Obesity in adults

References

Key articles

Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Full text  Abstract

Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203.Full text  Abstract

Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Progress in pharmacotherapy for obesity. JAMA. 2021 Jul 13;326(2):129-30. Abstract

American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Metabolic and bariatric surgery fact sheet. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Obesity Society. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129(25 suppl 2):S102-38.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Obesity Society. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129(25 suppl 2):S102-38.Full text  Abstract

2. World Health Organization. WHO discussion paper: draft recommendations for the prevention and management of obesity over the life course, including potential targets. August 2021 [internet publication].Full text

3. Kopelman PG. Obesity as a medical problem. Nature. 2000 Apr 6;404(6778):635-43. Abstract

4. Poirier P, Cornier MA, Mazzone T, et al. Bariatric surgery and cardiovascular risk factors: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011 Apr 19;123(15):1683-701.Full text  Abstract

5. World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.Full text

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Defining adult overweight and obesity. June 2021 [internet publication].Full text

7. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk: evidence in support of current National Institutes of Health guidelines. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Oct 14;162(18):2074-9.Full text  Abstract

8. Pouliot MC, Despres JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol. 1994 Mar 1;73(7):460-8. Abstract

9. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome - a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005 Sep 24-30;366(9491):1059-62. Abstract

10. Booth ML, Hunter C, Gore CJ, et al. The relationship between body mass index and waist circumference: implications for estimates of the population prevalence of overweight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Aug;24(8):1058-61. Abstract

11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for Health Statistics. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960–1962 through 2017–2018. January 2021 [internet publication].Full text

12. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Fact sheets. June 2021 [internet publication].Full text

13. World Health Organization. Health topics: obesity [internet publication].Full text

14. Comuzzie AG, Allison DB. The search for human obesity genes. Science. 1998 May 29;280(5368):1374-7. Abstract

15. Bell CG, Walley AJ, Froguel P. The genetics of human obesity. Nat Rev Genet. 2005 Mar;6(3):221-34. Abstract

16. Kokkoris P, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity and endocrine disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2003 Dec;32(4):895-914. Abstract

17. Montague CT, Farooqi IS, Whitehead JP, et al. Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature. 1997 Jun 26;387(6636):903-8. Abstract

18. Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 suppl):236-41S.Full text  Abstract

19. Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998. JAMA. 2003 Jan 22-29;289(4):450-3.Full text  Abstract

20. Young LR, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health. 2002 Feb;92(2):246-9.Full text  Abstract

21. Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, et al. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1785-91.Full text  Abstract

22. Manson JE, Skerrett PJ, Greenland P, et al. The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle: a call to action for clinicians. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Feb 9;164(3):249-58. Abstract

23. Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, et al. Dietary fat:carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Jun;47(6):995-1000. Abstract

24. Wamala SP, Wolk A, Orth-Gomer K. Determinants of obesity in relation to socioeconomic status among middle-aged Swedish women. Prev Med. 1997 Sep-Oct;26(5 Pt 1):734-44. Abstract

25. McElroy SL, Arnold LM, Shapira NA, et al. Topiramate in the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;160(2):255-61.Full text  Abstract

26. Fairburn CG, Harrison PJ. Eating disorders.Lancet. 2003 Feb 1;361(9355):407-16. Abstract

27. Megna JL, Schwartz TL, Siddiqui UA, et al. Obesity in adults with serious and persistent mental illness: a review of postulated mechanisms and current interventions. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2011 May;23(2):131-40. Abstract

28. Hazuda HP, Haffner SM, Stern MP, et al. Effects of acculturation and socioeconomic status on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Dec;128(6):1289-301. Abstract

29. Kumanyika SK. Special issues regarding obesity in minority populations. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 1;119(7):650-4. Abstract

30. Martinez JA, Kearney JM, Kafatos A, et al. Variables independently associated with self-reported obesity in the European Union. Public Health Nutr. 1999 Mar;2(1A):125-33. Abstract

31. Parsons TJ, Power C, Logan S, et al. Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Nov;23(suppl 8):S1-107. Abstract

32. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, et al. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 25;337(13):869-73.Full text  Abstract

33. Mokhtar N, Elati J, Chabir R, et al. Diet culture and obesity in northern Africa. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):887-92S.Full text  Abstract

34. Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, et al. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27;282(16):1523-9.Full text  Abstract

35. Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med. 1999 Dec;29(6):563-70. Abstract

36. Caballero B. The global epidemic of obesity: an overview. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:1-5. Abstract

37. Drewnowski A, Specter SE. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;79(1):6-16.Full text  Abstract

38. Sobal J, Stunkard AJ. Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychol Bull. 1989 Mar;105(2):260-75. Abstract

39. Ravelli GP, Stein ZA, Susser MW. Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. N Engl J Med. 1976 Aug 12;295(7):349-53. Abstract

40. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. Birth weight and adult hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity in US men. Circulation. 1996 Dec 15;94(12):3246-50.Full text  Abstract

41. Maruvada P, Leone V, Kaplan LM, et al. The human microbiome and obesity: moving beyond associations. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Nov 8;22(5):589-99.Full text  Abstract

42. Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics. 1998 Sep;102(3):E29.Full text  Abstract

43. Finlayson G, King N, Blundell JE. Liking vs. wanting food: Importance for human appetite control and weight regulation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007;31(7):987-1002. Abstract

44. Dhillo WS. Appetite regulation: an overview. Thyroid. 2007 May;17(5):433-45. Abstract

45. Blüher M. Metabolically healthy obesity. Endocr Rev. 2020 May 1;41(3):bnaa004.Full text  Abstract

46. Commodore-Mensah Y, Lazo M, Tang O, et al. High burden of subclinical and cardiovascular disease risk in adults with metabolically healthy obesity: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jul;44(7):1657-63. Abstract

47. Opio J, Croker E, Odongo GS, et al. Metabolically healthy overweight/obesity are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adults, even in the absence of metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev. 2020 Dec;21(12):e13127. Abstract

48. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1549-55.Full text  Abstract

49. Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, et al. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27;282(16):1519-22.Full text  Abstract

50. Astrup A. Physical activity and weight gain and fat distribution changes with menopause: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Nov;31(11 suppl):S564-7. Abstract

51. Kongnyuy EJ, Norman RJ, Flight IH, et al. Oestrogen and progestogen hormone replacement therapy for peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women: weight and body fat distribution. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001018.Full text  Abstract

52. Gambacciani M, Ciaponi M, Cappagli B, et al. Body weight, body fat distribution, and hormonal replacement therapy in early postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Feb;82(2):414-7.Full text  Abstract

53. Rossner S, Ohlin A. Pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity: lessons from the Stockholm Pregnancy and Weight Development Study. Obes Res. 1995;3(suppl 2):S267-75. Abstract

54. Schmitt NM, Nicholson WK, Schmitt J. The association of pregnancy and the development of obesity - results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on the natural history of postpartum weight retention. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov;31(11):1642-51. Abstract

55. Kahn HS, Williamson DF, Stevens JA. Race and weight change in US women: the roles of socioeconomic and marital status. Am J Public Health. 1991 Mar;81(3):319-23.Full text  Abstract

56. Schoenborn CA. Marital status and health: United States, 1999-2002. Adv Data. 2004 Dec 15;(351):1-32.Full text  Abstract

57. Hasler G, Buysse DJ, Klaghofer R, et al. The association between short sleep duration and obesity in young adults: a 13-year prospective study. Sleep. 2004 Jun 15;27(4):661-6. Abstract

58. Vioque J, Torres A, Quiles J. Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Dec;24(12):1683-8. Abstract

59. Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, et al. Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep. 2005 Oct;28(10):1289-96. Abstract

60. Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, et al. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Jan 7;138(1):24-32. Abstract

61. O'Hara P, Connett JE, Lee WW, et al. Early and late weight gain following smoking cessation in the Lung Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Nov 1;148(9):821-30.Full text  Abstract

62. Molarius A, Seidell JC, Sans S, et al. Educational level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. Am J Public Health. 2000 Aug;90(8):1260-8.Full text  Abstract

63. Drewnowski A, Darmon N. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 suppl):265-73S.Full text  Abstract

64. Wareham NJ, van Sluijs EM, Ekelund U. Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 May;64(2):229-47. Abstract

65. Tremblay MS, Willms JD. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1100-5.Full text  Abstract

66. Ludwig DS. Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2S suppl):280-3S.Full text  Abstract

67. Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK, et al. Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1023-30.Full text  Abstract

68. Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 May 16;297(19):2092-102.Full text  Abstract

69. Colditz GA, Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, et al. Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jul;54(1):49-55. Abstract

70. Arif AA, Rohrer JE. Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. BMC Public Health. 2005 Dec 5;5:126.Full text  Abstract

71. Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption, dietary fat composition, and abdominal obesity in women: evidence for gene-environment interaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5381-6.Full text  Abstract

72. Chou SY, Grossman M, Saffer H. An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. J Health Econ. 2004 May;23(3):565-87. Abstract

73. Wing RR, Goldstein MG, Acton KJ, et al. Behavioral science research in diabetes: lifestyle changes related to obesity, eating behavior, and physical activity. Diabetes Care. 2001 Jan;24(1):117-23.Full text  Abstract

74. Gluck ME, Geliebter A, Satov T. Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese outpatients. Obes Res. 2001 Apr;9(4):264-7. Abstract

75. Colles SL, Dixon JB, O'Brien PE. Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov;31(11):1722-30. Abstract

76. Zimmermann U, Kraus T, Himmerich H, et al. Epidemiology, implications and mechanisms underlying drug-induced weight gain in psychiatric patients. J Psychiatr Res. 2003 May-Jun;37(3):193-220. Abstract

77. McCloughen A, Foster K. Weight gain associated with taking psychotropic medication: an integrative review. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2011 Jun;20(3):202-22. Abstract

78. Sharma AM, Pischon T, Hardt S, et al. Hypothesis: beta-adrenergic receptor blockers and weight gain: a systematic analysis. Hypertension. 2001 Feb;37(2):250-4.Full text  Abstract

79. Shapiro CL, Recht A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 28;344(26):1997-2008. Abstract

80. Simon GE, Von Korff M, Saunders K, et al. Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;63(7):824-30.Full text  Abstract

81. Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Heo M, et al. The distribution of body mass index among individuals with and without schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999 Apr;60(4):215-20. Abstract

82. Van Horn L, Carson JA, Appel LJ, et al. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Nov 29;134(22):e505-29.Full text  Abstract

83. US Department of Health and Human Services; US Department of Agriculture. Dietary guidelines for Americans 2020-2025. 9th edition. December 2020 [internet publication].Full text

84. Swinburn BA, Caterson I, Seidell JC, et al. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr. 2004 Feb;7(1a):123-46. Abstract

85. Kirk SF, Penney TL, McHugh TL. Characterizing the obesogenic environment: the state of the evidence with directions for future research. Obes Rev. 2010 Feb;11(2):109-17. Abstract

86. Kwon J, Cameron AJ, Hammond D, et al. A multi-country survey of public support for food policies to promote healthy diets: findings from the International Food Policy Study. BMC Public Health. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):1205.Full text  Abstract

87. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Full text  Abstract

88. Heyword VH, Wagner DR. Applied body composition assessment. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2004.

89. World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist–hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation. 2011 [internet publication].Full text

90. Herbst KL, Kahn LA, Iker E, et al. Standard of care for lipedema in the United States. Phlebology. 2021 Dec;36(10):779-96.Full text  Abstract

91. Buso G, Depairon M, Tomson D, et al. Lipedema: a call to action! Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Oct;27(10):1567-76.Full text  Abstract

92. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):373-8.Full text  Abstract

93. Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203.Full text  Abstract

94. Brauer P, Gorber SC, Shaw E, et al. Recommendations for prevention of weight gain and use of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions to manage overweight and obesity in adults in primary care. CMAJ. 2015 Feb 17;187(3):184-95.Full text  Abstract

95. National Institute for Health and Clinical Care. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. November 2014 [internet publication].Full text

96. Rosenzweig JL, Bakris GL, Berglund LF, et al. Primary prevention of ASCVD and T2DM in patients at metabolic risk: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep;104(9):3939-85.Full text  Abstract

97. Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009 Jul 24;58(RR-7):1-26.Full text  Abstract

98. Shaw K, Gennat H, O'Rourke P, et al. Exercise for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD003817.Full text  Abstract

99. Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL, et al. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Oct;107(10):1755-67. Abstract

100. Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 26;360(9):859-73.Full text  Abstract

101. Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al; Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) Group. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 17;359(3):229-41.Full text  Abstract

102. Hession M, Rolland C, Kulkarni U, et al. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obes Rev. 2009 Jan;10(1):36-50.Full text  Abstract

103. Thomas DE, Elliott E, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005105.Full text  Abstract

104. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2074-81.Full text  Abstract

105. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2082-90.Full text  Abstract

106. Gudzune KA, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, et al. Efficacy of commercial weight-loss programs: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Apr 7;162(7):501-12.Full text  Abstract

107. Johnston BC, Kanters S, Bandayrel K, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2014 Sep 3;312(9):923-33.Full text  Abstract

108. Ge L, Sadeghirad B, Ball GDC, et al. Comparison of dietary macronutrient patterns of 14 popular named dietary programmes for weight and cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2020 Apr 1;369:m696.Full text  Abstract

109. Wu T, Gao X, Chen M, et al. Long-term effectiveness of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions for weight loss: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2009 May;10(3):313-23.Full text  Abstract

110. Semlitsch T, Stigler FL, Jeitler K, et al. Management of overweight and obesity in primary care - a systematic overview of international evidence-based guidelines. Obes Rev. 2019 Sep;20(9):1218-30.Full text  Abstract

111. Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018 Nov 20;320(19):2020-8. Abstract

112. Booth HP, Prevost TA, Wright AJ, et al. Effectiveness of behavioural weight loss interventions delivered in a primary care setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2014 Dec;31(6):643-53.Full text  Abstract

113. Södlerlund A, Fischer A, Johansson T. Physical activity, diet and behaviour modification in the treatment of overweight and obese adults: a systematic review. Perspect Public Health. 2009 May;129(3):132-42. Abstract

114. Curry SJ, Krist AH, Owens DK, et al; US Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018 Sep 18;320(11):1163-71.Full text  Abstract

115. Castelnuovo G, Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017;10:165-73.Full text  Abstract

116. Svetkey LP, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, et al; Weight Loss Maintenance Collaborative Research Group. Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1139-48.Full text  Abstract

117. Vanwormer JJ, French SA, Pereira MA, et al. The impact of regular self-weighing on weight management: a systematic literature review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Nov 4;5:54.Full text  Abstract

118. Manzoni GM, Pagnini F, Corti S, et al. Internet-based behavioral interventions for obesity: an updated systematic review. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2011 Mar 4;7:19-28.Full text  Abstract

119. Maon S, Edirippulige S, Ware R, et al. The use of web-based interventions to prevent excessive weight gain. J Telemed Telecare. 2012 Jan;18(1):37-41. Abstract

120. Crane MM, Lutes LD, Ward DS, et al. A randomized trial testing the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss among men with overweight and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec;23(12):2398-405.Full text  Abstract

121. Petkovic J, Duench S, Trawin J, et al. Behavioural interventions delivered through interactive social media for health behaviour change, health outcomes, and health equity in the adult population. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 31;5:CD012932.Full text  Abstract

122. Baer HJ, Rozenblum R, De La Cruz BA, et al. Effect of an online weight management program integrated with population health management on weight change: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020 Nov 3;324(17):1737-46.Full text  Abstract

123. Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Progress in pharmacotherapy for obesity. JAMA. 2021 Jul 13;326(2):129-30. Abstract

124. Rubino D, Abrahamsson N, Davies M, et al. Effect of continued weekly subcutaneous semaglutide vs placebo on weight loss maintenance in adults with overweight or obesity: the STEP 4 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1414-25.Full text  Abstract

125. Wadden TA, Bailey TS, Billings LK, et al. Effect of subcutaneous semaglutide vs placebo as an adjunct to intensive behavioral therapy on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity: the STEP 3 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1403-13.Full text  Abstract

126. Isaacs D, Prasad-Reddy L, Srivastava SB. Role of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in management of obesity. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016 Oct 1;73(19):1493-507. Abstract

127. Davies MJ, Bergenstal R, Bode B, et al. Efficacy of liraglutide for weight loss among patients with type 2 diabetes: the SCALE diabetes randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):687-99. Abstract

128. Pi-Sunyer X, Astrup A, Fujioka K, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of 3.0 mg of liraglutide in weight management. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):11-22.Full text  Abstract

129. Lundgren JR, Janus C, Jensen SBK, et al. Healthy weight loss maintenance with exercise, liraglutide, or both combined. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 6;384(18):1719-30.Full text  Abstract

130. Wadden TA, Hollander P, Klein S, et al. Weight maintenance and additional weight loss with liraglutide after low-calorie-diet-induced weight loss: the SCALE maintenance randomized study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Nov;37(11):1443-51. Abstract

131. Rubino DM, Greenway FL, Khalid U, et al. Effect of weekly subcutaneous semaglutide vs daily liraglutide on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity without diabetes: the STEP 8 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022 Jan 11;327(2):138-50. Abstract

132. Khera R, Murad MH, Chandar AK, et al. Association of pharmacological treatments for obesity with weight loss and adverse events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016 Jun 14;315(22):2424-34.Full text  Abstract

133. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Ferrari I, et al. Orlistat and L-carnitine compared to orlistat alone on insulin resistance in obese diabetic patients. Endocr J. 2010;57(9):777-86.Full text  Abstract

134. Greenway FL, Fujioka K, Plodkowski RA, et al. Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2010 Aug 21;376(9741):595-605. Abstract

135. Greenway FL, Dunayevich E, Tollefson G, et al. Comparison of combined bupropion and naltrexone therapy for obesity with monotherapy and placebo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;94(12):4898-906. Abstract

136. Apovian CM, Aronne L, Rubino D, et al. A randomized, phase 3 trial of naltrexone SR/bupropion SR on weight and obesity-related risk factors (COR-II). Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 May;21(5):935-43.Full text  Abstract

137. Wadden TA, Foreyt JP, Foster GD, et al. Weight loss with naltrexone SR/bupropion SR combination therapy as an adjunct to behavior modification: the COR-BMOD trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jan;19(1):110-20.Full text  Abstract

138. Hollander P, Gupta AK, Plodkowski R, et al; COR-Diabetes Study Group. Effects of naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release combination therapy on body weight and glycemic parameters in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013 Dec;36(12):4022-9.Full text  Abstract

139. Gadde KM, Allison DB, Ryan DH, et al. Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Apr 16;377(9774):1341-52. Abstract

140. Allison DB, Gadde KM, Garvey WT, et al. Controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in severely obese adults: a randomized controlled trial (EQUIP). Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Feb;20(2):330-42.Full text  Abstract

141. Garvey WT, Ryan DH, Look M, et al. Two-year sustained weight loss and metabolic benefits with controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in obese and overweight adults (SEQUEL): a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 extension study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;95(2):297-308.Full text  Abstract

142. Lei XG, Ruan JQ, Lai C, et al. Efficacy and safety of phentermine/topiramate in adults with overweight or obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 Jun;29(6):985-94. Abstract

143. Markham A. Setmelanotide: first approval. Drugs. 2021 Feb;81(3):397-403. Abstract

144. Clément K, van den Akker E, Argente J, et al. Efficacy and safety of setmelanotide, an MC4R agonist, in individuals with severe obesity due to LEPR or POMC deficiency: single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Dec;8(12):960-70. Abstract

145. Food and Drug Adminstration. FDA requests the withdrawal of the weight-loss drug Belviq, Belviq XR (lorcaserin) from the market. February 2020 [internet publication].Full text

146. Syn NL, Cummings DE, Wang LZ, et al. Association of metabolic-bariatric surgery with long-term survival in adults with and without diabetes: a one-stage meta-analysis of matched cohort and prospective controlled studies with 174 772 participants. Lancet. 2021 May 15;397(10287):1830-41. Abstract

147. Buchwald H. Consensus conference statement bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: health implications for patients, health professionals, and third-party payers. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2005 May-Jun;1(3):371-81. Abstract

148. Maggard MA, Shugarman LR, Suttorp M, et al. Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 5;142(7):547-59.Full text  Abstract

149. Colquitt JL, Pickett K, Loveman E, et al. Surgery for weight loss in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 8;(8):CD003641.Full text  Abstract

150. Aminian A, Chang J, Brethauer SA, et al. ASMBS updated position statement on bariatric surgery in class I obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m^2). Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018 Aug;14(8):1071-87.Full text  Abstract

151. American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Metabolic and bariatric surgery fact sheet. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

152. Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, et al; STAMPEDE Investigators. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes - 5-year outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):641-51.Full text  Abstract

153. Berry MA, Urrutia L, Lamoza P, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy outcomes in patients with BMI between 30 and 35 - 3 years of follow-up. Obes Surg. 2018 Mar;28(3):649-55.Full text  Abstract

154. Dawes AJ, Maggard-Gibbons M, Maher AR, et al. Mental health conditions among patients seeking and undergoing bariatric surgery: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016 Jan 12;315(2):150-63.Full text  Abstract

155. Tice JA, Karliner L, Walsh J, et al. Gastric banding or bypass? A systematic review comparing the two most popular bariatric procedures. Am J Med. 2008 Oct;121(10):885-93. Abstract

156. Garb J, Welch G, Zagarins S, et al. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity: a meta-analysis of weight loss outcomes for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2009 Oct;19(10):1447-55. Abstract

157. Nguyen NT, Slone JA, Nguyen XM, et al. A prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for the treatment of morbid obesity: outcomes, quality of life, and costs. Ann Surg. 2009 Oct;250(4):631-41. Abstract

158. Risstad H, Søvik TT, Engström M, et al. Five-year outcomes after laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic duodenal switch in patients with body mass index of 50 to 60: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surg. 2015 Apr;150(4):352-61. Abstract

159. ASMBS Clinical Issues Committee. Updated position statement on sleeve gastrectomy as a bariatric procedure. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2012 May-Jun;8(3):e21-6. Abstract

160. Ben-Porat T, Mashin L, Kaluti D, et al. Weight loss outcomes and lifestyle patterns following sleeve gastrectomy: an 8-year retrospective sStudy of 212 patients. Obes Surg. 2021 Nov;31(11):4836-45. Abstract

161. O'Brien PE, Hindle A, Brennan L, et al. Long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight loss at 10 or more years for all bariatric procedures and a single-centre review of 20-year outcomes afteradjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2019 Jan;29(1):3-14.Full text  Abstract

162. Sepúlveda M, Alamo M, Saba J, et al. Long-term weight loss in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2017 Oct;13(10):1676-81. Abstract

163. Felsenreich DM, Langer FB, Kefurt R, et al. Weight loss, weight regain, and conversions to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: 10-year results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016 Nov;12(9):1655-62. Abstract

164. Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, et al. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2009 Mar;122(3):248-56. Abstract

165. Foster GD, Borradaile KE, Sanders MH, et al; Sleep AHEAD Research Group of Look AHEAD Research Group. A randomized study on the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with type 2 diabetes: the Sleep AHEAD study. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Sep 28;169(17):1619-26.Full text  Abstract

166. Fernandes M, Atallah AN, Soares BG, et al. Intragastric balloon for obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD004931.Full text  Abstract

167. Imaz I, Martínez-Cervell C, García-Alvarez EE, et al. Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity: a meta-analysis. Obes Surg. 2008 Jul;18(7):841-6. Abstract

168. Muniraj T, Day LW, Teigen LM, et al. AGA clinical practice guidelines on intragastric balloons in the management of obesity. Gastroenterology. 2021 Apr;160(5):1799-808.Full text  Abstract

169. Willard FS, Douros JD, Gabe MB, et al. Tirzepatide is an imbalanced and biased dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist. JCI Insight. 2020 Sep 3;5(17):e140532.Full text  Abstract

170. Kakouri A, Kanti G, Kapantais E, et al. New incretin combination treatments under investigation in obesity and metabolism: a pystematic review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Aug 28;14(9):869.Full text  Abstract

171. Rosenstock J, Wysham C, Frías JP, et al. Efficacy and safety of a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-1): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021 Jul 10;398(10295):143-55. Abstract

172. Gibbons C, Blundell J, Tetens Hoff S, et al. Effects of oral semaglutide on energy intake, food preference, appetite, control of eating and body weight in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2021 Feb;23(2):581-8.Full text  Abstract

173. Smith SR, Aronne LJ, Burns CM, et al. Sustained weight loss following 12-month pramlintide treatment as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention in obesity. Diabetes Care. 2008 Sep;31(9):1816-23.Full text  Abstract

174. Dunican KC, Adams NM, Desilets AR. The role of pramlintide for weight loss. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Mar;44(3):538-45. Abstract

175. Enebo LB, Berthelsen KK, Kankam M, et al. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of concomitant administration of multiple doses of cagrilintide with semaglutide 2·4 mg for weight management: a randomised, controlled, phase 1b trial. Lancet. 2021 May 8;397(10286):1736-48. Abstract

176. Després JP, Ross R, Boka G, et al; ADAGIO-Lipids Investigators. Effect of rimonabant on the high-triglyceride/ low-HDL-cholesterol dyslipidemia, intraabdominal adiposity, and liver fat: the ADAGIO-Lipids trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Mar;29(3):416-23.Full text  Abstract

177. Chavez-Tapia NC, Tellez-Avila FI, Bedogni G, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the adverse events of rimonabant treatment: considerations for its potential use in hepatology. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009 Oct 9;9:75.Full text  Abstract

178. Topol EJ, Bousser MG, Fox KA, et al. Rimonabant for prevention of cardiovascular events (CRESCENDO): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Aug 14;376(9740):517-23. Abstract

179. Quarta C, Cota D. Anti-obesity therapy with peripheral CB1 blockers: from promise to safe(?) practice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2020 Nov;44(11):2179-93. Abstract

180. Mekala KC, Tritos NA. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in obesity in adults: a meta analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan;94(1):130-7.Full text  Abstract

181. Liang S, Xue J, Li G. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone administration on cardiovascular risk factors in obese children with relative growth hormone deficiency. Lipids Health Dis. 2018 Apr 3;17(1):66.Full text  Abstract

182. Wu J, Zhao F, Zhang Y, et al. Effect of one-year growth hormone therapy on cardiometabolic risk factors in boys with obesity. Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:2308124.Full text  Abstract

183. Kaptein EM, Beale E, Chan LS. Thyroid hormone therapy for obesity and nonthyroidal illnesses: a systematic review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;94(10):3663-75. Abstract

184. Kopelman P, Bryson A, Hickling R, et al. Cetilistat (ATL-962), a novel lipase inhibitor: a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study of weight reduction in obese patients. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Mar;31(3):494-9.Full text  Abstract

185. Kopelman P, Groot Gde H, Rissanen A, et al. Weight loss, HbA1c reduction, and tolerability of cetilistat in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial in obese diabetics: comparison with orlistat (Xenical). Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan;18(1):108-15. Abstract

186. Pu R, Shi D, Gan T, et al. Effects of metformin in obesity treatment in different populations: a meta-analysis. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2020;11:2042018820926000.Full text  Abstract

187. Astrup A, Madsbad S, Breum L, et al. Effect of tesofensine on bodyweight loss, body composition, and quality of life in obese patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008 Nov 29;372(9653):1906-13. Abstract

188. Ikramuddin S, Blackstone RP, Brancatisano A, et al. Effect of reversible intermittent intra-abdominal vagal nerve blockade on morbid obesity: the ReCharge randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Sep 3;312(9):915-22.Full text  Abstract

189. Shikora S, Toouli J, Herrera MF, et al. Vagal blocking improves glycemic control and elevated blood pressure in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Obes. 2013;2013:245683.Full text  Abstract

190. Sarr MG, Billington CJ, Brancatisano R, et al. The EMPOWER study: randomized, prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial of vagal blockade to induce weight loss in morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2012 Nov;22(11):1771-82. Abstract

191. Koehestanie P, de Jonge C, Berends FJ, et al. The effect of the endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner on obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2014 Dec;260(6):984-92. Abstract

192. Ruban A, Miras AD, Glaysher MA, et al. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2022 Mar 1;275(3):440-7.Full text  Abstract

193. Sartoretto A, Sui Z, Hill C, et al. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a reproducible and effective endoscopic bariatric therapy suitable for widespread clinical adoption: a large, international multicenter study. Obes Surg. 2018 Jul;28(7):1812-21. Abstract

194. Jalal MA, Cheng Q, Edye MB. Systematic review and meta-analysis of endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty with comparison to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Obes Surg. 2020 Jul;30(7):2754-62. Abstract

195. Powell-Wiley TM, Poirier P, Burke LE, et al. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 May 25;143(21):e984-e1010.Full text  Abstract

196. Campos GM, Mazzini GS, Altieri MS, et al. ASMBS position statement on the rationale for performance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy before and after metabolic and bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2021 May;17(5):837-47. Abstract

197. Mechanick JI, Apovian C, Brethauer S, et al; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutrition, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of patients undergoing bariatric procedures - 2019 update. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2020 Feb;16(2):175-247.Full text  Abstract

198. Telem DA, Jones DB, Schauer PR, et al. Updated panel report: best practices for the surgical treatment of obesity. Surg Endosc. 2018 Oct;32(10):4158-64. Abstract

199. US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. 2nd edition. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

200. Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, et al. Pharmacological management of obesity: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb;100(2):342-62.Full text  Abstract

201. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 105: bariatric surgery and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jun;113(6):1405-13. Abstract

202. Cohen RV, Shikora S, Petry T, et al. The Diabetes Surgery Summit II guidelines: a disease-based clinical recommendation. Obes Surg. 2016 Aug;26(8):1989-91. Abstract

203. Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Byrne KJ. Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control. Obes Res. 2004 Dec;12(suppl):151-62S.Full text  Abstract

204. Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Wilson C. Lifestyle modification for the management of obesity. Gastroenterology. 2007 May;132(6):2226-38. Abstract

205. Blaine BE, Rodman J, Newman JM. Weight loss treatment and psychological well-being: a review and meta-analysis. J Health Psychol. 2007 Jan;12(1):66-82. Abstract

206. Padwal RS, Majumdar SR. Drug treatments for obesity: orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant. Lancet. 2007 Jan 6;369(9555):71-7. Abstract

207. Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, et al. Trends in mortality in bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgery. 2007 Oct;142(4):621-32. Abstract

208. DeMaria EJ. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 24;356(21):2176-83. Abstract

209. Favretti F, Segato G, Ashton D, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in 1,791 consecutive obese patients: 12-year results. Obes Surg. 2007 Feb;17(2):168-75. Abstract

210. Sjöström L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, et al; Swedish Obese Subjects Study Scientific Group. Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med. 2004 Dec 23;351(26):2683-93.Full text  Abstract

211. Frezza EE. Laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity: the future procedure of choice? Surg Today. 2007;37(4):275-81. Abstract

212. Brethauer SA, Hammel JP, Schauer PR. Systematic review of sleeve gastrectomy as staging and primary bariatric procedure. Obes Surg. 2010 Aug;20(8):1171-7. Abstract

213. Shi X, Karmali S, Sharma AM, et al. A review of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2010 Aug;20(8):1171-7. Abstract

214. Sarkhosh K, Birch DW, Shi X, et al. The impact of sleeve gastrectomy on hypertension: a systematic review. Obes Surg. 2012 May;22(5):832-7. Abstract

215. Frantzides CT, Alexander B, Frantzides AT. Laparoscopic Revision of Failed Bariatric Procedures. JSLS. 2019 Jan-Mar;23(1):e2018.00074.Full text  Abstract

216. Ritchie SA, Connell JM. The link between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 May;17(4):319-26. Abstract

217. Donahue RP, Abbott RD, Bloom E, et al. Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men. Lancet. 1987 Apr 11;1(8537):821-4. Abstract

218. Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, et al. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 1998 Dec 2;280(21):1843-8.Full text  Abstract

219. Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1990 Mar 29;322(13):882-9.Full text  Abstract

220. Romero-Corral A, Montori VM, Somers VK, et al. Association of bodyweight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of cohort studies. Lancet. 2006 Aug 19;368(9536):666-78. Abstract

221. Wessel TR, Arant CB, Olson MB, et al. Relationship of physical fitness vs body mass index with coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events in women. JAMA. 2004 Sep 8;292(10):1179-87.Full text  Abstract

222. Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, et al. The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology. 2007 May;132(6):2087-102. Abstract

223. Pi-Sunyer FX. Medical hazards of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 1;119(7):655-60. Abstract

224. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003 Jan 1;289(1):76-9.Full text  Abstract

225. Van Itallie TB. Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Dec;103(6):983-8. Abstract

226. Wilson JB, Pories WJ. Durable remission of diabetes after bariatric surgery: what is the underlying pathway? Insulin. 2010 Jan;5(1):46-55.

227. Fujioka S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, et al. Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism. 1987 Jan;36(1):54-9. Abstract

228. Williams DP, Going SB, Lohman TG, et al. Body fatness and risk for elevated blood pressure, total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in children and adolescents. Am J Public Health. 1992 Mar;82(3):358-63.Full text  Abstract

229. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;79(3):379-84.Full text  Abstract

230. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels: results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase I. JAMA. 1992 Mar 4;267(9):1213-20. Abstract

231. Rahmouni K, Correia ML, Haynes WG, et al. Obesity-associated hypertension: new insights into mechanisms. Hypertension. 2005 Jan;45(1):9-14.Full text  Abstract

232. Chavez-Tapia NC, Tellez-Avila FI, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, et al. Bariatric surgery for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in obese patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD007340.Full text  Abstract

233. Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004 Aug;4(8):579-91. Abstract

234. Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, et al. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 24;348(17):1625-38.Full text  Abstract

235. Giovannucci E, Michaud D. The role of obesity and related metabolic disturbances in cancers of the colon, prostate, and pancreas. Gastroenterology. 2007 May;132(6):2208-25. Abstract

236. Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, et al. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24;355(8):763-78.Full text  Abstract

237. Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, et al. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA. 2005 Apr 20;293(15):1861-7.Full text  Abstract

238. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, et al. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004 Mar 10;291(10):1238-45. Abstract

239. Calle EE, Thun MJ, Petrelli JM, et al. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 7;341(15):1097-105.Full text  Abstract

240. Yu E, Ley SH, Manson JE, et al. Weight history and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three prospective cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 2017 May 2;166(9):613-20. Abstract

241. Chen C, Ye Y, Zhang Y, et al. Weight change across adulthood in relation to all cause and cause specific mortality: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2019 Oct 16;367:l5584.Full text  Abstract

242. Voegeli D. Intertrigo: causes, prevention and management. Br J Nurs. 2020 Jun 25;29(12):S16-S22.Full text  Abstract

243. Padwal R, Brocks D, Sharma AM. A systematic review of drug absorption following bariatric surgery and its theoretical implications. Obes Rev. 2010 Jan;11(1):41-50. Abstract

244. Shekelle PG, Newberry S, Maglione M, et al. Bariatric surgery in women of reproductive age: special concerns for pregnancy. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2008 Nov;(169):1-51. Abstract

245. McMahon MM, Sarr MG, Clark MM, et al. Clinical management after bariatric surgery: value of a multidisciplinary approach. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Oct;81(10 suppl):S34-45. Abstract

246. Frantzides CT, Carlson MA, Schulte WJ. Laparoscopic gastric bypass in a porcine model. J Laparoendosc Surg. 1995 Apr;5(2):97-100. Abstract

247. Agarwal R, Hecht TE, Lazo MC, et al. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis for patients undergoing bariatric surgery: a systematic review. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2010 Mar 4;6(2):213-20. Abstract

248. Frantzides CT, Welle SN, Ruff TM, et al. Routine anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism prevention following laparoscopic gastric bypass. JSLS. 2012 Jan-Mar;16(1):33-7.Full text  Abstract

249. Rajasekhar A, Crowther M. Inferior vena caval filter insertion prior to bariatric surgery: a systematic review of the literature. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Jun;8(6):1266-70.Full text  Abstract

250. Frantzides CT, Carlson MA, Shostrom VK, et al. A survey of dumping symptomatology after gastric bypass with or without lesser omental transection. Obes Surg. 2011 Feb;21(2):186-93. Abstract

251. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Obesity Society. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129(25 suppl 2):S102-38.Full text  Abstract

252. Brown T, Avenell A, Edmunds LD, et al. Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults. Obes Rev. 2009 Nov;10(6):627-38. Abstract

253. Greaves C, Poltawski L, Garside R, et al. Understanding the challenge of weight loss maintenance: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research on weight loss maintenance. Health Psychol Rev. 2017 Jun;11(2):145-63. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer