1;378(9):829-39. Abstract

145. Food and Drug Administration. Labeling changes on mortality, kidney injury, and excess bleeding with hydroxyethyl starch products. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

146. Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Turgeon AF, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013 Feb 20;309(7):678-88.Full text  Abstract

147. European Medicines Agency. PRAC recommends suspending hydroxyethyl-starch solutions for infusion from the market. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

148. Holst LB, Haase N, Wetterslev J, et al; TRISS Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 9;371(15):1381-91.Full text  Abstract

149. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D, et al. Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients; 2004 update. Crit Care Med. 2004 Sep;32(9):1928-48. Abstract

150. Brunkhorst FM, Engel C, Bloos F, et al; German Competence Network Sepsis (SepNet). Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 10;358(2):125-39.Full text  Abstract

151. Wiener RS, Wiener DC, Larson RJ. Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):933-44.Full text  Abstract

152. Finfer S, Chittock DR, Yu-Shuo Su S, et al; NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text  Abstract

153. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care in the Hospital: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 1;45(suppl 1):S244-53.Full text  Abstract

154. Rivers PE, McIntyre L, Morro DC, et al. Early and innovative interventions for severe sepsis and septic shock: taking advantage of a window of opportunity. CMAJ. 2005 Oct 25;173(9):1054-65.Full text  Abstract

155. Avni T, Lador A, Lev S, et al. Vasopressors for the treatment of septic shock: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 3;10(8):e0129305.Full text  Abstract

156. Møller MH, Claudius C, Junttila E, et al. Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on choice of first-line vasopressor for patients with acute circulatory failure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2016 Nov;60(10):1347-66.Full text  Abstract

157. Annane D, Pastores SM, Rochwerg B, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in critically ill patients (Part I): Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) 2017. Crit Care Med. 2017 Dec;45(12):2078-88. Abstract

158. Annane D, Bellissant E, Bollaert PE, et al. Corticosteroids for treating sepsis in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 6;(12):CD002243.Full text  Abstract

159. Kalil AC, Sun J. Low-dose steroids for septic shock and severe sepsis: the use of Bayesian statistics to resolve clinical trial controversies. Intensive Care Med. 2011 Mar;37(3):420-9. Abstract

160. Rygård SL, Butler E, Granholm A, et al. Low-dose corticosteroids for adult patients with septic shock: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Jul;44(7):1003-16. Abstract

161. Lamontagne F, Rochwerg B, Lytvyn L, et al. Corticosteroid therapy for sepsis: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Aug 10;362:k3284.Full text  Abstract

162. Rochwerg B, Oczkowski SJ, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Corticosteroids in sepsis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2018 Sep;46(9):1411-20. Abstract

163. Climo MW, Yokoe DS, Warren DK, et al. Effect of daily chlorhexidine bathing on hospital-acquired infection. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 7;368(6):533-42.Full text  Abstract

164. Szakmany T, Hauser B, Radermacher P. N-acetylcysteine for sepsis and systemic inflammatory response in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD006616.Full text  Abstract

165. Trzeciak S, Dellinger RP. Other supportive therapies in sepsis: an evidence-based review. Crit Care Med. 2004 Nov;32(suppl 11):S571-7. Abstract

166. Nguyen HB, Rivers EP, Abrahamian FM, et al; Emergency Department Sepsis Education Program and Strategies to Improve Survival (ED-SEPSIS) Working Group. Severe sepsis and septic shock: review of the literature and emergency department management guidelines. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jul;48(1):28-54. Abstract

167. Wang Y, Ye Z, Ge L, et al. Efficacy and safety of gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis in critically ill patients: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020 Jan 6;368:l6744.Full text  Abstract

168. Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):409-17.Full text  Abstract

169. Brower RG, Matthay MA, Morris A, et al; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 4;342(18):1301-8.Full text  Abstract

170. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.Full text  Abstract

171. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2004.

172. Chrimes N, Higgs A, Hagberg CA, et al. Preventing unrecognised oesophageal intubation: a consensus guideline from the Project for Universal Management of Airways and international airway societies. Anaesthesia. 2022 Aug 17 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

173. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.Full text  Abstract

174. Kusminsky RE. Complications of central venous catheterization. J Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr;204(4):681-96. Abstract

175. McGee DC, Gould MK. Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 20;348(12):1123-33.Full text  Abstract

176. Smith RN, Nolan JP. Central venous catheters. BMJ. 2013 Nov 11;347:f6570. Abstract

177. Reich DL. Monitoring in anesthesia and perioperative care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.

178. Abbott Northwestern Hospital Internal Medicine Residency. Internal jugular central venous line. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

179. Bishop L, Dougherty L, Bodenham A, et al. Guidelines on the insertion and management of central venous access devices in adults. Int J Lab Hematol. 2007 Aug;29(4):261-78. Abstract

180. Practice guidelines for central venous access 2020: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access. Anesthesiology. 2020 Jan;132(1):8-43.Full text  Abstract

181. Fletcher SJ, Bodenham AR. Safe placement of central venous catheters: where should the tip of the catheter lie? Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):188-91. Abstract

182. Gibson F, Bodenham A. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management. Br J Anaesth. 2013 Mar;110(3):333-46.Full text  Abstract

183. Schuster M, Nave H, Piepenbrock S, et al. The carina as a landmark in central venous catheter placement. Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):192-4. Abstract

184. Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, et al. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007798.Full text  Abstract

185. Royal College of Nursing. Catheter care: RCN guidance for health care professionals. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

186. Royal College of Nursing. Catheter care: guidance for health care professionals. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

187. Cherpanath TG, Hirsch A, Geerts BF, et al. Predicting fluid responsiveness by passive leg raising: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 clinical trials. Crit Care Med. 2016 May;44(5):981-91. Abstract

188. Khanna A, English SW, Wang XS, et al; ATHOS-3 Investigators. Angiotensin II for the treatment of vasodilatory shock. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 3;377(5):419-30.Full text  Abstract

189. Zhanel GG, Lawrence CK, Adam H, et al. Imipenem-relebactam and meropenem-vaborbactam: two novel carbapenem-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Drugs. 2018 Jan;78(1):65-98. [Erratum in: Drugs. 2018 May;78(7):787.] Abstract

190. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

191. Sands KE, Bates DW, Lanken PN, et al. Epidemiology of sepsis syndrome in 8 academic medical centers. JAMA. 1997 Jul 16;278(3):234-40. Abstract

192. Zeni F, Freeman B, Natanson C. Anti-inflammatory therapies to treat sepsis and septic shock: a reassessment. Crit Care Med. 1997 Jul;25(7):1095-100. Abstract

193. Shankar-Hari M, Harrison DA, Ferrando-Vivas P, et al. Risk factors at index hospitalization associated with longer-term mortality in adult sepsis survivors. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 May 3;2(5):e194900.Full text  Abstract

194. Hotchkiss RS, Karl IE. The pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 9;348(2):138-50. Abstract

195. Hadjihambi A, Arias N, Sheikh M, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy: a critical current review. Hepatol Int. 2018 Feb;12(suppl 1):135-47.Full text  Abstract

196. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; European Association for the Study of the Liver. Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: 2014 practice guideline by the European Association for the Study of the Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. J Hepatol. 2014 Sep;61(3):642-59.Full text  Abstract

197. Ware LB, Matthay MA. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 4;342(18):1334-49. Abstract

198. Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Treating patients with severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 21;340(3):207-14. Abstract

199. Messmore HL Jr, Wehrmacher WH. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: a primer for primary care physicians. Postgrad Med. 2002;111(3).

200. Hermans G, De Jonghe B, Bruyninckx F, et al. Clinical review: critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Crit Care. 2008;12(6):238.Full text  Abstract

201. Bolton CF. Neuromuscular complications of sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 1993;19(suppl 2):S58-63. Abstract

202. Perl TM, Dvorak L, Hwang T, et al. Long term survival and function after suspected gram negative sepsis. JAMA. 1995 Jul 26;274(4):338-45. Abstract

203. Quartin AA, Shein M, Kett DH, et al. Magnitude and duration of the effect of sepsis on survival. Department of Veterans Affairs, Systemic Sepsis Co-operative Studies Group. JAMA. 1997 Apr 2;277(13):1058-63. Abstract

204. Chemtob RA, Eskesen TG, Moeller-Soerensen H, et al. Systematic review of the association of venous oxygenation and outcome in adult hospitalized patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2016 Nov;60(10):1367-78. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer