References

Key articles

Pearle MS, Calhoun EA, Curhan GC. Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis. J Urol. 2005 Mar;173(3):848-57.

Moore CL, Daniels B, Ghita M, et al. Accuracy of reduced-dose computed tomography for ureteral stones in emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Feb;65(2):189-98.e2.

Pearle MS, Goldfarb DS, Assimos DG, et al.; American Urological Association. Medical management of kidney stones: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2014 Aug;192(2):316-24.

Assimos D, Krambeck A, Miller NL, et al. Surgical management of stones: American Urological Association/Endourological Society Guideline. 2016 [internet publication].

Türk C, Neisius A, Petrik A, et al. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urolithiasis. 2018 [internet publication].

Reference articles

1.  Stoller ML. Urinary stone disease. In: Tanagho EA, McAninch JW, eds. Smith's General Urology, 16th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill: 2004: 256-291.

2.  Wilson DM. Clinical and laboratory approaches for evaluation of nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 1989 Mar;141(3 Pt 2):770-4.

3.  Pak CY, Poindexter JR, Adams-Huet B, et al. Predictive value of kidney stone composition in the detection of metabolic abnormalities. Am J Med. 2003 Jul;115(1):26-32.

4.  Griffith DP, Osborne CA. Infection (urease) stones. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1987;13(4):278-85.

5.  Norlin A, Lindell B, Granberg PO, et al. Urolithiasis. A study of its frequency. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1976;10(2):150-3.

6.  Sierakowski R, Finlayson B, Landes RR, et al. The frequency of urolithiasis in hospital discharge diagnoses in the United States. Invest Urol. 1978 May;15(6):438-41.

7.  Scales CD Jr, Smith AC, Hanley JM, et al. Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States. Eur Urol. 2012 Jul;62(1):160-5.

8.  Hiatt RA, Dales LG, Friedman GD, et al. Frequency of urolithiasis in a prepaid medical care program. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Feb;115(2):255-65.

9.  Soucie JM, Thun MJ, Coates RJ, et al. Demographic and geographic variability of kidney stones in the United States. Kidney Int. 1994 Sep;46(3):893-9.

10.  Pearle MS, Calhoun EA, Curhan GC. Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis. J Urol. 2005 Mar;173(3):848-57.

11.  Lieske JC, Peña de la Vega LS, Slezak JM, et al. Renal stone epidemiology in Rochester, Minnesota: an update. Kidney Int. 2006 Feb;69(4):760-4.

12.  Sarmina I, Spirnak JP, Resnick MI. Urinary lithiasis in the black population: an epidemiological study and review of the literature. J Urol. 1987 Jul;138(1):14-7.

13.  Tasian GE, Ross ME, Song L, et al. Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Mar 7;11(3):488-96.

14.  Marshall V, White RH, De Saintonage M, et al. The natural history of renal and ureteric calculi. Br J Urol. 1975 Apr;47(2):117-24.

15.  Finlayson B. Symposium on renal lithiasis. Renal lithiasis in review. Urol Clin North Am. 1974 Jun;1(2):181-212.

16.  Sorokin I, Mamoulakis C, Miyazawa K, et al. Epidemiology of stone disease across the world. World J Urol. 2017 Sep;35(9):1301-20.

17.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. Body size and risk of kidney stones. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Sep;9(9):1645-52.

18.  Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Obesity, weight gain, and the risk of kidney stones. JAMA. 2005 Jan 26;293(4):455-62.

19.  Worcester EM. Inhibitors of stone formation. Semin Nephrol. 1996;16:474-486.

20.  Pearle M, Lotan Y. Urinary lithiasis: etiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. In: Walsh P, Retik A, Vaughan ED Jr, Wein A, eds. Campbell's Urology, 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2002:1363-1371.

21.  Evan AP, Lingeman JE, Coe FL, et al. Randall's plaque of patients with nephrolithiasis begins in basement membranes of thin loops of Henle. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:607-616.

22.  Stoller ML. Urinary stone disease. In: Tanagho EA, McAninch JW, eds. Smith's General Urology, 16th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill: 2004: 256-91.

23.  Stamatelou KK, Francis ME, Jones CA, et al. Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976-1994. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1817-23.

24.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med. 1993 Mar 25;328(12):833-8.

25.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, et al. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med. 1997 Apr 1;126(7):497-504.

26.  Pearle M, Lotan Y. Urinary lithiasis: etiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. In: Walsh P, Retik A, Vaughan ED Jr, Wein A, eds. Campbell's Urology, 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2002:1363-71.

27.  Prince CL, Scardino PL, Wolan CT. The effect of temperature, humidity and dehydration on the formation of renal calculi. J Urol. 1956 Feb;75(2):209-15.

28.  Prince CL, Scardino PL. A statistical analysis of ureteral calculi. J Urol. 1960 May;83:561-5.

29.  Geraghty RM, Proietti S, Traxer O, et al. Worldwide impact of warmer seasons on the incidence of renal colic and kidney stone disease: evidence from a systematic review of literature. J Endourol. 2017 Aug;31(8):729-35.

30.  Daudon M, Frochot V, Bazin D, et al. Drug-induced kidney stones and crystalline nephropathy: pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Drugs. 2018 Feb;78(2):163-201.

31.  Tasian GE, Jemielita T, Goldfarb DS, et al. Oral antibiotic exposure and kidney stone disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Jun;29(6):1731-40.

32.  Fulgham PF, Assimos DG, Pearle MS, et al. Clinical effectiveness protocols for imaging in the management of ureteral calculous disease: AUA Technology Assessment. J Urol. 2013 Apr;189(4):1203-13.

33.  Ripollés T, Agramunt M, Errando J, et al. Suspected ureteral colic: plain film and sonography vs unenhanced helical CT. A prospective study in 66 patients. Eur Radiol. 2004 Jan;14(1):129-36.

34.  Gorelik U, Ulish Y, Yagil Y. The use of standard imaging techniques and their diagnostic value in the workup of renal colic in the setting of intractable flank pain. Urology. 1996 May;47(5):637-42.

35.  Dalla Palma L, Stacul F, Bazzocchi M, et al. Ultrasonography and plain film versus intravenous urography in ureteric colic. Clin Radiol. 1993 May;47(5):333-6.

36.  Smith-Bindman R, Aubin C, Bailitz J, et al. Ultrasonography versus computed tomography for suspected nephrolithiasis. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 18;371(12):1100-10.

37.  ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee opinion no. 723: Guidelines for diagnostic imaging during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Oct;130(4):e210-6.

38.  Türk C, Neisius A, Petrik A, et al. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urolithiasis. 2018 [internet publication].

39.  Worcester EM, Coe FL. Clinical practice. Calcium kidney stones. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 2;363(10):954-63.

40.  Uribarri J, Oh MS, Carroll HJ. The first kidney stone. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Dec 15;111(12):1006-9.

41.  Moore CL, Daniels B, Ghita M, et al. Accuracy of reduced-dose computed tomography for ureteral stones in emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Feb;65(2):189-98.e2.

42.  Levine JA, Neitlich J, Verga M, et al. Ureteral calculi in patients with flank pain: correlation of plain radiography with unenhanced helical CT. Radiology. 1997 Jul;204(1):27-31.

43.  Assimos D, Krambeck A, Miller NL, et al. Surgical management of stones: American Urological Association/Endourological Society Guideline. J Urol. 2016 Oct;196(4):1153-60.

44.  Dion M, Ankawi G, Chew B, et al. CUA guideline on the evaluation and medical management of the kidney stone patient - 2016 update. Can Urol Assoc J. 2016 Nov-Dec;10(11-12):E347-58.

45.  ACR Appropriateness Criteria: cute onset flank pain - suspicion of stone disease (urolithiasis). 2015 [internet publication].

46.  Pearle MS, Goldfarb DS, Assimos DG, et al.; American Urological Association. Medical management of kidney stones: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2014 Aug;192(2):316-24.

47.  American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria: hematuria. 2014 [internet publication].

48.  American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria: acute nonlocalized abdominal pain. 2012 [internet publication].

49.  Sammon JD, Ghani KR, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Temporal trends, practice patterns, and treatment outcomes for infected upper urinary tract stones in the United States. Eur Urol. 2013 Jul;64(1):85-92.

50.  Pathan SA, Mitra B, Cameron PA. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol in the treatment of acute renal colic. Eur Urol. 2018 Apr;73(4):583-95.

51.  Eisner BH, Goldfarb DS, Pareek G. Pharmacologic treatment of kidney stone disease. Urol Clin North Am. 2013 Feb;40(1):21-30.

52.  Assimos D, Krambeck A, Miller NL, et al. Surgical management of stones: American Urological Association/Endourological Society Guideline. 2016 [internet publication].

53.  Jendeberg J, Geijer H, Alshamari M, et al. Size matters: the width and location of a ureteral stone accurately predict the chance of spontaneous passage. Eur Radiol. 2017 Nov;27(11):4775-85.

54.  Campschroer T, Zhu X, Vernooij RW, et al. Alpha-blockers as medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;(4):CD008509.

55.  Sridharan K, Sivaramakrishnan G. Efficacy and safety of alpha blockers in medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones: a mixed treatment network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Mar;11(3):291-307.

56.  Meltzer AC, Burrows PK, Wolfson AB, et al. Effect of tamsulosin on passage of symptomatic ureteral stones: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Aug 1;178(8):1051-7.

57.  Hollingsworth JM, Canales BK, Rogers MA, et al. Alpha blockers for treatment of ureteric stones: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016 Dec 1;355:i6112.

58.  Wang RC, Smith-Bindman R, Whitaker E, et al. Effect of tamsulosin on stone passage for ureteral stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Mar;69(3):353-61.e3.

59.  El Said NO, El Wakeel L, Kamal KM, et al. Alfuzosin treatment improves the rate and time for stone expulsion in patients with distal uretral stones: a prospective randomized controlled study. Pharmacotherapy. 2015 May;35(5):470-6.

60.  Sur RL, Shore N, L'Esperance J. Silodosin to facilitate passage of ureteral stones: a multi-institutional, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Urol. 2015 May;67(5):959-64.

61.  Yang D, Wu J, Yuan H, et al. The efficacy and safety of silodosin for the treatment of ureteral stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Urol. 2016 May 27;16(1):23.

62.  Micali S, Grande M, Sighinolfi MC, et al. Medical therapy of urolithiasis. J Endourol. 2006 Nov;20(11):841-7.

63.  Saw KC, Lingeman JE. Lesson 20: management of calyceal stones. AUA Update Series. 1999;20:154-9.

64.  Havel D, Saussine C, Fath C, et al. Single stones of the lower pole of the kidney. Comparative results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Eur Urol. 1998;33(4):396-400.

65.  Kachel TA, Vijan SR, Dretler SP. Endourological experience with cystine calculi and a treatment algorithm. J Urol. 1991 Jan;145(1):25-8.

66.  Grasso M, Ficazzola M. Retrograde ureteropyeloscopy for lower pole caliceal calculi. J Urol. 1999 Dec;162(6):1904-8.

67.  Aboumarzouk OM, Monga M, Kata SG, et al. Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for stones >2 cm: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endourol. 2012 Oct;26(10):1257-63.

68.  Kang SK, Cho KS, Kang DH, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis to compare success rates of retrograde intrarenal surgery versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones >2 cm: an update. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Dec;96(49):e9119.

69.  Lingeman JE, Matlaga BR, Evan AP. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al., eds. Campbell's urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:1431-1507.

70.  Zhu Y, Duijvesz D, Rovers MM, et al. Alpha-blockers to assist stone clearance after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2010 Jul;106(2):256-61.

71.  Liu LR, Li QJ, Wei Q, et al. Percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy for the passage of lower pole kidney stones following shock wave lithotripsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD008569.

72.  Loughlin KR. Management of urologic problems during pregnancy. Urology. 1994 Aug;44(2):159-69.

73.  Ignatoff JM, Nelson JB. Use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in a solitary kidney with renal artery aneurysm. J Urol. 1993 Feb;149(2):359-60.

74.  Wang H, Man L, Li G, et al. Meta-analysis of stenting versus non-stenting for the treatment of ureteral stones. PLoS One. 2017 Jan 9;12(1):e0167670.

75.  Türk C, Neisius A, Petrik A, et al. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urolithiasis. 2018 [internet publication].

76.  Dell'Atti L, Papa S. Ten-year experience in the management of distal ureteral stones greater than 10 mm in size. G Chir. 2016 Jan-Feb;37(1):27-30.

77.  Cui X, Ji F, Yan H, et al. Comparison between extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopic lithotripsy for treating large proximal ureteral stones: a meta-analysis. Urology. 2015 Apr;85(4):748-56.

78.  Drake T, Grivas N, Dabestani S, et al. What are the benefits and harms of ureteroscopy compared with shock-wave lithotripsy in the treatment of upper ureteral stones? A systematic review. Eur Urol. 2017 Nov;72(5):772-86.

79.  Aboumarzouk OM, Kata SG, Keeley FX, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) versus ureteroscopic management for ureteric calculi. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5):CD006029.

80.  Maheshwari PN, Oswal AT, Andankar M, et al. Is antegrade ureteroscopy better than retrograde ureteroscopy for impacted large upper ureteral calculi? J Endourol. 1999 Jul-Aug;13(6):441-4.

81.  el-Nahas AR, Eraky I, el-Assmy AM, et al. Percutaneous treatment of large upper tract stones after urinary diversion. Urology. 2006 Sep;68(3):500-4.

82.  Wang Q, Guo J, Hu H, et al. Rigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy for large proximal ureteral stones: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 9;12(2):e0171478.

83.  Lingeman JE, Matlaga BR, et al. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Walsh P, Retik A, Vaughan ED Jr, Wein A, eds. Campbell's Urology, 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2002: 1431-1507.

84.  Lingeman JE, Coury TA, Newman DM, et al. Comparison of results and morbidity of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J Urol. 1987 Sep;138(3):485-90.

85.  Semins MJ, Matlaga BR. Kidney stones during pregnancy. Nat Rev Urol. 2014 Mar;11(3):163-8.

86.  Burgess KL, Gettman MT, Rangel LJ, et al. Diagnosis of urolithiasis and rate of spontaneous passage during pregnancy. J Urol. 2011 Dec;186(6):2280-4.

87.  Semins MJ, Trock BJ, Matlaga BR. The safety of ureteroscopy during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Urol. 2009 Jan;181(1):139-43.

88.  Cheungpasitporn W, Rossetti S, Friend K, et al. Treatment effect, adherence, and safety of high fluid intake for the prevention of incident and recurrent kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nephrol. 2016 Apr;29(2):211-9.

89.  Pak CY. Kidney stones. Lancet. 1998 Jun 13;351(9118):1797-801.

90.  Gambaro G, Croppi E, Coe F, et al; Consensus Conference Group. Metabolic diagnosis and medical prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis and its systemic manifestations: a consensus statement. J Nephrol. 2016 Dec;29(6):715-34.

91.  Phillips R, Hanchanale VS, Myatt A, et al. Citrate salts for preventing and treating calcium containing kidney stones in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(10):CD010057.

92.  Kern A, Grimsby G, Mayo H, et al. Medical and dietary interventions for preventing recurrent urinary stones in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(11):CD011252.

93.  Barreto L, Jung JH, Abdelrahim A, et al. Medical and surgical interventions for the treatment of urinary stones in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;(6):CD010784.

94.  Bonkat G, Pickard R, Bartoletti R, et al. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urological infections. 2018 [internet publication].

95.  Escribano J, Balaguer A, Roqué i Figuls M, et al. Dietary interventions for preventing complications in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD006022.

96.  Goldfarb DS, MacDonald PA, Gunawardhana L, et al. Randomized controlled trial of febuxostat versus allopurinol or placebo in individuals with higher urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stones. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Nov;8(11):1960-7.

97.  Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA to evaluate increased risk of heart-related death and death from all causes with the gout medicine febuxostat (Uloric). November 2017 [internet publication].

98.  Worcester EM. Stones from bowel disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2002 Dec;31(4):979-99.

99.  Pak CY, Fuller C, Sakhaee K, et al. Management of cystine nephrolithiasis with alpha-mercaptopropionylglycine. J Urol. 1986 Nov;136(5):1003-8.

100.  Hauk L. Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis: dietary and pharmacologic options recommended by the ACP. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Aug 15;92(4):311.

101.  Rule AD, Lieske JC, Li X, et al. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:2878-2886.

102.  Borghi L, Meschi T, Schianchi T, et al. Urine volume: stone risk factor and preventive measure. Nephron. 1999;8(suppl 1):31-7.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer