Myasthenia gravis

References

Key articles

Sanders DB, Wolfe GI, Benatar M, et al. International consensus guidance for management of myasthenia gravis: executive summary. Neurology. 2016 Jul 26;87(4):419-25.Full text  Abstract

Narayanaswami P, Sanders DB, Wolfe G, et al. International consensus guidance for management of myasthenia gravis: 2020 update. Neurology. 2021 Jan 19;96(3):114-22.Full text  Abstract

Skeie GO, Apostolski S, Evoli A, et al. Guidelines for treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorders. Eur J Neurol. 2010 Jul;17(7):893-902.Full text  Abstract

Schneider-Gold C, Gajdos P, Toyka KV, et al. Corticosteroids for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002828.Full text  Abstract

Gronseth GS, Barohn R, Narayanaswami P. Practice advisory: thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (practice parameter update). Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2020 Apr 21;94(16):705-9.Full text  Abstract

Elovaara I, Apostolski S, van Doorn P, et al. EFNS guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases: EFNS task force on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases. Eur J Neurol. 2008 Sep;15(9):893-908.Full text  Abstract

Wang L, Huan X, Xi JY, et al. Immunosuppressive and monoclonal antibody treatment for myasthenia gravis: a network meta-analysis. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2019 May;25(5):647-58.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Sanders DB, Wolfe GI, Benatar M, et al. International consensus guidance for management of myasthenia gravis: executive summary. Neurology. 2016 Jul 26;87(4):419-25.Full text  Abstract

2. Ruff RL, Lisak RP. Nature and action of antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Neurol Clin. 2018 May;36(2):275-91. Abstract

3. Narayanaswami P, Sanders DB, Wolfe G, et al. International consensus guidance for management of myasthenia gravis: 2020 update. Neurology. 2021 Jan 19;96(3):114-22.Full text  Abstract

4. Jaretzki A 3rd, Barohn RJ, Ernstoff RM, et al. Myasthenia gravis: recommendations for clinical research standards. Task Force of the Medical Scientific Advisory Board of the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Jul;70(1):327-34. Abstract

5. Guptill JT, Sanders DB. Update on muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2010 Oct;23(5):530-5. Abstract

6. Poulas K, Koutsouraki E, Kordas G, et al. Anti-MuSK- and anti-AChR-positive myasthenia gravis induced by d-penicillamine. J Neuroimmunol. 2012 Sep 15;250(1-2):94-8. Abstract

7. Rajakulendran S, Viegas S, Spillane J, et al. Clinically biphasic myasthenia gravis with both AChR and MuSK antibodies. J Neurol. 2012 Dec;259(12):2736-9. Abstract

8. Tzartos JS, Zisimopoulou P, Rentzos M, et al. LRP4 antibodies in serum and CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Feb;1(2):80-7.Full text  Abstract

9. Bacchi S, Kramer P, Chalk C. Autoantibodies to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 in double seronegative myasthenia gravis: a systematic review. Can J Neurol Sci. 2018 Jan;45(1):62-7.Full text  Abstract

10. Rivner MH, Quarles BM, Pan JX, et al. Clinical features of LRP4/agrin-antibody-positive myasthenia gravis: a multicenter study. Muscle Nerve. 2020 Sep;62(3):333-43.Full text  Abstract

11. Zhang B, Shen C, Bealmear B, et al. Autoantibodies to agrin in myasthenia gravis patients. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 14;9(3):e91816.Full text  Abstract

12. Gasperi C, Melms A, Schoser B, et al. Anti-agrin autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 2014 Jun 3;82(22):1976-83. Abstract

13. Zisimopoulou P, Evangelakou P, Tzartos J, et al. A comprehensive analysis of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of anti-LRP4 in myasthenia gravis. J Autoimmun. 2014 Aug;52:139-45. Abstract

14. Yan M, Xing GL, Xiong WC, et al. Agrin and LRP4 antibodies as new biomarkers of myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Feb;1413(1):126-35. Abstract

15. Zoltowska Katarzyna M, Belaya K, Leite M, et al. Collagen Q--a potential target for autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis. J Neurol Sci. 2015 Jan 15;348(1-2):241-4. Abstract

16. Vincent A, Huda S, Cao M, et al. Serological and experimental studies in different forms of myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Feb;1413(1):143-53. Abstract

17. Berrih-Aknin S. Cortactin: a new target in autoimmune myositis and myasthenia gravis. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Oct;13(10):1001-2. Abstract

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20. Labrador-Horrillo M, Martínez MA, Selva-O'Callaghan A, et al. Identification of a novel myositis-associated antibody directed against cortactin. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Oct;13(10):1008-12. Abstract

21. Illa I, Cortés-Vicente E, Martínez MÁ, et al. Diagnostic utility of cortactin antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Jan;1412(1):90-4. Abstract

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24. Evoli A, Tonali PA, Padua L, et al. Clinical correlates with anti-MuSK antibodies in generalized seronegative myasthenia gravis. Brain. 2003 Oct;126(Pt 10):2304-11.Full text  Abstract

25. Tsonis AI, Zisimopoulou P, Lazaridis K, et al. MuSK autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis detected by cell based assay--A multinational study. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jul 15;284:10-7. Abstract

26. Higuchi O, Hamuro J, Motomura M, et al. Autoantibodies to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 in myasthenia gravis. Ann Neurol. 2011 Feb;69(2):418-22. Abstract

27. Pevzner A, Schoser B, Peters K, et al. Anti-LRP4 autoantibodies in AChR- and MuSK-antibody-negative myasthenia gravis. J Neurol. 2012 Mar;259(3):427-35. Abstract

28. Zhang B, Tzartos JS, Belimezi M, et al. Autoantibodies to lipoprotein-related protein 4 in patients with double-seronegative myasthenia gravis. Arch Neurol. 2012 Apr;69(4):445-51. Abstract

29. Tsivgoulis G, Dervenoulas G, Tzartos SJ, et al. Double seropositive myasthenia gravis with acetylcholine receptor and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 antibodies. Muscle Nerve. 2014 Jun;49(6):930-1. Abstract

30. Phillips LH. The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis. Semin Neurol. 2004 Mar;24(1):17-20. Abstract

31. Deenen JC, Horlings CG, Verschuuren JJ, et al. The epidemiology of neuromuscular disorders: a comprehensive overview of the literature. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2015;2(1):73-85. Abstract

32. Salari N, Fatahi B, Bartina Y, et al. Global prevalence of myasthenia gravis and the effectiveness of common drugs in its treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Transl Med. 2021 Dec 20;19(1):516.Full text  Abstract

33. Andersen JB, Heldal AT, Engeland A, et al. Myasthenia gravis epidemiology in a national cohort; combining multiple disease registries. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2014;(198):26-31.Full text  Abstract

34. Santos E, Coutinho E, Moreira I, et al. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Northern Portugal: Frequency estimates and clinical epidemiological distribution of cases. Muscle Nerve. 2016 Sep;54(3):413-21. Abstract

35. Lee HS, Lee HS, Shin HY, et al. The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Korea. Yonsei Med J. 2016 Mar;57(2):419-25.Full text  Abstract

36. Breiner A, Widdifield J, Katzberg HD, et al. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada. Neuromuscul Disord. 2016 Jan;26(1):41-6. Abstract

37. Peragallo JH, Bitrian E, Kupersmith MJ, et al. Relationship between age, gender, and race in patients presenting with myasthenia gravis with only ocular manifestations. J Neuroophthalmol. 2016 Mar;36(1):29-32. Abstract

38. Meriggioli MN, Sanders DB. Muscle autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis: beyond diagnosis? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012 Jul;8(5):427-38.Full text  Abstract

39. Dau PC, Lindstrom JM, Cassel CK, et al. Plasmapheresis in myasthenia gravis and polymyositis. In: Dau PC, ed. Plasmapheresis and the immunobiology of myasthenia gravis. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1979:229-47.

40. Hertel G, Mertens HG, Reuther P, et al. The treatment of myasthenia gravis with azathioprine. In: Dau PC, ed. Plasmapheresis and the immunobiology of myasthenia gravis. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1979:315-28.

41. Cossins J, Belaya K, Zoltowska K, et al. The search for new antigenic targets in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Dec;1275:123-8. Abstract

42. Giraud M, Vandiedonck C, Garchon HJ. Genetic factors in autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1132:180-92. Abstract

43. Hong Y, Li HF, Romi F, et al. HLA and MuSK-positive myasthenia gravis: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2018 Sep;138(3):219-26. Abstract

44. Renton AE, Pliner HA, Provenzano C, et al. A genome-wide association study of myasthenia gravis. JAMA Neurol. 2015 Apr;72(4):396-404. Abstract

45. Lisak RP, Barcellos L. New insights into the genetics of autoimmune myasthenia gravis: an evolving story. JAMA Neurol. 2015 Apr;72(4):386-7. Abstract

46. Li F, Yuan W, Wu X. Association of CTLA-4 polymorphisms with increased risks of myasthenia gravis. Ann Hum Genet. 2018 Nov;82(6):358-69. Abstract

47. Hohlfeld R, Wekerle H. The role of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Adv Neuroimmunol. 1994;4(4):373-86. Abstract

48. Richards J, Howard JF Jr. Seronegative myasthenia gravis associated with malignant thymoma. Neuromuscul Disord. 2017 May;27(5):417-8. Abstract

49. Rigamonti A, Lauria G, Piamarta F, et al. Thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis without acetylcholine receptor antibodies. J Neurol Sci. 2011 Mar 15;302(1-2):112-3. Abstract

50. Guptill JT, Soni M, Meriggioli MN, et al. Current treatment, emerging translational therapies, and new therapeutic targets for autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan;13(1):118-31. Abstract

51. Vander Heiden JA, Stathopoulos P, Zhou JQ, et al. Dysregulation of B cell repertoire formation in myasthenia gravis patients revealed through deep sequencing. J Immunol. 2017 Feb 15;198(4):1460-73.Full text  Abstract

52. Koneczny I, Stevens JA, De Rosa A, et al. IgG4 autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase undergo Fab-arm exchange in myasthenia gravis patients. J Autoimmun. 2017 Feb;77:104-15.Full text  Abstract

53. Yi JS, Guptill JT, Stathopoulos P, et al. B cells in the pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2018 Feb;57(2):172-84. Abstract

54. Meriggioli MN, Sanders DB. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis: emerging clinical and biological heterogeneity. Lancet Neurol. 2009 May;8(5):475-90.Full text  Abstract

55. Scangarello FA, Angel-Buitrago L, Lang-Orsini M, et al. Giant cell myositis associated with concurrent myasthenia gravis: a case-based review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2021 Sep;40(9):3841-51.Full text  Abstract

56. Salvado M, Canela M, Ponseti JM, et al. Study of the prevalence of familial autoimmune myasthenia gravis in a Spanish cohort. J Neurol Sci. 2016 Jan 15;360:110-4. Abstract

57. Suzuki S, Ishikawa N, Konoeda F, et al. Nivolumab-related myasthenia gravis with myositis and myocarditis in Japan. Neurology. 2017 Sep 12;89(11):1127-34. Abstract

58. Takamatsu K, Nakane S, Suzuki S, et al. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in the onset of myasthenia gravis with hyperCKemia. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2018 Nov;5(11):1421-27.Full text  Abstract

59. Puwanant A, Isfort M, Lacomis D, et al. Clinical spectrum of neuromuscular complications after immune checkpoint inhibition. Neuromuscul Disord. 2019 Feb;29(2):127-33. Abstract

60. Safa H, Johnson DH, Trinh VA, et al. Immune checkpoint inhibitor related myasthenia gravis: single center experience and systematic review of the literature. J Immunother Cancer. 2019 Nov 21;7(1):319.Full text  Abstract

61. Lisak RP. Antibodies to LRP4 and agrin are pathogenic in myasthenia gravis: at the junction where it happens. Neurology. 2021 Sep 7;97(10):463-64. Abstract

62. Hoch W, McConville J, Helms S, et al. Auto-antibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenia gravis without acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Nat Med. 2001 Mar;7(3):365-8. Abstract

63. Shen C, Lu Y, Zhang B, et al. Antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 induce myasthenia gravis. J Clin Invest. 2013 Dec;123(12):5190-202.Full text  Abstract

64. Yan M, Liu Z, Fei E, et al. Induction of anti-agrin antibodies causes myasthenia gravis in mice. Neuroscience. 2018 Mar 1;373:113-21. Abstract

65. Yu Z, Zhang M, Jing H, et al. Characterization of LRP4/agrin antibodies from a patient with myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 2021 Sep 7;97(10):e975-87. Abstract

66. Shahmohammadi S, Doosti R, Shahmohammadi A, et al. Autoimmune diseases associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: a literature review. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Jan;27:350-63. Abstract

67. Ling CS, Shen ML, Wang Y, et al. The associations of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphisms with late-onset myasthenia gravis: a meta-analysis. Neurol Sci. 2020 May;41(5):1041-9. Abstract

68. Burns TM, Conaway M, Sanders DB; MG Composite and MG-QOL15 Study Group. The MG Composite: A valid and reliable outcome measure for myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 2010 May 4;74(18):1434-40. Abstract

69. Burns TM, Grouse CK, Conaway MR, et al; MG Composite and MG-QOL15 Study Group. Construct and concurrent validation of the MG-QOL15 in the practice setting. Muscle Nerve. 2010 Feb;41(2):219-26. Abstract

70. Benatar M. A systemic review of diagnostic studies in myasthenia gravis. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006 Jul;16(7):459-67. Abstract

71. Liu WW, Chen A. Diagnosing myasthenia gravis with an ice pack. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):e39. Abstract

72. Zouvelou V, Zisimopoulou P, Rentzos M, et al. Double seronegative myasthenia gravis with anti-LRP 4 antibodies. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013 Jul;23(7):568-70. Abstract

73. Rodriguez Cruz PM, Huda S, López-Ruiz P, et al. Use of cell-based assays in myasthenia gravis and other antibody-mediated diseases. Exp Neurol. 2015 Aug;270:66-71. Abstract

74. Skeie GO, Mygland A, Aarli JA, et al. Titin antibodies in patients with late onset myasthenia gravis: clinical correlations. Autoimmunity. 1995;20(2):99-104. Abstract

75. Choi Decroos E, Hobson-Webb LD, Juel VC, et al. Do acetylcholine receptor and striated muscle antibodies predict the presence of thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis? Muscle Nerve. 2014 Jan;49(1):30-4. Abstract

76. Abraham A, Alabdali M, Alsulaiman A, et al. Repetitive nerve stimulation cutoff values for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2017 Feb;55(2):166-70. Abstract

77. Bou Ali H, Salort-Campana E, Grapperon AM, et al. New strategy for improving the diagnostic sensitivity of repetitive nerve stimulation in myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2017 Apr;55(4):532-38. Abstract

78. Priola AM, Priola SM, Giraudo MT, et al. Chemical-shift and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of thymus in myasthenia gravis: usefulness of quantitative assessment. Invest Radiol. 2015 Apr;50(4):228-38. Abstract

79. Priola AM, Priola SM, Gned D, et al. Comparison of CT and chemical-shift MRI for differentiating thymoma from non-thymomatous conditions in myasthenia gravis: value of qualitative and quantitative assessment. Clin Radiol. 2016 Mar;71(3):e157-69. Abstract

80. Chaudhuri A, Behan PO. Myasthenic crisis. 2009 Feb;102(2):97-107.Full text  Abstract

81. Jani-Acsadi A, Lisak RP. Myasthenic crisis: guidelines for prevention and treatment. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Oct 15;261(1-2):127-33. Abstract

82. Akaishi T, Motomura M, Shiraishi H, et al. Preoperative risks of post-operative myasthenic crisis (POMC): a meta-analysis. J Neurol Sci. 2019 Dec 15;407:116530. Abstract

83. de Meel RH, Lipka AF, van Zwet EW, et al. Prognostic factors for exacerbations and emergency treatments in myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 May 15;282:123-5. Abstract

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85. Maddison P, Lipka AF, Gozzard P, et al. Lung cancer prediction in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome in a prospective cohort. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 29;10(1):10546.Full text  Abstract

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87. Brais B, Bouchard JP, Xie YG, et al. Short GCG expansions in the PABP2 gene cause oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Nat Genet. 1998 Feb;18(2):164-7. Abstract

88. Mehndiratta MM, Pandey S, Kuntzer T. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 13;(10):CD006986.Full text  Abstract

89. Skeie GO, Apostolski S, Evoli A, et al. Guidelines for treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorders. Eur J Neurol. 2010 Jul;17(7):893-902.Full text  Abstract

90. Kerty E, Elsais A, Argov Z, et al. EFNS/ENS guidelines for the treatment of ocular myasthenia. Eur J Neurol. 2014 May;21(5):687-93.Full text  Abstract

91. Benatar M, Kaminski H. Medical and surgical treatment for ocular myasthenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:CD005081.Full text  Abstract

92. Schneider-Gold C, Gajdos P, Toyka KV, et al. Corticosteroids for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002828.Full text  Abstract

93. Benatar M, Mcdermott MP, Sanders DB, et al. Efficacy of prednisone for the treatment of ocular myasthenia (EPITOME): a randomized, controlled trial. Muscle Nerve. 2016 Mar;53(3):363-9.Full text  Abstract

94. Sharshar T, Porcher R, Demeret S, et al. Comparison of corticosteroid tapering regimens in myasthenia gravis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Apr 1;78(4):426-33.Full text  Abstract

95. Zhang Z, Wang M, Xu L, et al. Cancer occurrence following azathioprine treatment in myasthenia gravis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2021 Jun;88:70-4. Abstract

96. Farrugia ME, Goodfellow JA. A practical approach to managing patients with myasthenia gravis-opinions and a review of the literature. Front Neurol. 2020 Jul 7;11:604.Full text  Abstract

97. Wang L, Xi J, Zhang S, et al. Effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus therapy for myasthenia gravis: A single arm meta-analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2019 May;63:160-7. Abstract

98. Hart IK, Sathasivam S, Sharshar T. Immunosuppressive agents for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD005224.Full text  Abstract

99. Pasnoor M, He J, Herbelin L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of methotrexate for patients with generalized myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 2016 Jul 5;87(1):57-64.Full text  Abstract

100. Tandan R, Hehir MK 2nd, Waheed W, et al. Rituximab treatment of myasthenia gravis: a systematic review. Muscle Nerve. 2017 Aug;56(2):185-96. Abstract

101. Hehir MK, Hobson-Webb LD, Benatar M, et al. Rituximab as treatment for anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis: Multicenter blinded prospective review. Neurology. 2017 Sep 5;89(10):1069-77. Abstract

102. Cataneo AJM, Felisberto G Jr, Cataneo DC. Thymectomy in nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis - systematic review and meta-analysis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018 Jun 25;13(1):99.Full text  Abstract

103. Wolfe GI, Kaminski HJ, Aban IB, et al. Long-term effect of thymectomy plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in patients with non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis: 2-year extension of the MGTX randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Mar;18(3):259-68. Abstract

104. Gronseth GS, Barohn R, Narayanaswami P. Practice advisory: thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (practice parameter update). Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2020 Apr 21;94(16):705-9.Full text  Abstract

105. Zhang J, Chen Y, Zhang H, et al. Effects of thymectomy on late-onset non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2021 May 20;16(1):232.Full text  Abstract

106. Keijzers M, de Baets M, Hochstenbag M, et al. Robotic thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis: neurological and surgical outcomes. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015 Jul;48(1):40-5. Abstract

107. Goldstein SD, Culbertson NT, Garrett D, et al. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis in children: a comparison of open and thoracoscopic approaches. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jan;50(1):92-7. Abstract

108. Fok M, Bashir M, Harky A, et al. Video-assisted thoracoscopic versus robotic-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy: systematic review and neta-analysis. Innovations (Phila). 2017 Jul/Aug;12(4):259-64. Abstract

109. Solis-Pazmino P, Baiu I, Lincango-Naranjo E, et al. Impact of the surgical approach to thymectomy upon complete stable remission rates in myasthenia gravis: a meta-analysis. Neurology. 2021 Jul 27;97(4):e357-68. Abstract

110. Liu C, Liu P, Zhang XJ, et al. Assessment of the risks of a myasthenic crisis after thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 studies. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2020 Sep 29;15(1):270.Full text  Abstract

111. Geng Y, Zhang H, Wang Y. Risk factors of myasthenia crisis after thymectomy among myasthenia gravis patients: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Jan;99(1):e18622.Full text  Abstract

112. Reis TA, Cataneo DC, Cataneo AJM. Clinical usefulness of prethymectomy plasmapheresis in patients with myasthenia gravis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2019 Dec 1;29(6):867-75.Full text  Abstract

113. Li T, Zhang GQ, Li Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of different dosages of rituximab for refractory generalized AChR myasthenia gravis: a meta-analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2021 Mar;85:6-12. Abstract

114. Di Stefano V, Lupica A, Rispoli MG, et al. Rituximab in AChR subtype of myasthenia gravis: systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2020 Apr;91(4):392-5. Abstract

115. Nowak RJ, Coffey CS, Goldstein JM, et al. Phase 2 trial of rituximab in acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis: the BeatMG study. Neurology. 2021 Dec 2;98(4):e376-89.Full text  Abstract

116. Brauner S, Eriksson-Dufva A, Hietala MA, et al. Comparison between rituximab treatment for new-onset generalized myasthenia gravis and refractory generalized myasthenia gravis. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Aug 1;77(8):974-81.Full text  Abstract

117. Gajdos P, Chevret S, Toyka KV. Intravenous immunoglobulin for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(12):CD002277.Full text  Abstract

118. Barth D, Nabavi Nouri M, Ng E, et al. Comparison of IVIg and PLEX in patients with myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 2011 Jun 7;76(23):2017-23. Abstract

119. Elovaara I, Apostolski S, van Doorn P, et al. EFNS guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases: EFNS task force on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases. Eur J Neurol. 2008 Sep;15(9):893-908.Full text  Abstract

120. Feasby T, Banwell B, Benstead T, et al. Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for neurologic conditions. Transfus Med Rev. 2007 Apr;21(2 suppl 1):S57-107. Abstract

121. Köhler W, Bucka C, Klingel R. A randomized and controlled study comparing immunoadsorption and plasma exchange in myasthenic crisis. J Clin Apher. 2011 Dec;26(6):347-55. Abstract

122. Wang L, Huan X, Xi JY, et al. Immunosuppressive and monoclonal antibody treatment for myasthenia gravis: a network meta-analysis. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2019 May;25(5):647-58.Full text  Abstract

123. Howard JF Jr, Utsugisawa K, Benatar M, et al. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Dec;16(12):976-86. Abstract

124. Mantegazza R, O'Brien FL, Yountz M, et al. Consistent improvement with eculizumab across muscle groups in myasthenia gravis. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2020 Aug;7(8):1327-39.Full text  Abstract

125. Howard JF Jr, Bril V, Vu T, et al. Safety, efficacy, and tolerability of efgartigimod in patients with generalised myasthenia gravis (ADAPT): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2021 Jul;20(7):526-36. Abstract

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