Erectile dysfunction

References

Key articles

Lizza EF, Rosen RC. Definition and classification of erectile dysfunction: report of the nomenclature committee of the International Society of Impotence Research. Int J Impot Res. 1999 Jun;11(3):141-3. Abstract

Burnett AL, Nehra A, Breau RH, et al. Erectile dysfunction: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2018 May 7;200(3):633-41.Full text  Abstract

Nehra A, Jackson G, Miner M, et al. The Princeton III Consensus recommendations for the management of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Aug;87(8):766-78.Full text  Abstract

Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G, et al. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology. 1997 Jun;49(6):822-30. Abstract

Rosen RC, Cappelleri JC, Smith MD, et al. Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 1999 Dec;11(6):319-26. Abstract

Reference articles

1. National Institutes of Health. Impotence: NIH consensus development panel on impotence. JAMA. 1993 Jul 7;270(1):83-90. Abstract

2. Lizza EF, Rosen RC. Definition and classification of erectile dysfunction: report of the nomenclature committee of the International Society of Impotence Research. Int J Impot Res. 1999 Jun;11(3):141-3. Abstract

3. Auld RB, Brock G. Sexuality and erectile dysfunction: results of a national survey. J Sex Reprod Med 2002;2(2):50-4.Full text

4. Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA. 1999 Feb 10;281(6):537-44.Full text  Abstract

5. Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol. 1994;151:54-61. Abstract

6. Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Feldman HA, et al. Incidence of erectile dysfunction in men 40 to 69 years old: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study. J Urol. 2000;163:460-463. Abstract

7. Wessells H, Joyce GF, Wise M, et al. Erectile dysfunction. J Urol. 2007;177:1675-1681. Abstract

8. Saigal CS, Wessells H, Pace J, et al. Predictors and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in a racially diverse population. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:207-212.Full text  Abstract

9. Capogrosso P, Colicchia M, Ventimiglia E, et al. One patient out of four with newly diagnosed erectile dysfunction is a young man - worrisome picture from the everyday clinical practice. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1833-1841. Abstract

10. Goldstein I. Male sexual circuitry. Sci Am. 2000 Aug;283(2):70-5. Abstract

11. Lue TF. Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 15;342(24):1802-13. Abstract

12. Romeo JH, Seftel AD, Madhun ZT, et al. Sexual function in men with diabetes type 2: association with glycemic control. J Urol. 2000 Mar;163(3):788-91. Abstract

13. Lewis RW. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am. 2001 May;28(2):209-16, vii. Abstract

14. Maggi M, Buvat J, Corona G, et al. Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA). J Sex Med. 2013 Mar;10(3):661-77. Abstract

15. Guay AT, Spark RF, Bansal S, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of male sexual dysfunction: a couple's problem--2003 update. Endocr Pract. 2003 Jan-Feb;9(1):77-95. Abstract

16. Morales A, Heaton JP. Hormonal erectile dysfunction. Evaluation and management. Urol Clin North Am. 2001 May;28(2):279-88. Abstract

17. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and management. January 2014 [internet publication].Full text

18. Andersson KE, Wagner G. Physiology of penile erections. Physiol Rev. 1995 Jan;75(1):191-236. Abstract

19. Burnett AL. Nitric oxide in the penis: physiology and pathology. J Urol. 1997 Jan;157(1):320-4. Abstract

20. Lincoln TM. Cyclic GMP and mechanisms of vasodilation. Pharmacol Ther. 1989;41(3):479-502. Abstract

21. Saenz de Tejada I. Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of penile smooth muscle contractility. Int J Impot Res. 2000 Oct;12 Suppl 4:S34-8. Abstract

22. Kwan M, Greenleaf WJ, Mann J, et al. The nature of androgen action on male sexuality: a combined laboratory/self-reported study on hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Sep;57(3):557-62. Abstract

23. Bancroft J, Wu FC. Changes in erectile responsiveness during androgen replacement therapy. Arch Sex Behav. 1983 Feb;12(1):59-66. Abstract

24. Giuliano F, Rampin OP, McKenna KE. Animal models used in the study of erectile dysfunction In: Carson CC, Kirby RS, Goldstein I, eds. Textbook of erectile dysfunction. Oxford: ISIS Medical Media; 1999:43-9.

25. Rampin O, Giulaiano F. Brain control of penile erection. World J Urol. 2001 Feb;19(1):1-8. Abstract

26. Reffelmann T, Kloner RA. Sexual function in hypertensive patients receiving treatment. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2006;2(4):447-55.Full text  Abstract

27. Burchardt M, Burchardt T, Baer L, et al. Hypertension is associated with severe erectile dysfunction. J Urol. 2000 Oct;164(4):1188-91. Abstract

28. Maas R, Schwedhelm E, Albsmeier J, et al. The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction related to endothelial dysfunction and mediators of vascular function. Vasc Med. 2002 Aug;7(3):213-25. Abstract

29. Bacon CG, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, et al. Association of type and duration of diabetes with erectile dysfunction in a large cohort of men. Diabetes Care. 2002 Aug;25(8):1458-63. Abstract

30. Kim JH, Kim IK, Seo KK, et al. Involvement of superoxide radical in the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Urol Res. 1997;25(5):341-6. Abstract

31. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, et al; Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Study Group. Identifying patients with type 2 diabetes with a higher likelihood of erectile dysfunction: the role of the interaction between clinical and psychological factors. J Urol. 2003 Apr;169(4):1422-8. Abstract

32. Stehouwer CD, Lamber J, Konker AJ, et al. Endothelial dysfunction and pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 1997 Apr;34(1):55-68. Abstract

33. Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. JAMA. 2004 Jun 16;291(23):2847-50.Full text  Abstract

34. Feldman HA, Johannes CB, Derby CA, et al. Erectile dysfunction and coronary risk factors: prospective results from the Massachusetts male aging study. Prev Med. 2000 Apr;30(4):328-38. Abstract

35. Burnett AL. Metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction, and erectile dysfunction: association and management. Curr Urol Rep. 2005 Nov;6(6):470-5. Abstract

36. Demir T, Demir O, Kefi A, et al. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome. Int J Urol. 2006 Apr;13(4):385-8. Abstract

37. Walsh PC, Donker PJ. Impotence following radical prostatectomy: insight into etiology and prevention. J Urol. 1982 Sep;128(3):492-7. Abstract

38. Yeager ES, Van Heerden JA. Sexual dysfunction following proctocolectomy and abdominoperineal resection. Ann Surg. 1980 Feb;191(2):169-70.Full text  Abstract

39. Padma-Nathan H, McCullough A, Forest C. Erectile dysfunction secondary to nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy: comparative phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor efficacy for therapy and novel prevention strategies. Curr Urol Rep. 2004 Dec;5(6):467-71. Abstract

40. Eardley I, Kirby R. Neurogenic impotence. In: Kirby RS, Carson CC, Webster GD, eds. Impotence: diagnosis and management of male erectile dysfunction. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 1991:227.

41. Wright JL, Nathens AB, Rivara FP, et al. Specific fracture configurations predict sexual and excretory dysfunction in men and women 1 year after pelvic fracture. J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 1):1540-5; discussion 1545. Abstract

42. Rosen RC, Lane RM, Menza M. Effects of SSRIs on sexual function: a critical review. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 Feb;19(1):67-85. Abstract

43. Ricchiuti VS, Haas CA, Seftel AD, et al. Pudendal nerve injury associated with avid bicycling. J Urol. 1999 Dec;162(6):2099-100. Abstract

44. Egerdie RB, Auerbach S, Roehrborn CG, et al. Tadalafil 2.5 or 5 mg administered once daily for 12 weeks in men with both erectile dysfunction and signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. J Sex Med. 2012 Jan;9(1):271-81. Abstract

45. Burnett AL, Nehra A, Breau RH, et al. Erectile dysfunction: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2018 May 7;200(3):633-41.Full text  Abstract

46. Nehra A, Jackson G, Miner M, et al. The Princeton III Consensus recommendations for the management of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Aug;87(8):766-78.Full text  Abstract

47. Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G, et al. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology. 1997 Jun;49(6):822-30. Abstract

48. Rosen RC, Cappelleri JC, Smith MD, et al. Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 1999 Dec;11(6):319-26. Abstract

49. Moreland RB, Nehra A. Pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease. Int J Impot Res. 2002 Oct;14(5):406-10. Abstract

50. Moreland RB, Nehra A. Pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease. Int J Impot Res. 2002;14:406-410. Abstract

51. Gholami SS, Gonzalez-Cadavid NF, Lin CS, et al. Peyronie's disease: a review. J Urol. 2003;169:1234-1241. Abstract

52. Lue TF, Giuliano F, Montorsi F, et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in men. J Sex Med. 2004 Jul;1(1):6-23. Abstract

53. Spratt DI, Bigos ST, Beitins I, et al. Both hyper- and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism occur transiently in acute illness: bio- and immunoactive gonadotropins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Dec;75(6):1562-70. Abstract

54. Baskin HJ, Cobin RH, Duick DS, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov-Dec;8(6):457-69. Abstract

55. Montague DK, Jarow J, Broderick GA, et al. Premature ejaculation: guideline on the pharmacologic management of premature ejaculation. 2004 [internet publication].Full text

56. Berger R, Billups K, Brock G, et al. Report of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease (AFUD) thought leader panel for evaluation and treatment of priapism. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Dec;13 Suppl 5:S39-43. Abstract

57. Rosen RC, Cappelleri JC, Gendrano N. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a state-of-the-science review. Int J Impot Res. 2002 Aug;14(4):226-44.Full text  Abstract

58. Cappelleri JC, Rosen RC, Smith MD, et al. Diagnostic evaluation of the erectile function domain of the international index of erectile function. Urology. 1999 Aug;54(2):346-51. Abstract

59. Bella AJ, Lee JC, Grober ED, et al. 2018 Canadian Urological Association guideline for Peyronie's disease and congenital penile curvature. Can Urol Assoc J. 2018 Feb 22;12(5):E197-209.Full text  Abstract

60. Nehra A, Alterowitz R, Culkin DJ, et al; American Urological Association. Peyronie's disease: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2015 Sep;194(3):745-53.Full text  Abstract

61. Bella AJ, Lee JC, Carrier S, et al; Canadian Urological Association. 2015 CUA practice guidelines for erectile dysfunction. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015 Jan-Feb;9(1-2):23-9.Full text  Abstract

62. Montorsi F, Adaikan G, Becher E, et al. Committee 26. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in men. In: Montorsi F, Basson R, Adaikan G, eds. Sexual medicine: sexual dysfunctions in men and women. Edition 2010. Paris: Editions 21; 2010:1265-82.Full text  Abstract

63. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

64. Shabsigh R, Duval S, Shah M, et al. Efficacy of vardenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with hypertension: a meta-analysis of clinical trial data. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Oct;23(10):2453-60. Abstract

65. Wing RR, Rosen RC, Fava JL, et al. Effects of weight loss intervention on erectile function in older men with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD trial. J Sex Med. 2010 Jan;7(1 Pt 1):156-65. Abstract

66. Gupta BP, Murad MH, Clifton MM, et al. The effect of lifestyle modification and cardiovascular risk factor reduction on erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Nov 14;171(20):1797-803.Full text  Abstract

67. Salonia A, Adaikan G, Buvat J, et al. Sexual rehabilitation after treatment for prostate cancer-part 2: recommendations from the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med. 2017 Mar;14(3):297-315.Full text  Abstract

68. Hatzimouratidis K, Salonia A, Adaikan G, et al. Pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction: recommendations from the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med. 2016 Mar 25;13(4):465-88. Abstract

69. Nehra A. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease: efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in men with both conditions. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Feb;84(2):139-48. Abstract

70. Vardi M, Nini A. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors for erectile dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD002187.Full text  Abstract

71. Alhathal N, Elshal AM, Carrier S. Synergetic effect of testosterone and phophodiesterase-5 inhibitors in hypogonadal men with erectile dysfunction: A systematic review. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012 Aug;6(4):269-74.Full text  Abstract

72. Goldstein I, Lue TF, Padma-Nathan H, et al. Oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 1998 May 14;338(20):1397-404. Abstract

73. Hellstrom WJ, Gittelman M, Karlin G, et al. Vardenafil for treatment of men with erectile dysfunction: efficacy and safety in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Androl. 2002 Nov-Dec;23(6):763-71.Full text  Abstract

74. Brock GB, McMahon CG, Chen KK, et al. Efficacy and safety of tadalafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: results of integrated analyses. J Urol. 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 1):1332-6. Abstract

75. Goldstein I, McCullough AR, Jones LA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of avanafil in subjects with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2012 Apr;9(4):1122-33. Abstract

76. Azzouni F, Abu Samra K. Are phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors associated with vision-threatening adverse events? A critical analysis and review of the literature. J Sex Med. 2011 Oct;8(10):2894-903. Abstract

77. Khera M, Goldstein I. Erectile dysfunction. BMJ Clin Evid. 2011 Jun 29;2011. pii: 1803.Full text  Abstract

78. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Erectile dysfunction: avanafil. August 2014 [internet publication].Full text

79. Kim E, Seftel A, Goldfischer E, et al. Comparative efficacy of tadalafil once daily in men with erectile dysfunction who demonstrated previous partial responses to as-needed sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014 Dec 2;31(2):379-89. Abstract

80. Bella AJ, Deyoung LX, Al-Numi M, et al. Daily administration of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for urological and nonurological indications. Eur Urol. 2007 Oct;52(4):990-1005. Abstract

81. Hatzichristou D, Gambla M, Rubio-Aurioles E, et al. Efficacy of tadalafil once daily in men with diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction. Diabet Med. 2008 Feb;25(2):138-46.Full text  Abstract

82. Rubio-Aurioles E, Kim ED, Rosen RC, et al. Impact on erectile function and sexual quality of life of couples: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of tadalafil taken once daily. J Sex Med. 2009 May;6(5):1314-23. Abstract

83. Washington SL 3rd, Shindel AW. A once-daily dose of tadalafil for erectile dysfunction: compliance and efficacy. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2010 Sep 7;4:159-71. Abstract

84. Rubio-Aurioles E, Porst H, Kim ED, et al. A randomized open-label trial with a crossover comparison of sexual self-confidence and other treatment outcomes following tadalafil once a day vs. tadalafil or sildenafil on-demand in men with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2012 May;9(5):1418-29. Abstract

85. Porst H, Giuliano F, Glina S, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of once-a-day dosing of tadalafil 5mg and 10mg in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Urol. 2006 Aug;50(2):351-9. Abstract

86. Loeb S, Folkvaljon Y, Lambe M, et al. Use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction and risk of malignant melanoma. JAMA. 2015 Jun 23-30;313(24):2449-55.Full text  Abstract

87. Padma-Nathan H, Yeager JL. An integrated analysis of alprostadil topical cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in 1732 patients. Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2):386-91. Abstract

88. Babaei AR, Safarinejad MR, Kolahi AA, et al. Penile revascularization for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effectiveness and complications. Urol J. 2009 Winter;6(1):1-7.Full text  Abstract

89. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

90. Melnik T, Soares BG, Nasselo AG. Psychosocial interventions for erectile dysfunction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD004825.Full text  Abstract

91. Padma-Nathan H, Hellstrom WJ, Kaiser FE, et al; Medicated Urethral System for Erection (MUSE) Study Group. Treatment of men with erectile dysfunction with transurethral alprostadil. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 2;336(1):1-7. Abstract

92. Cookson MS, Nadig PW. Long-term results with vacuum constriction device. J Urol. 1993 Feb;149(2):290-4. Abstract

93. Mulcahy JJ. Current approach to the treatment of penile implant infections. Ther Adv Urol. 2010 Apr;2(2):69-75.Full text  Abstract

94. Montorsi F, Brock G, Stolzenburg JU, et al. Effects of tadalafil treatment on erectile function recovery following bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: a randomised placebo-controlled study (REACTT). Eur Urol. 2014 Mar;65(3):587-96. Abstract

95. Philippou YA, Jung JH, Steggall MJ, et al. Penile rehabilitation for postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 23;(10):CD012414.Full text  Abstract

96. Pisansky TM, Pugh SL, Greenberg RE, et al. Tadalafil for prevention of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [0831] randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Apr 2;311(13):1300-7. Abstract

97. King SH, Mayorov AV, Balse-Srinivasan P, et al. Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1098-1106. Abstract

98. Rosen RC, Diamond LE, Earle DC, et al. Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to viagra. Int J Impot Res. 2004 Apr;16(2):135-42. Abstract

99. Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY. Salvage of sildenafil failures with bremelanotide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Urol. 2008 Mar;179(3):1066-71. Abstract

100. Yoshimura N, Kato R, Chancellor MB, et al. Gene therapy as future treatment of erectile dysfunction. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 Sep;10(9):1305-14.Full text  Abstract

101. Cui X, Zhou J, Qin Z, et al. Acupuncture for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Biomed Res Int. 2016 Jan 17;2016:2171923.Full text  Abstract

102. Liaw RL, Srilatha B, Adaikan PG. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on erectile function and its possible mechanism(s) of action. J Sex Med. 2011 Jul;8(7):1853-64. Abstract

103. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

104. Brock GB, McMahon CG, Chen KK, et al. Efficacy and safety of tadalafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: results of integrated analyses. J Urol. 2002;168:1332-1336. Abstract

105. Padma-Nathan H, Steers WD, Wicker PA. Efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, placebo controlled study of 329 patients. Int J Clin Pract. 1998;52:375-379. Abstract

106. Porst H, Rosen R, Padma-Nathan H, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of vardenafil, a new, oral, selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, in patients with erectile dysfunction: the first at-home clinical trial. Int J Impot Res. 2001;13:192-199. Abstract

107. McCullough AR, Barada JH, Fawzy A, et al. Achieving treatment optimization with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in patients with erectile dysfunction. Urology. 2002;60:28-36. Abstract

108. Guay AT, Perez JB, Jacobson J, et al. Efficacy and safety of sildenafil for treatment of erectile dysfunction in a population with associated organic risk factors. J Androl. 2001;22:793-797. Abstract

109. Porst H. The rationale for prostaglandin E1 in erectile failure: a survey of worldwide experience. J Urol. 1996;155:802-815. Abstract

110. Bennett AH, Carpenter AJ, Barada JH. An improved vasoactive drug combination for a pharmacological erection program. J Urol. 1991;146:1564-1565. Abstract

111. Padma-Nathan H, Hellstrom WJ, Kaiser FE, et al; Medicated Urethral System for Erection (MUSE) Study Group. Treatment of men with erectile dysfunction with transurethral alprostadil. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1-7. Abstract

112. Hatzichristou DG, Pescatori ES. Current treatments and emerging therapeutic approaches in male erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 2001;88(suppl 3):11-17. Abstract

113. Danesh-Meyer HV, Levin LA. Erectile dysfunction drugs and risk of anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: casual or causal association? Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Nov;91(11):1551-5. Abstract

114. Laties AM. Vision disorders and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: a review of the evidence to date. Drug Saf. 2009;32(1):1-18. Abstract

115. McCullough AR, Barada JH, Fawzy A, et al. Achieving treatment optimization with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in patients with erectile dysfunction. Urology. 2002 Sep;60(2 Suppl 2):28-38. Abstract

116. Sadovsky R, Brock GB, Gutkin SW, et al. Toward a new 'EPOCH': optimising treatment outcomes with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction. Int J Clin Pract. 2009 Aug;63(8):1214-30.Full text  Abstract

117. Begot I, Peixoto TC, Gonzaga LR, et al. A home-based walking program improves erectile dysfunction in men with an acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Mar 1;115(5):571-5. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer