Last reviewed: 2 Jul 2021
Last updated: 04 Mar 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • fever
  • pleuritic chest pain
  • tachypnea
  • foul-smelling breath
  • crepitations
  • frothy or purulent sputum
  • history of vomiting

Risk factors

  • chemoradiation for head and neck cancers
  • altered mental status
  • swallowing dysfunction
  • gastrointestinal disease
  • intubation or tracheostomy tube
  • older age
  • poor oral hygiene
  • feeding tube
  • recumbent position

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Michael J. Lanspa, MD

Adjunct Associate Professor

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Intermountain Medical Center

University of Utah

Salt Lake City

UT

Disclosures

MJL declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Michael J. Lanspa would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Richard Kanner and Dr Krishna Sundar, previous contributors to this topic. DK and KS declares that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Toby Maher, MB, PhD, MRCP

Consultant Respiratory Physician

Department of Respiratory Medicine

Royal Brompton Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

TM has received research funding from the Wellcome Trust and GlaxoSmithKline. He has acted as a paid consultant to GSK, Actelion, and Respironies.

Feras Hawari, MD

Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care

King Hussein Cancer Center

Amman

Jordan

Disclosures

FH declares that he has no competing interests.

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