Epidemiology

The lifetime prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the US is estimated to be about 10%.[2] The probability of having a stone varies according to age, sex, race, and geographic location.[2][3][4] Nephrolithiasis typically affects adult men more commonly than adult women; however, there is evidence that this difference in incidence between men and women is narrowing.[3] In US men, the highest prevalence of nephrolithiasis is found in white men, followed by Hispanic men, non-Hispanic men, and black men.[2] However, the rate of stone incidence is increasing at a faster rate for black people compared to white, and particularly for black women compared to men.[5] Historically, stone occurrence was relatively uncommon before age 20 years, but the incidence of stones in children and adolescents is rising.[5] In adults, stone incidence peaks between the ages of 40-50 years.[6]

Nephrolithiasis has a higher prevalence in hot, arid, or dry climates, such as the mountains, desert, or tropical areas.[3][7] Worldwide, regions of high stone prevalence include the US, UK, Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries, northern India and Pakistan, northern Australia, central Europe, portions of the Malay peninsula, and China.[3] Heat exposure and dehydration are risk factors for nephrolithiasis. The prevalence and incident risk of nephrolithiasis are directly correlated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and variation measures of adiposity variables, including higher waist circumference, and BMI in both sexes, although the magnitude of this association is greater in women than in men.[8][9][10]

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