Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults

References

Key articles

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. Jan 2022;45(suppl 1):S1-259.Full text

Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or prediabetes: a consensus report. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):731-54.Full text  Abstract

Rawshani A, Rawshani A, Franzén S, et al. Risk factors, mortality, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16;379(7):633-44.Full text  Abstract

Davies MJ, D'Alessio DA, Fradkin J, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2018 Dec;41(12):2669-701.Full text  Abstract

Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, et al. 2019 update to: Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2020 Feb;43(2):487-93.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Meigs JB, Muller DC, Nathan DM, et al. The natural history of progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Diabetes. 2003 Jun;52(6):1475-84.Full text  Abstract

2. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. Jan 2022;45(suppl 1):S1-259.Full text

3. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.Full text  Abstract

4. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet. 2016 Apr 6;387(10027):1513-30.Full text  Abstract

5. International Diabetes Federation. IDF diabetes atlas: 10th edition. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

6. Magliano DJ, Islam RM, Barr ELM, et al. Trends in incidence of total or type 2 diabetes: systematic review. BMJ. 2019 Sep 11;366:l5003.Full text  Abstract

7. Benoit SR, Hora I, Albright AL, et al. New directions in incidence and prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the USA. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2019 May 28;7(1):e000657.Full text  Abstract

8. Gregg EW, Li Y, Wang J, et al. Changes in diabetes-related complications in the United States, 1990-2010. N Engl J Med. 2014 Apr 17;370(16):1514-23.Full text  Abstract

9. Xu G, Liu B, Sun Y, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes among US adults in 2016 and 2017: population based study. BMJ. 2018 Sep 4;362:k1497.Full text  Abstract

10. Chen C, Cohrs CM, Stertmann J, et al. Human beta cell mass and function in diabetes: recent advances in knowledge and technologies to understand disease pathogenesis. Mol Metab. 2017 Sep;6(9):943-57.Full text  Abstract

11. Kahn SE, Cooper ME, Del Prato S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future. Lancet. 2014 Mar 22;383(9922):1068-83.Full text  Abstract

12. Chen L, Islam RM, Wang J, et al. A systematic review of trends in all-cause mortality among people with diabetes. Diabetologia. 2020 Sep;63(9):1718-35.Full text  Abstract

13. Preis SR, Pencina MJ, Hwang SJ, et al. Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2009 Jul 6;120(3):212-20.Full text  Abstract

14. Gregg EW, Zhuo X, Cheng YJ, et al. Trends in lifetime risk and years of life lost due to diabetes in the USA, 1985-2011: a modelling study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;2(11):867-74. Abstract

15. Harding JL, Pavkov ME, Magliano DJ, et al. Global trends in diabetes complications: a review of current evidence. Diabetologia. 2019 Jan 31;62(1):3-16.Full text  Abstract

16. Gregg EW, Sattar N, Ali MK. The changing face of diabetes complications. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016 Jun;4(6):537-47. Abstract

17. Wormser D, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, et al; Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1085-95. Abstract

18. Sharma M, Nazareth I, Petersen I. Trends in incidence, prevalence and prescribing in type 2 diabetes mellitus between 2000 and 2013 in primary care: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2016 Jan 13;6(1):e010210.Full text  Abstract

19. Mayer-Davis EJ, Lawrence JM, Dabelea D, et al. Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002-2012. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 13;376(15):1419-29.Full text  Abstract

20. Garber AJ, Handelsman Y, Grunberger G, et al. Consensus statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology on the comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm - 2020 executive summary. Endocr Pract. 2020 Jan;26(1):107-39.Full text  Abstract

21. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetes in America. 3rd edition. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, NIH Pub No. 17-1468; 2018.Full text

22. Jayedi A, Soltani S, Motlagh SZ, et al. Anthropometric and adiposity indicators and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ. 2022 Jan 18;376:e067516.Full text  Abstract

23. Hemmingsen B, Gimenez-Perez G, Mauricio D, et al. Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 4;(12):CD003054.Full text  Abstract

24. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403.Full text  Abstract

25. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997 Apr;20(4):537-44. Abstract

26. Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 3;344(18):1343-50.Full text  Abstract

27. Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet. 2009 Nov 14;374(9702):1677-86. Abstract

28. Balk EM, Earley A, Raman G, et al. Combined diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2 diabetes among persons at increased risk: a systematic review for the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Sep 15;163(6):437-51.Full text  Abstract

29. Kim C, Newton KM, Knopp RH. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1862-8.Full text  Abstract

30. Vounzoulaki E, Khunti K, Abner SC, et al. Progression to type 2 diabetes in women with a known history of gestational diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020 May 13;369:m1361.Full text  Abstract

31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report 2020. January 2022 [internet publication].Full text

32. Menke A, Casagrande S, Geiss L, Cowie CC. Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988-2012. JAMA. 2015 Sep 8;314(10):1021-9. Abstract

33. Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J, et al; DREAM (Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication) Trial Investigators. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Sep 23;368(9541):1096-105.Full text  Abstract

34. Shan Z, Li Y, Zong G, et al. Rotating night shift work and adherence to unhealthy lifestyle in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes: results from two large US cohorts of female nurses. BMJ. 2018 Nov 21;363:k4641.Full text  Abstract

35. Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or prediabetes: a consensus report. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):731-54.Full text  Abstract

36. LeBlanc EL, Patnode CD, Webber EM, et al; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: an updated systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2018 Sep. Report No: 18-05239-EF-1.Full text  Abstract

37. Galaviz KI, Weber MB, Suvada K BS, et al. Interventions for reversing prediabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2022 Apr;62(4):614-25. Abstract

38. Apolzan JW, Venditti EM, Edelstein SL, et al. Long-term weight loss with metformin or lifestyle intervention in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 May 21;170(10):682-90. Abstract

39. Moelands SV, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP, et al. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 28;(12):CD005061.Full text  Abstract

40. Hemmingsen B, Sonne DP, Metzendorf MI, et al. Dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 10;5;(5):CD012204.Full text  Abstract

41. Madsen KS, Chi Y, Metzendorf MI, et al. Metformin for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in persons at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 3;(12):CD008558.Full text  Abstract

42. Roberts S, Barry E, Craig D, et al. Preventing type 2 diabetes: systematic review of studies of cost-effectiveness of lifestyle programmes and metformin, with and without screening, for pre-diabetes. BMJ Open. 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e017184.Full text  Abstract

43. Haw JS, Galaviz KI, Straus AN, et al. Long-term sustainability of diabetes prevention approaches: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Dec 1;177(12):1808-17. Abstract

44. Herman WH, Pan Q, Edelstein SL, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of lifestyle and metformin interventions on the risk of progression to diabetes and regression to normal glucose regulation in overweight or obese people with impaired glucose regulation. Diabetes Care. 2017 Dec;40(12):1668-77.Full text  Abstract

45. Galaviz KI, Weber MB, Straus A, et al. Global diabetes prevention interventions: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the real-world impact on incidence, weight, and glucose. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jul;41(7):1526-34.Full text  Abstract

46. Katula JA, Dressler EV, Kittel CA, et al. Effects of a digital diabetes prevention program: an RCT. Am J Prev Med. 2022 Apr;62(4):567-77.Full text  Abstract

47. Armato JP, DeFronzo RA, Abdul-Ghani M, et al. Successful treatment of prediabetes in clinical practice using physiological assessment (STOP DIABETES). Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Oct;6(10):781-9. Abstract

48. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2019 Sep 10;140(11):e596-646.Full text  Abstract

49. Cosentino F, Grant PJ, Aboyans V, et al; Task Force for diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). 2019 ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323. [Erratum in: Eur Heart J. 2020 December 1;41(45):4317.]Full text  Abstract

50. Rosenzweig JL, Bakris GL, Berglund LF, et al. Primary prevention of ASCVD and T2DM in patients at metabolic risk: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep;104(9):3939-85.Full text  Abstract

51. Newton CA, Raskin P. Diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and biochemical differences. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Sep 27;164(17):1925-31.Full text  Abstract

52. Umpierrez GE, Kitabchi AE. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors and management strategies. Treat Endocrinol. 2003;2(2):95-108. Abstract

53. Fayfman M, Pasquel FJ, Umpierrez GE. Management of hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Med Clin North Am. 2017 May;101(3):587-606.Full text  Abstract

54. Cohen RM. A1C: does one size fit all? Diabetes Care. 2007 Oct;30(10):2756-8.Full text  Abstract

55. Dabelea D, Rewers A, Stafford JM, et al; SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Trends in the prevalence of ketoacidosis at diabetes diagnosis: the SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e938-45.Full text  Abstract

56. Jones AG, Hattersley AT. The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2013 Jul;30(7):803-17.Full text  Abstract

57. Leighton E, Sainsbury CA, Jones GC. A practical review of C-peptide testing in diabetes. Diabetes Ther. 2017 Jun;8(3):475-87.Full text  Abstract

58. Sacks DB, Arnold M, Bakris GL, et al; National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. Position statement executive summary: guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1419-23.Full text  Abstract

59. Lampasona V, Petrone A, Tiberti C, et al. Zinc transporter 8 antibodies complement GAD and IA-2 antibodies in the identification and characterization of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: Non Insulin Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) 4. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan;33(1):104-8.Full text  Abstract

60. Høyer C, Høgh AL, Sandermann J, et al. Risk factors and haemodynamic variables in patients with low toe-brachial index but normal ankle-brachial index. Atherosclerosis. 2019 Oct;289:21-6. Abstract

61. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Preferred practice pattern: diabetic retinopathy. Oct 2019 [internet publication].Full text

62. O'Neal KS, Johnson JL, Panak RL. Recognizing and appropriately treating latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Diabetes Spectr. 2016 Nov;29(4):249-52.Full text  Abstract

63. Pihoker C, Gilliam LK, Ellard S, et al; SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Prevalence, characteristics and clinical diagnosis of maturity onset diabetes of the young due to mutations in HNF1A, HNF4A, and glucokinase: results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct;98(10):4055-62.Full text  Abstract

64. Peixoto-Barbosa R, Reis AF, Giuffrida FMA. Update on clinical screening of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020 Jun 8;12:50.Full text  Abstract

65. Sanyoura M, Philipson LH, Naylor R. Monogenic diabetes in children and adolescents: recognition and treatment options. Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Jun 22;18(8):58. Abstract

66. Delvecchio M, Pastore C, Giordano P. Treatment options for MODY patients: a systematic review of literature. Diabetes Ther. 2020 Aug;11(8):1667-85.Full text  Abstract

67. Fajans SS, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 27;345(13):971-80. Abstract

68. Vellanki P, Umpierrez GE. Diabetic ketoacidosis: a common debut of diabetes among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Endocr Pract. 2017 Aug;23(8):971-8.Full text  Abstract

69. Steenkamp DW, Alexanian SM, Sternthal E. Approach to the patient with atypical diabetes. CMAJ. 2014 Jun 10;186(9):678-84.Full text  Abstract

70. US Preventive Services Task Force. Gestational diabetes: screening. August 2021 [internet publication].Full text

71. US Preventive Services Task Force. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: screening. August 2021 [internet publication].Full text

72. LeRoith D, Biessels GJ, Braithwaite SS, et al. Treatment of diabetes in older adults: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 May 1;104(5):1520-74.Full text  Abstract

73. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-1143.Full text  Abstract

74. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 May 15;71(19):e127-248.Full text  Abstract

75. Powers MA, Bardsley JK, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in adults with type 2 diabetes: a consensus report of the American Diabetes Association, the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of PAs, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, and the American Pharmacists Association. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jul;43(7):1636-49.Full text  Abstract

76. Fisher L, Hessler D, Glasgow RE, et al. REDEEM: a pragmatic trial to reduce diabetes distress. Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep;36(9):2551-8.Full text  Abstract

77. Hansen MB, Jensen ML, Carstensen B. Causes of death among diabetic patients in Denmark. Diabetologia. 2012 Feb;55(2):294-302. Abstract

78. Tancredi M, Rosengren A, Svensson AM, et al. Excess mortality among persons with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1720-32.Full text  Abstract

79. Desai JR, Vazquez-Benitez G, Xu Z, et al. Who must we target now to minimize future cardiovascular events and total mortality? Lessons from the surveillance, prevention and management of diabetes mellitus (SUPREME-DM) cohort study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Sep;8(5):508-16.Full text  Abstract

80. Rawshani A, Rawshani A, Franzén S, et al. Risk factors, mortality, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16;379(7):633-44.Full text  Abstract

81. Berkelmans GF, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Visseren FL, et al. Prediction of individual life-years gained without cardiovascular events from lipid, blood pressure, glucose, and aspirin treatment based on data of more than 500 000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur Heart J. 2019 Sep 7;40(34):2899-906. Abstract

82. Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 May;174(5):773-85. Abstract

83. Davies MJ, D'Alessio DA, Fradkin J, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2018 Dec;41(12):2669-701.Full text  Abstract

84. Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, et al. 2019 update to: Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2020 Feb;43(2):487-93.Full text  Abstract

85. Rangaswami J, Bhalla V, de Boer IH, et al. Cardiorenal protection with the newer antidiabetic agents in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020 Oct 27;142(17):e265-86.Full text  Abstract

86. Cradock KA, ÓLaighin G, Finucane FM, et al. Diet behavior change techniques in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2017 Dec;40(12):1800-10.Full text  Abstract

87. Ojo O, Ojo OO, Adebowale F, et al. The effect of dietary glycaemic index on glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients. 2018 Mar 19;10(3):E373.Full text  Abstract

88. Naude CE, Brand A, Schoonees A, et al. Low-carbohydrate versus balanced-carbohydrate diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 Jan 28;1:CD013334.Full text  Abstract

89. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2018 Feb 10;391(10120):541-51. Abstract

90. Gregg EW, Chen H, Wagenknecht LE, et al; Look AHEAD Research Group. Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2012 Dec 19;308(23):2489-96.Full text  Abstract

91. Riddle MC, Cefalu WT, Evans PH, et al. Consensus report: definition and interpretation of remission in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2021 Aug 30;44(10):2438-44.Full text  Abstract

92. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Durability of a primary care-led weight-management intervention for remission of type 2 diabetes: 2-year results of the DiRECT open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 May;7(5):344-55. Abstract

93. Holman N, Wild SH, Khunti K, et al. Incidence and characteristics of remission of type 2 diabetes in England: a cohort study using the National Diabetes Audit. Diabetes Care. 2022 May 1;45(5):1151-61.Full text  Abstract

94. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Full text  Abstract

95. Koegelenberg CF, Noor F, Bateman ED, et al. Efficacy of varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy vs varenicline alone for smoking cessation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Jul;312(2):155-61. Abstract

96. Laiteerapong N, Cooper JM, Skandari MR, et al. Individualized glycemic control for US adults with type 2 diabetes: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Feb 6;168(3):170-8. Abstract

97. Ismail-Beigi F, Moghissi E, Tiktin M, et al. Individualizing glycemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications of recent clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Apr 19;154(8):554-9. Abstract

98. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):854-65. Abstract

99. Griffin SJ, Leaver JK, Irving GJ. Impact of metformin on cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomised trials among people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017 Sep;60(9):1620-9.Full text  Abstract

100. Jiang J, Chen Y, Zhang H, et al. Association between metformin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective study. BMJ Open. 2022 Apr 26;12(4):e054420.Full text  Abstract

101. Abrilla AA, Pajes ANNI, Jimeno CA. Metformin extended-release versus metformin immediate-release for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021 Aug;178:108824. Abstract

102. Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Genuth S, et al; ACCORD Study Group. Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 3;364(9):818-28. Abstract

103. Patel A, MacMahon S, et al; ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 6;358(24):2560-72.Full text  Abstract

104. Reaven PD, Emanuele NV, Wiitala WL, et al; VADT Investigators. Intensive glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes - 15-year follow-up. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jun 6;380(23):2215-24. Abstract

105. Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 8;360(2):129-39.Full text  Abstract

106. Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al; Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2545-59.Full text  Abstract

107. Scheen AJ. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2015 Jan;75(1):33-59. Abstract

108. Neuen BL, Young T, Heerspink HJL, et al. SGLT2 inhibitors for the prevention of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 Nov;7(11):845-54. Abstract

109. Zelniker TA, Wiviott SD, Raz I, et al. Comparison of the effects of glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors for prevention of major adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2019 Apr 23;139(17):2022-31. Abstract

110. Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, et al; CANVAS Program Collaborative Group. Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):644-57.Full text  Abstract

111. Cherney DZ, Zinman B, Inzucchi SE, et al. Effects of empagliflozin on the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease: an exploratory analysis from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Aug;5(8):610-21. Abstract

112. Mahaffey KW, Jardine MJ, Bompoint S, et al. Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention groups. Circulation. 2019 Aug 27;140(9):739-50.Full text  Abstract

113. Zelniker TA, Wiviott SD, Raz I, et al. SGLT2 inhibitors for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials. Lancet. 2019 Jan 5;393(10166):31-39. Abstract

114. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, et al; EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Nov 26;373(22):2117-28.Full text  Abstract

115. Mahaffey KW, Neal B, Perkovic V, et al; CANVAS Program Collaborative Group. Canagliflozin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events: results from the CANVAS program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study). Circulation. 2018 Jan 23;137(4):323-34.Full text  Abstract

116. Rådholm K, Figtree G, Perkovic V, et al. Canagliflozin and heart failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2018 Jul 31;138(5):458-68.Full text  Abstract

117. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, et al; DECLARE–TIMI 58 Investigators. Dapagliflozin and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jan 24;380(4):347-57. Abstract

118. Heerspink HJL, Stefánsson BV, Correa-Rotter R, et al. Dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 8;383(15):1436-46. Abstract

119. ClinicalTrials.gov. ERtugliflozin triAl in DIabetes With Preserved or Reduced ejeCtion FrAcTion mEchanistic Evaluation in Heart Failure (ERADICATE-HF). NCT03416270. May 2018 [internet publication].Full text

120. Cosentino F, Cannon CP, Cherney DZI, et al. Efficacy of ertugliflozin on heart failure-related events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: results of the VERTIS CV trial. Circulation. 2020 Dec 8;142(23):2205-15.Full text  Abstract

121. Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes with ertugliflozin in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 8;383(15):1425-35.Full text  Abstract

122. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA drug safety communication: FDA revises labels of SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes to include warnings about too much acid in the blood and serious urinary tract infections. March 2020 [internet publication].Full text

123. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA drug safety communication: FDA strengthens kidney warnings for diabetes medicines canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR). Jun 2016 [internet publication].Full text

124. Ueda P, Svanström H, Melbye M, et al. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and risk of serious adverse events: nationwide register based cohort study. BMJ. 2018 Nov 14;363:k4365.Full text  Abstract

125. McGill JB, Subramanian S. Safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Am J Cardiol. 2019 Dec 15;124(suppl 1):S45-52.Full text  Abstract

126. Dawwas GK, Flory JH, Hennessy S, et al. Comparative safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and sulfonylureas on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 2022 Apr 1;45(4):919-27. Abstract

127. García M, Arteche-Martinez U, Lertxundi U, et al. SGLT2 inhibitors and bladder cancer: analysis of cases reported in the European pharmacovigilance database. J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Feb;61(2):187-92. Abstract

128. European Medicines Agency (EMA). SGLT2 inhibitors: information on potential risk of toe amputation to be included in prescribing information. Feb 2017 [internet publication].Full text

129. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA removes boxed warning about risk of leg and foot amputations for the diabetes medicine canagliflozin (invokana, invokamet, invokamet XR). 26 August 2020 [internet publication].Full text

130. Heyward J, Mansour O, Olson L, et al. Association between sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and lower extremity amputation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0234065.Full text  Abstract

131. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns about rare occurrences of a serious infection of the genital area with SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes. Aug 2018 [internet publication].Full text

132. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK). SGLT2 inhibitors: reports of Fournier’s gangrene (necrotising fasciitis of the genitalia or perineum). Feb 2019 [internet publication].Full text

133. Htike ZZ, Zaccardi F, Papamargaritis D, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Apr;19(4):524-36. Abstract

134. Kristensen SL, Rørth R, Jhund PS, et al. Cardiovascular, mortality, and kidney outcomes with GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 Oct;7(10):776-85. Abstract

135. Shaman AM, Bain SC, Bakris GL, et al. Effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists semaglutide and liraglutide on kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of SUSTAIN 6 and LEADER. Circulation. 2022 Feb 22;145(8):575-85.Full text  Abstract

136. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, et al; LEADER Steering Committee on behalf of the LEADER Trial Investigators. Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 28;375(4):311-22.Full text  Abstract

137. Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, et al; REWIND Investigators. Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2019 Jul 13;394(10193):121-30. Abstract

138. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, et al; SUSTAIN-6 Investigators. Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1834-44.Full text  Abstract

139. Kaul S. Mitigating cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes with antidiabetes drugs: a review of principal cardiovascular outcome results of EMPA-REG OUTCOME, LEADER, and SUSTAIN-6 trials. Diabetes Care. 2017 Jul;40(7):821-31.Full text  Abstract

140. Husain M, Birkenfeld AL, Donsmark M, et al. Oral semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 29;381(9):841-51.Full text  Abstract

141. Hu Y. Advances in reducing cardiovascular risk in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chronic Dis Transl Med. 2019 Mar 15;5(1):25-36.Full text  Abstract

142. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK). GLP-1 receptor agonists: reports of diabetic ketoacidosis when concomitant insulin was rapidly reduced or discontinued. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

143. Rosenstock J, Wysham C, Frías JP, et al. Efficacy and safety of a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-1): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021 Jul 10;398(10295):143-55. Abstract

144. Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, et al. Tirzepatide versus semaglutide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2021 Aug 5;385(6):503-15.Full text  Abstract

145. Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, et al. Efficacy and safety of LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, placebo-controlled and active comparator-controlled phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2018 Nov 17;392(10160):2180-93. Abstract

146. Ludvik B, Giorgino F, Jódar E, et al. Once-weekly tirzepatide versus once-daily insulin degludec as add-on to metformin with or without SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-3): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021 Aug 14;398(10300):583-98. Abstract

147. Del Prato S, Kahn SE, Pavo I, et al. Tirzepatide versus insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk (SURPASS-4): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021 Nov 13;398(10313):1811-24. Abstract

148. Scirica BM, Bhatt DL, Braunwald E, et al; the SAVOR-TIMI 53 Steering Committee and Investigators. Saxagliptin and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 3;369(14):1317-26.Full text  Abstract

149. White WB, Cannon CP, Heller SR, et al; the EXAMINE Investigators. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 3;369(14):1327-35. Abstract

150. World Health Organization. Guidelines on second- and third-line medicines and type of insulin for the control of blood glucose levels in non-pregnant adults with diabetes mellitus. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

151. Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 14;356(24):2457-71.Full text  Abstract

152. European Medicines Agency (EMA). Questions and answers on the suspension of rosiglitazone-containing medicines (Avandia, Avandamet and Avaglim). Sep 2010 [internet publication].Full text

153. Bach RG, Brooks MM, Lombardero M, et al; BARI 2D Investigators. Rosiglitazone and outcomes for patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Circulation. 2013 Aug 20;128(8):785-94.Full text  Abstract

154. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA drug safety communication: updated FDA review concludes that use of type 2 diabetes medicine pioglitazone may be linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer. Dec 2016 [internet publication].Full text

155. Fullerton B, Siebenhofer A, Jeitler K, et al. Short-acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin for adult, non-pregnant persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 17;(12):CD013228.Full text  Abstract

156. DeVries JH, Meneghini L, Barnett AH, et al. A patient-level analysis of efficacy and hypoglycaemia outcomes across treat-to-target trials with insulin glargine added to oral antidiabetes agents in people with type 2 diabetes. Eur Endocrinol. 2014 Feb;10(1):23-30.Full text  Abstract

157. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998 Sep 12;317(7160):703-13.Full text  Abstract

158. Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, et al; SPRINT Research Group. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015 Nov 9;373(22):2103-16.Full text  Abstract

159. ACCORD Study Group; Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 29;362(17):1575-85.Full text  Abstract

160. Shi S, Gouskova N, Najafzadeh M, et al. Intensive versus standard blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes: a restricted mean survival time analysis of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2021 Sep 13;11(9):e050335.Full text  Abstract

161. Brouwer TF, Vehmeijer JT, Kalkman DN, et al. Intensive blood pressure lowering in patients with and patients without type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis from two Randomized Trials. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jun;41(6):1142-8.Full text  Abstract

162. Palmer SC, Mavridis D, Navarese E, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of blood pressure-lowering agents in adults with diabetes and kidney disease: a network meta-analysis. Lancet. 2015 May 23;385(9982):2047-56. Abstract

163. Scheen AJ. Drug interactions of clinical importance with antihyperglycaemic agents: an update. Drug Saf. 2005;28(7):601-31. Abstract

164. Liakos CI, Papadopoulos DP, Sanidas EA, et al. Blood pressure-lowering effect of newer antihyperglycemic agents (SGLT-2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors). Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2021 Mar;21(2):123-37. Abstract

165. Arnold SV, Bhatt DL, Barsness GW, et al. Clinical management of stable coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020 May 12;141(19):e779-806.Full text  Abstract

166. Carnovale C, Gringeri M, Battini V, et al. Beta-blocker-associated hypoglycaemia: new insights from a real-world pharmacovigilance study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Aug;87(8):3320-31.Full text  Abstract

167. Look AHEAD Research Group; Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Sep 27;170(17):1566-75.Full text  Abstract

168. Look AHEAD Research Group; Wing RR, Bolin P, Brancati FL, et al. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jul 11;369(2):145-54.Full text  Abstract

169. Farkouh ME, Godoy LC, Brooks MM, et al. Influence of LDL-cholesterol lowering on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary revascularization. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Nov 10;76(19):2197-207.Full text  Abstract

170. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Statin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: preventive medication. November 2016 [online publication].Full text

171. Joseph JJ, Deedwania P, Acharya T, et al. Comprehensive management of cardiovascular risk factors for adults with type 2 diabetes: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2022 Mar;145(9):e722-59.Full text  Abstract

172. Giugliano RP, Cannon CP, Blazing MA, et al; IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) Investigators. Benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes and safety in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus: results From IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). Circulation. 2018 Apr 10;137(15):1571-82. Abstract

173. Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jan 3;380(1):11-22.Full text  Abstract

174. Doi T, Langsted A, Nordestgaard BG. A possible explanation for the contrasting results of REDUCE-IT vs. STRENGTH: cohort study mimicking trial designs. Eur Heart J. 2021 Dec 14;42(47):4807-17.Full text  Abstract

175. Olshansky B, Chung MK, Budoff MJ, et al. Mineral oil: safety and use as placebo in REDUCE-IT and other clinical studies. Eur Heart J Suppl. 2020 Oct;22(suppl j):J34-J48.Full text  Abstract

176. ORIGIN Trial Investigators; Bosch J, Gerstein HC, Dagenais GR, et al. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 26;367(4):309-18.Full text  Abstract

177. ASCEND Study Collaborative Group; Bowman L, Mafham M, Wallendszus K, et al. Effects of aspirin for primary prevention in persons with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2018 Oct 18;379(16):1529-39.Full text  Abstract

178. Patel NJ, Baliga RR. Role of aspirin for primary prevention in persons with diabetes mellitus and in the elderly. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2020 May 29;22(7):48. Abstract

179. Ajjan RA, Kietsiriroje N, Badimon L, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in diabetes: which, when, and for how long? Eur Heart J. 2021 Jun 14;42(23):2235-59.Full text  Abstract

180. Pistrosch F, Matschke JB, Schipp D, et al. Rivaroxaban compared with low-dose aspirin in individuals with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial to assess effects on endothelial function, platelet activation and vascular biomarkers. Diabetologia. 2021 Dec;64(12):2701-12.Full text  Abstract

181. Writing Committee Members; Lawton JS, Tamis-Holland JE, Bangalore S, et al. 2021 ACC/AHA/SCAI guideline for coronary artery revascularization: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association joint committee on clinical practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Jan 18;79(2):e21-129.Full text  Abstract

182. Angiolillo DJ, Bhatt DL, Cannon CP, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a North American perspective: 2021 update. Circulation. 2021 Feb 9;143(6):583-96.Full text  Abstract

183. Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, et al. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 26;366(17):1567-76.Full text  Abstract

184. Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, et al; STAMPEDE Investigators. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes - 5-year outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):641-51.Full text  Abstract

185. Kashyap SR, Bhatt DL, Wolski K, et al. Metabolic effects of bariatric surgery in patients with moderate obesity and type 2 diabetes: analysis of a randomized control trial comparing surgery with intensive medical treatment. Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug;36(8):2175-82.Full text  Abstract

186. Ikramuddin S, Korner J, Lee WJ, et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass vs intensive medical management for the control of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia: the Diabetes Surgery Study randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Jun 5;309(21):2240-9.Full text  Abstract

187. Halperin F, Ding SA, Simonson DC, et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery or lifestyle with intensive medical management in patients with type 2 diabetes: feasibility and 1-year results of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surg. 2014 Jul;149(7):716-26.Full text  Abstract

188. Carlsson LM, Peltonen M, Ahlin S, et al. Bariatric surgery and prevention of type 2 diabetes in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 23;367(8):695-704.Full text  Abstract

189. Syn NL, Cummings DE, Wang LZ, et al. Association of metabolic-bariatric surgery with long-term survival in adults with and without diabetes: a one-stage meta-analysis of matched cohort and prospective controlled studies with 174 772 participants. Lancet. 2021 May 15;397(10287):1830-41. Abstract

190. Yska JP, van Roon EN, de Boer A, et al. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients after different types of bariatric surgery: a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom. JAMA Surg. 2015 Dec;150(12):1126-33.Full text  Abstract

191. Fisher DP, Johnson E, Haneuse S, et al. Association between bariatric surgery and macrovascular disease outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe obesity. JAMA. 2018 Oct 16;320(15):1570-82.Full text  Abstract

192. O'Brien R, Johnson E, Haneuse S, et al. Microvascular outcomes in patients with diabetes after bariatric surgery versus usual care: a matched cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Sep 4;169(5):300-10. Abstract

193. Park JY. Prediction of type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric or metabolic surgery. J Obes Metab Syndr. 2018 Dec 30;27(4):213-22.Full text  Abstract

194. Tieu J, Middleton P, Crowther CA, et al. Preconception care for diabetic women for improving maternal and infant health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 11;(8):CD007776.Full text  Abstract

195. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Statins: drug safety communication - FDA requests removal of strongest warning against using cholesterol-lowering statins during pregnancy. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

196. Ali MK, Bullard KM, Saaddine JB, et al. Achievement of goals in US diabetes care, 1999-2010. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 25;368(17):1613-24.Full text  Abstract

197. Bodenheimer T, Wagner E, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model. JAMA. 2002 Oct 9;288(14):1775-9. Abstract

198. Bongaerts BW, Müssig K, Wens J, et al. Effectiveness of chronic care models for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017 Mar 20;7(3):e013076.Full text  Abstract

199. McLean DL, McAlister FA, Johnson JA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of community pharmacist and nurse care on improving blood pressure management in patients with diabetes mellitus: study of cardiovascular risk intervention by pharmacists - hypertension (SCRIP-HTN). Arch Intern Med. 2008 Nov 24;168(21):2355-61.Full text  Abstract

200. Sperl-Hillen JM, Crain AL, Margolis KL, et al. Clinical decision support directed to primary care patients and providers reduces cardiovascular risk: a randomized trial. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2018 Sep 1;25(9):1137-46.Full text  Abstract

201. O’Connor PJ, Sperl-Hillen JM, Rush WA, et al. Impact of electronic health record clinical decision support on diabetes care: a randomized trial. Ann Fam Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;9(1):12-21.Full text  Abstract

202. Sperl-Hillen J, O'Connor P, Ekstrom H, et al. Using simulation technology to teach diabetes care management skills to resident physicians. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013 Sep 1;7(5):1243-54.Full text  Abstract

203. Sperl-Hillen JM, O'Connor PJ, Rush WA, et al. Simulated physician learning program improves glucose control in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug;33(8):1727-33.Full text  Abstract

204. O'Connor PJ, Sperl-Hillen JM, Johnson PE, et al. Simulated physician learning intervention to improve safety and quality of diabetes care: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr;32(4):585-90.Full text  Abstract

205. Kim EK, Kwak SH, Jung HS, et al. The effect of a smartphone-based, patient-centered diabetes care system in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial for 24 weeks. Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan;42(1):3-9.Full text  Abstract

206. Fu H, McMahon SK, Gross CR, et al. Usability and clinical efficacy of diabetes mobile applications for adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017 Sep;131:70-81. Abstract

207. Matthews DR, Paldánius PM, Proot P, et al. Glycaemic durability of an early combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin versus sequential metformin monotherapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (VERIFY): a 5-year, multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2019 Oct 26;394(10208):1519-29. Abstract

208. Mohan V, Zargar A, Chawla M, et al. Efficacy of a combination of metformin and vildagliptin in comparison to metformin alone in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, retrospective, real-world evidence study. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2021;14:2925-33.Full text  Abstract

209. Diabetes Canada. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. 2018 (revised 2021) [internet publication].Full text

210. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Kansagara D, et al. Hemoglobin A1c targets for glycemic control with pharmacologic therapy for nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a guidance statement update from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Apr 17;168(8):569-76.Full text  Abstract

211. Cohen RV, Shikora S, Petry T, et al. The Diabetes Surgery Summit II guidelines: a disease-based clinical recommendation. Obes Surg. 2016 Aug;26(8):1989-91. Abstract

212. Li S, Vandvik PO, Lytvyn L, et al. SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists for adults with type 2 diabetes: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2021 May 11;373:n1091.Full text  Abstract

213. Raghavan S, Vassy JL, Ho YL, et al. Diabetes mellitus-related all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a national cohort of adults. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Feb 19;8(4):e011295.Full text  Abstract

214. Zhang X, Saaddine JB, Chou CF, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008. JAMA. 2010 Aug 11;304(6):649-56.Full text  Abstract

215. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). State-specific trends in chronic kidney failure - United States, 1990-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Oct 8;53(39):918-20. Abstract

216. Burrows NR, Hora I, Geiss LS, et al. Incidence of end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetes among persons with diagnosed diabetes - United States and Puerto Rico, 2000-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Nov 3;66(43):1165-70.Full text  Abstract

217. Dunlay SM, Givertz MM, Aguilar D, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. This statement does not represent an update of the 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA heart failure guideline update. Circulation. 2019 Aug 13;140(7):e294-324.Full text  Abstract

218. Nichols GA, Gullion CM, Koro CE, et al. The incidence of congestive heart failure in type 2 diabetes: an update. Diabetes Care. 2004 Aug;27(8):1879-84. Abstract

219. Zannad F, Ferreira JP, Pocock SJ, et al. SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a meta-analysis of the EMPEROR-Reduced and DAPA-HF trials. Lancet. 2020 Sep 19;396(10254):819-29. Abstract

220. Barrett-Connor EL, Cohn BA, Wingard DL, et al. Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? The Rancho Bernardo Study. JAMA. 1991 Feb 6;265(5):627-31. Abstract

221. Simpson TC, Weldon JC, Worthington HV, et al. Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 6;(11):CD004714.Full text  Abstract

222. Bascones-Martinez A, Matesanz-Perez P, Escribano-Bermejo M, et al. Periodontal disease and diabetes: review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011 Sep 1;16(6):e722-9.Full text  Abstract

223. Pathak RD, Schroeder EB, Seaquist ER, et al. Severe hypoglycemia requiring medical intervention in a large cohort of adults with diabetes receiving care in U.S. integrated health care delivery systems: 2005-2011. Diabetes Care. 2016 Mar;39(3):363-70. Abstract

224. Davis SN, Umpierrez GE. Diabetic ketoacidosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus - pathophysiology and clinical presentation. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;3(11):730-1. Abstract

225. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. III. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more years. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984 Apr;102(4):527-32. Abstract

226. Ruta LM, Magliano DJ, Lemesurier R, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes in developing and developed countries. Diabet Med. 2013 Apr;30(4):387-98. Abstract

227. Lee R, Wong TY, Sabanayagam C. Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss. Eye Vis (Lond). 2015 Sep 30;2:17.Full text  Abstract

228. Yau JW, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R, et al; Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar;35(3):556-64.Full text  Abstract

229. Hoffstad O, Mitra N, Walsh J, et al. Diabetes, lower-extremity amputation, and death. Diabetes Care. 2015 Oct;38(10):1852-7.Full text  Abstract

230. Pop-Busui R, Boulton AJ, Feldman EL, et al. Diabetic neuropathy: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2017 Jan;40(1):136-54.Full text  Abstract

231. Ang L, Jaiswal M, Martin C, et al. Glucose control and diabetic neuropathy: lessons from recent large clinical trials. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(9):528.Full text  Abstract

232. Rustad JK, Musselman DL, Nemeroff CB. The relationship of depression and diabetes: pathophysiological and treatment implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Oct;36(9):1276-86. Abstract

233. Ke C, Lau E, Shah BR, et al. Excess burden of mental Illness and hospitalization in young-onset type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Feb 5;170(3):145-54. Abstract

234. Perrin NE, Davies MJ, Robertson N, et al. The prevalence of diabetes-specific emotional distress in people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2017 Nov;34(11):1508-20.Full text  Abstract

235. Pamidi S, Tasali E. Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: is there a link? Front Neurol. 2012 Aug 13;3:126.Full text  Abstract

236. Shaw JE, Punjabi NM, Naughton MT, et al. The effect of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Aug 15;194(4):486-92. Abstract

237. Martínez-Cerón E, Barquiel B, Bezos AM, et al. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on glycemic control in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Aug 15;194(4):476-85. Abstract

238. Thomassen JQ, Tolstrup JS, Benn M, et al. Type-2 diabetes and risk of dementia: observational and Mendelian randomisation studies in 1 million individuals. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020 Apr 24;29:e118.Full text  Abstract

239. Chatterjee S, Peters SA, Woodward M, et al. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for dementia in women compared with men: a pooled analysis of 2.3 million people comprising more than 100,000 cases of dementia. Diabetes Care. 2016 Feb;39(2):300-7.Full text  Abstract

240. Li L, Cavuoto M, Biddiscombe K, et al. Diabetes mellitus increases risk of incident dementia in APOEɛ4 carriers: a meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2020;74(4):1295-1308. Abstract

241. Celis-Morales CA, Franzén S, Eeg-Olofsson K, et al. Type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, and their association with dementia and its major subtypes: findings from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Diabetes Care. 2022 Mar 1;45(3):634-41.Full text  Abstract

242. Zheng B, Su B, Price G, et al. Glycemic control, diabetic complications, and risk of dementia in patients with diabetes: results from a large UK cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jul;44(7):1556-63.Full text  Abstract

243. Norris SL, Nichols PJ, Caspersen CJ, et al. Increasing diabetes self-management education in community settings: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2002 May;22(suppl 4):39-66. Abstract

244. Powers MA, Bardsley J, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: a joint position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jul;38(7):1372-82.Full text  Abstract

245. Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Rossi JS, et al. Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol. 1994 Jan;13(1):39-46. Abstract

246. Young LA, Buse JB, Weaver MA, et al; Monitor Trial Group. Glucose self-monitoring in non-insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care settings: a randomized trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jul 1;177(7):920-9. Abstract

247. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

248. Carlson AL, Mullen DM, Bergenstal RM. Clinical use of continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017 May;19(s2):S4-11.Full text  Abstract

249. Johnson ML, Martens TW, Criego AB, et al. Utilizing the ambulatory glucose profile to standardize and implement continuous glucose monitoring in clinical practice. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2019 Jun;21(s2):S217-25.Full text  Abstract

250. Carlson AL, Criego AB, Martens TW, et al. HbA1c: the glucose management indicator, time in range, and standardization of continuous glucose monitoring reports in clinical practice. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2020 Mar;49(1):95-107. Abstract

251. Grunberger G, Sherr J, Allende M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinology clinical practice guideline: the use of advanced technology in the management of persons with diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2021 Jun;27(6):505-37.Full text  Abstract

252. Karter AJ, Parker MM, Moffet HH, et al. Association of real-time continuous glucose monitoring wWith glycemic control and acute metabolic events among patients with insulin-treated diabetes. JAMA. 2021 Jun 8;325(22):2273-84.Full text  Abstract

253. Beck RW, Riddlesworth TD, Ruedy K, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring versus usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving multiple daily insulin injections: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Sep 19;167(6):365-74. Abstract

254. Martens T, Beck RW, Bailey R, et al. Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Jun 8;325(22):2262-72.Full text  Abstract

255. Haak T, Hanaire H, Ajjan R, et al. Flash glucose-sensing technology as a replacement for blood glucose monitoring for the management of insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Ther. 2017 Feb;8(1):55-73.Full text  Abstract

256. Reinke C, Buchmann N, Fink A, et al. Diabetes duration and the risk of dementia: a cohort study based on German health claims data. Age Ageing. 2022 Jan 6;51(1):afab231.Full text  Abstract

257. Malanda UL, Welschen LM, Riphagen II, et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are not using insulin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;(1):CD005060.Full text  Abstract

258. Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, et al. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 30;348(5):383-93.Full text  Abstract

259. Newman JD, Berger JS, Ladapo JA. Underuse of medications and lifestyle counseling to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):e75-6.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer