Nephrolithiasis is a lifelong disease process. The rate of recurrence of nephrolithiasis in first-time stone formers is 50% at 5 years and 80% at 10 years. [1] The patients at highest risk for recurrence are frequently those who are not compliant with medical therapy and dietary/lifestyle modifications, or where underlying metabolic abnormalities exist. Residual stone fragments from surgery will usually spontaneously pass as long as their size is <4 mm.

The Return of Kidney Stones (ROKS) nomogram can be used to help to predict the risk of a second kidney stone. [101]

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