Obesity in adults


Key articles

Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. September 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Full text  Abstract

Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Progress in pharmacotherapy for obesity. JAMA. 2021 Jul 13;326(2):129-30. Abstract

American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Metabolic and bariatric surgery fact sheet. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Obesity Society. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129(25 suppl 2):S102-38.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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70. Arif AA, Rohrer JE. Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. BMC Public Health. 2005 Dec 5;5:126.Full text  Abstract

71. Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption, dietary fat composition, and abdominal obesity in women: evidence for gene-environment interaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5381-6.Full text  Abstract

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80. Simon GE, Von Korff M, Saunders K, et al. Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;63(7):824-30.Full text  Abstract

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82. Van Horn L, Carson JA, Appel LJ, et al. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Nov 29;134(22):e505-29.Full text  Abstract

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86. Kwon J, Cameron AJ, Hammond D, et al. A multi-country survey of public support for food policies to promote healthy diets: findings from the International Food Policy Study. BMC Public Health. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):1205.Full text  Abstract

87. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Full text  Abstract

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89. World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist–hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation. 2011 [internet publication].Full text

90. Herbst KL, Kahn LA, Iker E, et al. Standard of care for lipedema in the United States. Phlebology. 2021 Dec;36(10):779-96.Full text  Abstract

91. Buso G, Depairon M, Tomson D, et al. Lipedema: a call to action! Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Oct;27(10):1567-76.Full text  Abstract

92. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):373-8.Full text  Abstract

93. Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203.Full text  Abstract

94. Brauer P, Gorber SC, Shaw E, et al. Recommendations for prevention of weight gain and use of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions to manage overweight and obesity in adults in primary care. CMAJ. 2015 Feb 17;187(3):184-95.Full text  Abstract

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100. Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 26;360(9):859-73.Full text  Abstract

101. Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al; Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) Group. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 17;359(3):229-41.Full text  Abstract

102. Hession M, Rolland C, Kulkarni U, et al. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obes Rev. 2009 Jan;10(1):36-50.Full text  Abstract

103. Thomas DE, Elliott E, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005105.Full text  Abstract

104. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2074-81.Full text  Abstract

105. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2082-90.Full text  Abstract

106. Gudzune KA, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, et al. Efficacy of commercial weight-loss programs: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Apr 7;162(7):501-12.Full text  Abstract

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108. Ge L, Sadeghirad B, Ball GDC, et al. Comparison of dietary macronutrient patterns of 14 popular named dietary programmes for weight and cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2020 Apr 1;369:m696.Full text  Abstract

109. Wu T, Gao X, Chen M, et al. Long-term effectiveness of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions for weight loss: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2009 May;10(3):313-23.Full text  Abstract

110. Semlitsch T, Stigler FL, Jeitler K, et al. Management of overweight and obesity in primary care - a systematic overview of international evidence-based guidelines. Obes Rev. 2019 Sep;20(9):1218-30.Full text  Abstract

111. Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018 Nov 20;320(19):2020-8. Abstract

112. Booth HP, Prevost TA, Wright AJ, et al. Effectiveness of behavioural weight loss interventions delivered in a primary care setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2014 Dec;31(6):643-53.Full text  Abstract

113. Södlerlund A, Fischer A, Johansson T. Physical activity, diet and behaviour modification in the treatment of overweight and obese adults: a systematic review. Perspect Public Health. 2009 May;129(3):132-42. Abstract

114. Curry SJ, Krist AH, Owens DK, et al; US Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018 Sep 18;320(11):1163-71.Full text  Abstract

115. Castelnuovo G, Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017;10:165-73.Full text  Abstract

116. Svetkey LP, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, et al; Weight Loss Maintenance Collaborative Research Group. Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1139-48.Full text  Abstract

117. Vanwormer JJ, French SA, Pereira MA, et al. The impact of regular self-weighing on weight management: a systematic literature review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Nov 4;5:54.Full text  Abstract

118. Manzoni GM, Pagnini F, Corti S, et al. Internet-based behavioral interventions for obesity: an updated systematic review. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2011 Mar 4;7:19-28.Full text  Abstract

119. Maon S, Edirippulige S, Ware R, et al. The use of web-based interventions to prevent excessive weight gain. J Telemed Telecare. 2012 Jan;18(1):37-41. Abstract

120. Crane MM, Lutes LD, Ward DS, et al. A randomized trial testing the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss among men with overweight and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec;23(12):2398-405.Full text  Abstract

121. Petkovic J, Duench S, Trawin J, et al. Behavioural interventions delivered through interactive social media for health behaviour change, health outcomes, and health equity in the adult population. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 31;5:CD012932.Full text  Abstract

122. Baer HJ, Rozenblum R, De La Cruz BA, et al. Effect of an online weight management program integrated with population health management on weight change: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020 Nov 3;324(17):1737-46.Full text  Abstract

123. Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Progress in pharmacotherapy for obesity. JAMA. 2021 Jul 13;326(2):129-30. Abstract

124. Rubino D, Abrahamsson N, Davies M, et al. Effect of continued weekly subcutaneous semaglutide vs placebo on weight loss maintenance in adults with overweight or obesity: the STEP 4 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1414-25.Full text  Abstract

125. Wadden TA, Bailey TS, Billings LK, et al. Effect of subcutaneous semaglutide vs placebo as an adjunct to intensive behavioral therapy on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity: the STEP 3 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1403-13.Full text  Abstract

126. Isaacs D, Prasad-Reddy L, Srivastava SB. Role of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in management of obesity. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016 Oct 1;73(19):1493-507. Abstract

127. Davies MJ, Bergenstal R, Bode B, et al. Efficacy of liraglutide for weight loss among patients with type 2 diabetes: the SCALE diabetes randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):687-99. Abstract

128. Pi-Sunyer X, Astrup A, Fujioka K, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of 3.0 mg of liraglutide in weight management. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):11-22.Full text  Abstract

129. Lundgren JR, Janus C, Jensen SBK, et al. Healthy weight loss maintenance with exercise, liraglutide, or both combined. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 6;384(18):1719-30.Full text  Abstract

130. Wadden TA, Hollander P, Klein S, et al. Weight maintenance and additional weight loss with liraglutide after low-calorie-diet-induced weight loss: the SCALE maintenance randomized study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Nov;37(11):1443-51. Abstract

131. Rubino DM, Greenway FL, Khalid U, et al. Effect of weekly subcutaneous semaglutide vs daily liraglutide on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity without diabetes: the STEP 8 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022 Jan 11;327(2):138-50. Abstract

132. Khera R, Murad MH, Chandar AK, et al. Association of pharmacological treatments for obesity with weight loss and adverse events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016 Jun 14;315(22):2424-34.Full text  Abstract

133. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Ferrari I, et al. Orlistat and L-carnitine compared to orlistat alone on insulin resistance in obese diabetic patients. Endocr J. 2010;57(9):777-86.Full text  Abstract

134. Greenway FL, Fujioka K, Plodkowski RA, et al. Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2010 Aug 21;376(9741):595-605. Abstract

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