Typhoid infection


Key articles

Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 May;82(5):346-53.Full text  Abstract

Schwartz E, Shlim DR, Eaton M, et al. The effect of oral and parenteral typhoid vaccination on the rate of infection with Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A among foreigners in Nepal. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Feb;150(2):349-51. Abstract

Ochiai RL, Wang X, von Seidlein L, et al. Salmonella paratyphi A rates, Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Nov;11(11):1764-6.Full text  Abstract

Engels EA, Falagas ME, Lau J, et al. Typhoid fever vaccines: a meta-analysis of studies on efficacy and toxicity. BMJ. 1998 Jan 10;316(7125):110-6.Full text  Abstract

Frenck RW Jr, Nakhla I, Sultan Y, et al. Azithromycin versus ceftriaxone for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Nov;31(5):1134-8.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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11. Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 May;82(5):346-53.Full text  Abstract

12. Acharya IL, Lowe CU, Thapa R, et al. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 1987 Oct 29;317(18):1101-4. Abstract

13. Meltzer E, Sadik C, Schwartz E. Enteric fever in Israeli travelers: a nationwide study. J Travel Med. Sep-Oct 2005;12(5):275-81.Full text  Abstract

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24. Schwartz E, Shlim DR, Eaton M, et al. The effect of oral and parenteral typhoid vaccination on the rate of infection with Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A among foreigners in Nepal. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Feb;150(2):349-51. Abstract

25. Ochiai RL, Wang X, von Seidlein L, et al. Salmonella paratyphi A rates, Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Nov;11(11):1764-6.Full text  Abstract

26. Petersiel N, Shresta S, Tamrakar R, et al. The epidemiology of typhoid fever in the Dhulikhel area, Nepal: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 27;13(9):e0204479.Full text  Abstract

27. Vollaard AM, Ali S, Widjaja S, et al. Identification of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever cases at presentation in outpatient clinics in Jakarta, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jun;99(6):440-50. Abstract

28. O'Brien D, Tobin S, Brown GV, et al. Fever in returned travelers: review of hospital admissions for a 3-year period. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 1;33(5):603-9.Full text  Abstract

29. Steinberg EB, Bishop R, Haber P, et al. Typhoid fever in travelers: who should be targeted for prevention? Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15;39(2):186-91.Full text  Abstract

30. Appiah GD, Hughes MJ, Chatham-Stephens K. Chapter 4 - Travel-related infectious diseases: typhoid and paratyphoid fever. In Brunette GW, Nemhauser JB eds. CDC Yellow Book 2020: health information for international travel. Oxford University Press; 2019.Full text

31. Engels EA, Falagas ME, Lau J, et al. Typhoid fever vaccines: a meta-analysis of studies on efficacy and toxicity. BMJ. 1998 Jan 10;316(7125):110-6.Full text  Abstract

32. Stubi CL, Landry PR, Petignat C, et al. Compliance to live oral Ty21a typhoid vaccine and its effect on viability. J Travel Med. May-Jun 2000;7(3):133-7.Full text  Abstract

33. Cryz SJ. Patient compliance in the use of Vivotif Berna vaccine, typhoid vaccine, live oral Ty21a. J Travel Med. 1998 Mar;5(1):14-7.Full text  Abstract

34. Klugman KP, Koornhof HJ, Robbins JB, et al. Immunogenicity, efficacy and serological correlate of protection of Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine three years after immunization. Vaccine. 1996 Apr;14(5):435-8. Abstract

35. Khan MI, Soofi SB, Ochiai RL, et al; DOMI Typhoid Karachi Vi Effectiveness Study Group. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan. Vaccine. 2012 Aug 3;30(36):5389-95. Abstract

36. Zhou WZ, Koo HW, Wang XY, et al. Revaccination with locally-produced vi typhoid polysaccharide vaccine among Chinese school-aged children: safety and immunogenicity findings. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Nov;26(11):1001-5. Abstract

37. Beeching NJ, Clarke PD, Kitchin NR, et al. Comparison of two combined vaccines against typhoid fever and hepatitis A in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2004 Nov 15;23(1):29-35. Abstract

38. Lin FY, Vo AH, Khiem HB, et al. The efficacy of a Salmonella typhi Vi conjugate vaccine in two-to-five-year-old children. N Engl J Med. 2001 Apr 26;344(17):1263-9.Full text  Abstract

39. Mai NL, Phan VB, Vo AH, et al. Persistent efficacy of Vi conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever in young children. N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct 2;349(14):1390-1. Abstract

40. Milligan R, Paul M, Richardson M, et al. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 31;(5):CD001261.Full text  Abstract

41. Jin C, Gibani MM, Moore M, et al. Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial. Lancet. 2017 Dec 2;390(10111):2472-80.Full text  Abstract

42. World Health Organization. Typhoid vaccines position paper. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text

43. Jackson BR, Iqbal S, Mahon B; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated recommendations for the use of typhoid vaccine - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Mar 27;64(11):305-8.Full text  Abstract

44. Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Black RE, et al. Ty21a live oral typhoid vaccine and prevention of paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 15;45(suppl 1):S24-8.Full text  Abstract

45. Sánchez-Jiménez MM, Cardona-Castro N. Validation of a PCR for diagnosis of typhoid fever and salmonellosis by amplification of the hilA gene in clinical samples from Colombian patients. J Med Microbiol. 2004 Sep;53(Pt 9):875-8.Full text  Abstract

46. Wain J, Diep TS, Ho VA, et al. Quantitation of bacteria in blood of typhoid fever patients and relationship between counts and clinical features, transmissibility, and antibiotic resistance. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Jun;36(6):1683-7.Full text  Abstract

47. Gilman RH, Terminel M, Levine MM, et al. Relative efficacy of blood, urine, rectal swab, bone-marrow, and rose-spot cultures for recovery of Salmonella typhi in typhoid fever. Lancet. 1975 May 31;1(7918):1211-3. Abstract

48. Olopoenia LA, King AL. Widal agglutination test - 100 years later: still plagued by controversy. Postgrad Med J. 2000 Feb;76(892):80-4.Full text  Abstract

49. Bhutta ZA. Current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of typhoid fever. BMJ. 2006 Jul 8;333(7558):78-82.Full text  Abstract

50. Wijedoru L, Mallett S, Parry CM. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 26;5(5):CD008892.Full text  Abstract

51. Chart H, Cheasty T, de Pinna E, et al. Serodiagnosis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovars Paratyphi A, B and C human infections. J Med Microbiol. 2007 Sep;56(Pt 9):1161-6.Full text  Abstract

52. Thriemer K, Ley B, Menten J, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the performance of two point of care typhoid fever tests, Tubex TF and Typhidot, in endemic countries. PloS One. 2013 Dec 16;8(12):e81263.Full text  Abstract

53. Kundu R, Ganguly N, Ghosh TK, et al; IAP Task Force. IAP Task Force Report: diagnosis of enteric fever in children. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:875-883.Full text

54. Jin C, Gibani MM, Pennington SH, et al. Treatment responses to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin in uncomplicated Salmonella Typhi infection: a comparison of clinical and microbiological data from a controlled human infection model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Dec;13(12):e0007955.Full text  Abstract

55. Cuypers WL, Jacobs J, Wong V, et al. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella: insights by whole-genome sequencing. Microb Genom. 2018 Jul;4(7):e000195.Full text  Abstract

56. Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization. Salmonella serovar Typhi haplotype H58 - epidemiological alert. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

57. Meltzer E, Stienlauf S, Leshem E, et al. A large outbreak of Salmonella paratyphi A infection among Israeli travelers to Nepal. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;58(3):359-64.Full text  Abstract

58. Zmora N, Shrestha S, Neuberger A, et al. Open label comparative trial of mono versus dual antibiotic therapy for typhoid fever in adults. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Apr;12(4):e0006380.Full text  Abstract

59. Slinger R, Desjardins M, McCarthy AE, et al. Suboptimal clinical response to ciprofloxacin in patients with enteric fever due to Salmonella spp. with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility: a case series. BMC Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 20;4:36.Full text  Abstract

60. Piersma D, Overbosch D, Petit P, et al. Protracted fever after a journey to India and Nepal: a case of persistent Salmonella paratyphi infection. J Travel Med. Jul-Aug 2004;11(4):257-9.Full text  Abstract

61. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects. Aug 2018 [internet publication].Full text

62. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

63. Frenck RW Jr, Nakhla I, Sultan Y, et al. Azithromycin versus ceftriaxone for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Nov;31(5):1134-8.Full text  Abstract

64. Girgis NI, Butler T, Frenck RW, et al. Azithromycin versus ciprofloxacin for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in a randomized trial in Egypt that included patients with multidrug resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Jun;43(6):1441-4.Full text  Abstract

65. Chinh NT, Parry CM, Ly NT, et al. A randomized controlled comparison of azithromycin and ofloxacin for treatment of multidrug-resistant or nalidixic acid-resistant enteric fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Jul;44(7):1855-9.Full text  Abstract

66. Trivedi NA, Shah PC. A meta-analysis comparing the safety and efficacy of azithromycin over the alternate drugs used for treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever. J Postgrad Med. Apr-Jun 2012;58(2):112-8.Full text  Abstract

67. Klemm EJ, Shakoor S, Page AJ, et al. Emergence of an extensively drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi clone harboring a promiscuous plasmid encoding resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. mBio. 2018 Feb 20;9(1):e00105-18.Full text  Abstract

68. Chatham-Stephens K, Medalla F, Hughes M, et al. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Salmonella typhi infections among travelers to or from Pakistan - United States, 2016-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jan 11;68(1):11-3.Full text  Abstract

69. François Watkins LK, Winstead A, Appiah GD, et al. Update on extensively drug-resistant Salmonella serotype typhi infections among travelers to or from Pakistan and report of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella serotype typhi infections among travelers to Iraq - United States, 2018-2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 May 22;69(20):618-22.Full text  Abstract

70. Engsbro AL, Riis Jespersen HS, Goldschmidt MI, et al. Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhi in a pregnant traveller returning from Karachi, Pakistan to Denmark, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019 May;24(21):1900289.Full text  Abstract

71. Wong W, Rawahi HA, Patel S, et al. The first Canadian pediatric case of extensively drug-resistant Salmonella typhi originating from an outbreak in Pakistan and its implication for empiric antimicrobial choices. IDCases. 2019 Jan 15;15:e00492.Full text  Abstract

72. Hoffman SL, Punjabi NH, Kumala S, et al. Reduction of mortality in chloramphenicol-treated severe typhoid fever by high-dose dexamethasone. N Engl J Med. 1984 Jan 12;310(2):82-8. Abstract

73. Parry CM. The treatment of multidrug-resistant and nalidixic acid-resistant typhoid fever in Viet Nam. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;98(7):413-22. Abstract

74. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian immunization guide: part 4 - active vaccines: typhoid vaccine. Sep 2016 [internet publication].Full text

75. Khosla SN. Typhoid hepatitis. Postgrad Med J. 1990 Nov;66(781):923-5.Full text  Abstract

76. Schwartz E, Jenks NP, Shlim DR. 'Typhoid hepatitis' or typhoid fever and acute viral hepatitis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Jul-Aug 1994;88(4):437-8. Abstract

77. Chang YT, Lin JY, Huang YS. Typhoid colonic perforation in childhood: a ten-year experience. 2006. World J Surg. 2006 Feb;30(2):242-7. Abstract

78. Usang UE, Sowande OA, Ademuyiwa AO, et al. Outcome of primary closure of abdominal wounds following typhoid perforation in children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 2009. Afr J Paediatr Surg. Jan-Jun 2009;6(1):31-4.Full text  Abstract

79. Ukwenya AY, Ahmed A, Garba ES. Progress in management of typhoid perforation. Ann Afr Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;10(4):259-65.Full text  Abstract

80. Huang DB, DuPont HL. Problem pathogens: extra-intestinal complications of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Jun;5(6):341-8. Abstract

81. Biber A, Nof E, Schwartz E. Cardiac involvement in travelers with enteric fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 May;100(5):1098-100.Full text  Abstract

82. Mohanty S, Gaind R, Sehgal R, et al. Neonatal sepsis due to Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009 Sep 15;3(8):633-8.Full text  Abstract

83. Edelman R, Levine MM. Summary of an international workshop on typhoid fever. Rev Infect Dis. May-Jun 1986;8(3):329-49. Abstract

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