Myocarditis

References

Key articles

Aretz HT, Billingham ME, Edwards WD, et al. Myocarditis. A histopathologic definition and classification. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol. 1987 Jan;1(1):3-14. Abstract

Lieberman EB, Hershkowitz A, Rose NR, et al. A clinicopathologic description of myocarditis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1993 Aug;68(2):191-6. Abstract

Heart Failure Society of America. Myocarditis: current treatment: HFSA 2010 comprehensive heart failure practice guideline. J Card Fail. 2010 Jun;16(6):e176-9.Full text

Bozkurt B, Colvin M, Cook J, et al. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for specific dilated cardiomyopathies: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Nov 3;134(23):e579-e646.Full text  Abstract

Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jun 5;62(16):e147-239.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Aretz HT, Billingham ME, Edwards WD, et al. Myocarditis. A histopathologic definition and classification. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol. 1987 Jan;1(1):3-14. Abstract

2. Lieberman EB, Hershkowitz A, Rose NR, et al. A clinicopathologic description of myocarditis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1993 Aug;68(2):191-6. Abstract

3. Magnani JW, Suk-Danik HJ, Dec GW Jr, et al. Survival in biopsy-proven myocarditis: a long-term retrospective analysis of the histopathologic, clinical, and hemodynamic predictors. Am Heart J. 2006 Feb;151(2):463-70. Abstract

4. Dec GW. Introduction to clinical myocarditis. In: Cooper LT, ed. Myocarditis: from bench to bedside. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2003:257-81.

5. Whitton JL, Feuer R. Myocarditis, microbes and autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 2004 Aug;37(5):375-86. Abstract

6. Rassi A Jr, Rassi A, Little WC. Chagas' heart disease. Clin Cardiol. 2000 Dec;23(12):883-99. Abstract

7. Rosenstein ED, Zucker MJ, Kramer N. Giant cell myocarditis: most fatal of autoimmune diseases. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Aug;30(1):1-16. Abstract

8. Shih JA, Shih JA. Small steps for idiopathic giant cell myocarditis. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2015 Jun;12(3):263-8. Abstract

9. Taliercio CP, Olney BA, Lie JT. Myocarditis related to drug hypersensitivity. Mayo Clin Proc. 1985 Jul;60(7):463-8. Abstract

10. Fenoglio JJ Jr, McAllister HA Jr, Mullick FG. Drug related myocarditis. I. Hypersensitivity myocarditis. Hum Pathol. 1981 Oct;12(10):900-7. Abstract

11. Pinney SP, Mancini DM. Myocarditis and specific cardiomyopathies - endocrine disease and alcohol. In: Fuster V, Alexander RW, O'Rourke FA, eds. Hurst's the heart, 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004:1949-74.

12. Heart Failure Society of America. Myocarditis: current treatment: HFSA 2010 comprehensive heart failure practice guideline. J Card Fail. 2010 Jun;16(6):e176-9.Full text

13. Dec GW Jr, Waldman H, Southern J, et al. Viral myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992 Jul;20(1):85-9. Abstract

14. Blankenhorn MA, Gall EA. Myocarditis and myocardosis; a clinicopathologic appraisal. Circulation. 1956 Feb;13(2):217-23. Abstract

15. Doolan A, Langlois N, Semsarian C. Causes of sudden cardiac death in young Australians. Med J Aust. 2004 Feb 2;180(3):110-2.Full text  Abstract

16. Felker GM, Hu W, Hare JM, et al. The spectrum of dilated cardiomyopathy. The Johns Hopkins experience with 1,278 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999 Jul;78(4):270-83. Abstract

17. Schultz JC, Hilliard AA, Cooper LT Jr, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of viral myocarditis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Nov;84(11):1001-9. Abstract

18. Caforio ALP, Adler Y, Agostini C, et al. Diagnosis and management of myocardial involvement in systemic immune-mediated diseases: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Disease. Eur Heart J. 2017 Sep 14;38(35):2649-62.Full text  Abstract

19. Liu PP, Mason JW. Advances in the understanding of myocarditis. Circulation. 2001 Aug 28;104(9):1076-82.Full text  Abstract

20. Huber SA. Animal models: immunological aspects. In: Banatvla JE, ed. Viral infections in the heart. London: Edward Arnold; 1993:82-109.

21. Kawai C. From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future. Circulation. 1999 Mar 2;99(8):1091-100.Full text  Abstract

22. Feldman AM, McNamara D. Myocarditis. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 9;343(19):1388-98. Abstract

23. Kaya Z, Afanasyeva M, Wang Y, et al. Contributions of the innate immune system to autoimmune myocarditis: a role for complement. Nat Immunol. 2001 Aug;2(8):739-45. Abstract

24. Baboonian C, Treasure T. Meta-analysis of the association of enteroviruses with human heart disease. Heart. 1997 Dec;78(6):539-43. Abstract

25. Hofman P, Drici MD, Gibelin P, et al. Prevalence of toxoplasma myocarditis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Br Heart J. 1993 Oct;70(4):376-81. Abstract

26. Barbaro G, Di Lorenzo G, Grisorio B, et al. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy and detection of HIV in myocardial cells of HIV-positive patients. Grupo Italiano per lo Studio Cardiologico dei Pazienti Affetti da AIDS. N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 15;339(16):1093-9. Abstract

27. Halsell JS, Riddle JR, Atwood JE, et al. Myopericarditis following smallpox vaccination among vaccinia-naive US military personnel. JAMA. 2003 Jun 25;289(24):3283-9.Full text  Abstract

28. Frustaci A, Gentiloni N, Caldarulo M. Acute myocarditis and left ventricular aneurysm as presentations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Chest. 1996 Jan;109(1):282-4. Abstract

29. Clemson BS, Miller WR, Luck JC, et al. Acute myocarditis in fulminant systemic sclerosis. Chest. 1992 Mar;101(3):872-4. Abstract

30. Okura Y, Dec GW, Hare JM, et al. A clinical and histopathologic comparison of cardiac sarcoidosis and idiopathic giant cell myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jan 15;41(2):322-9. Abstract

31. Burke AP, Saenger J, Mullick R, et al. Hypersensitivity myocarditis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1991 Aug;115(8):764-9. Abstract

32. Ansari A, Maron BJ, Berntson DG. Drug-induced toxic myocarditis. Tex Heart Inst J. 2003;30(1):76-9.Full text  Abstract

33. Bozkurt B, Colvin M, Cook J, et al. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for specific dilated cardiomyopathies: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Nov 3;134(23):e579-e646.Full text  Abstract

34. Caforio AL, Pankuweit S, Arbustini E, et al. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J. 2013 Jul 3;34(33):2636-48, 2648a-2648d.Full text  Abstract

35. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jun 5;62(16):e147-239.Full text  Abstract

36. Narula J, Khaw BA, Dec GW Jr, et al. Brief report: recognition of acute myocarditis masquerading as acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jan 14;328(2):100-4. Abstract

37. Friedrich MG, Strohm O, Schulz-Menger, et al. Contrast media-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging visualizes myocardial changes in the course of viral myocarditis. Circulation. 1998 May 12;97(18):1802-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Wu LA, Lapeyre AC 3rd, Cooper LT. Current role of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of dilated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001 Oct;76(10):1030-8. Abstract

39. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: nonischemic myocardial disease with clinical manifestations. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

40. Mahrholdt H, Goedecke C, Wagner A, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of human myocarditis: a comparison to histology and molecular pathology. Circulation. 2004 Mar 16;109(10):1250-8.Full text  Abstract

41. Felker GM, Thompson RE, Hare JM, et al. Underlying causes and long-term survival in patients with initially unexplained cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 13;342(15):1077-84. Abstract

42. Bybee KA, Kara T, Prasad A, et al. Systematic review: transient left ventricular apical ballooning: a syndrome that mimics ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Dec 7;141(11):858-65. Abstract

43. Richardson P, McKenna W, Bristow M, et al. Report of the 1995 World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology Task Force on the Definition and Classification of cardiomyopathies. Circulation. 1996 Mar 1;93(5):841-2.Full text  Abstract

44. Liu PP, Schultheiss H. Myocarditis. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, et al., ed. Braunwald's heart disease, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:1775-91.

45. The Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels: nomenclature and criteria for diagnosis, 6th ed. Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1964.

46. Howlett JG, McKelvie RS, Arnold JM, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference guidelines on heart failure, update 2009: diagnosis and management of right-sided heart failure, myocarditis, device therapy and recent important clinical trials. Can J Cardiol. 2009 Feb;25(2):85-105.Full text  Abstract

47. Mills RM, Hobbs RE. Drug treatment of patients with decompensated heart failure. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2001;1(2):119-25. Abstract

48. Farrar DJ, Holman WR, McBride LR, et al. Long-term follow-up of Thoratec ventricular assist device bridge-to-recovery patients successfully removed from support after recovery of ventricular function. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2002 May;21(5):516-21. Abstract

49. Yamamoto K, Shioi T, Uchiyama K, et al. Attenuation of virus-induced myocardial injury by inhibition of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor signal and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B activation in knockout mice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Dec 3;42(11):2000-6. Abstract

50. Wang JF, Meissner A, Malek S, et al. Propranolol ameliorates and epinephrine exacerbates progression of acute and chronic viral myocarditis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Oct;289(4):H1577-83.Full text  Abstract

51. Pauschinger M, Rutschow S, Chandrasekharan K, et al. Carvedilol improves left ventricular function in murine coxsackievirus-induced acute myocarditis association with reduced myocardial interleukin-1beta and MMP-8 expression and a modulated immune response. Eur J Heart Fail. 2005 Jun;7(4):444-52. Abstract

52. Parrillo JE, Cunnion RE, Epstein SE, et al. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of prednisone for dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 1989 Oct 19;321(16):1061-8. Abstract

53. Mason JW, O'Connell JB, Herskowitz A, et al. A clinical trial of immunosuppressive therapy for myocarditis. The Myocarditis Treatment Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1995 Aug 3;333(5):269-75.Full text  Abstract

54. McNamara DM, Holubkov R, Starling RC, et al. Controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin in recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2001 May 8;103(18):2254-9.Full text  Abstract

55. Cooper LT Jr, Berry GJ, Shabetai R; Multicenter Giant Cell Myocarditis Study Group Investigators. Idiopathic giant-cell myocarditis - natural history and treatment. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jun 26;336(26):1860-6.Full text  Abstract

56. Chen HS, Wang W, Wu SN, et al. Corticosteroids for viral myocarditis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 18;(10):CD004471.Full text  Abstract

57. Robinson J, Hartling L, Vandermeer B, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin for presumed viral myocarditis in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 20;(5):CD004370.Full text  Abstract

58. Kuhl U, Pauschinger M, Schwimmbeck PL, et al. Interferon-beta treatment eliminates cardiotropic viruses and improves left ventricular function in patients with myocardial persistence of viral genomes and left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2003 Jun 10;107(22):2793-8.Full text  Abstract

59. Cooper LT Jr, Hare JM, Tazelaar HD, et al; Giant Cell Myocarditis Treatment Trial Investigators. Usefulness of immunosuppression for giant cell myocarditis. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Dec 1;102(11):1535-9. Abstract

60. Kim CH, Vlietstra RE, Edwards WD, et al. Steroid-responsive eosinophilic myocarditis: Diagnosis by endomyocardial biopsy. Am J Cardiol. 1984 May 15;53(10):1472-3. Abstract

61. McBride LR, Naunheim KS, Fiore AC, et al. Clinical experience with 111 Thoratec ventricular assist devices. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 May;67(5):1233-8. Abstract

62. Alsoufi B, Al-Radi OO, Nazer RI, et al. Survival outcomes after rescue extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric patients with refractory cardiac arrest. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Oct;134(4):952-9.e2. Abstract

63. BarZiv SM, McCrindle BW, West LJ, et al. Outcomes of pediatric patients bridged to heart transplantation from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. ASAIO J. 2007 Jan-Feb;53(1):97-102. Abstract

64. Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Long-term use of a left ventricular assist device for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 15;345(20):1435-43.Full text  Abstract

65. Fuse K, Kodama M, Okura Y, et al. Predictors of disease course in patients with acute myocarditis. Circulation. 2000 Dec 5;102(23):2829-35.Full text  Abstract

66. Kühl U, Pauschinger M, Seeberg B, et al. Viral persistence in the myocardium is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2005 Sep 27;112(13):1965-70.Full text  Abstract

67. McCarthy RE 3rd, Boehmer JP, Hruban RH, et al. Long-term outcome of fulminant myocarditis as compared with acute (nonfulminant) myocarditis. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 9;342(10):690-5.Full text  Abstract

68. Dec GW Jr, Fallon JT, Southern JF, et al. Relation between histological findings on early repeat right ventricular biopsy and ventricular function in patients with myocarditis. Br Heart J. 1988 Oct;60(4):332-7.Full text  Abstract

69. Sheppard R, Bedi M, Kubota T, et al. Myocardial expression of fas and recovery of left ventricular function in patients with recent-onset cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Sep 20;46(6):1036-42. Abstract

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