Osteoarthritis

References

Key articles

Sharma L, Kapoor D, Issa S. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2006;18:147-156. Abstract

Hunter DJ, Felson DT. Osteoarthritis. BMJ. 2006;332:639-642. Abstract

Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, et al. The incidence and natural history of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:1500-1505. Abstract

Felson DT. Clinical practice. Osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:841-848. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Sharma L, Kapoor D, Issa S. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2006;18:147-156. Abstract

2. Hunter DJ, Felson DT. Osteoarthritis. BMJ. 2006;332:639-642. Abstract

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6. Schiphof D, Boers M, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Differences in descriptions of Kellgren and Lawrence grades of knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Jul;67(7):1034-6. Abstract

7. Kolasinski SL, Neogi T, Hochberg MC, et al. 2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Feb;72(2):149-62.Full text  Abstract

8. Cisternas MG, Murphy L, Sacks JJ, et al. Alternative methods for defining osteoarthritis and the impact on estimating prevalence in a US population-based survey. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016 May;68(5):574-80.Full text  Abstract

9. Zhang Y, Jordan JM. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Clin Geriatr Med. 2010 Aug;26(3):355-69.Full text  Abstract

10. Prieto-Alhambra D, Judge A, Javaid MK, et al. Incidence and risk factors for clinically diagnosed knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: influences of age, gender and osteoarthritis affecting other joints. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Sep;73(9):1659-64.Full text  Abstract

11. Wilson MG, Michel CJ Jr, Ilstrup DM, et al. Idiopathic symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: a population-based incidence study. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990; 65:1214-1221. Abstract

12. Oliveria SA, Felson DT, Reed JI, et al. Incidence of symptomatic hand, hip, and knee osteoarthritis among patients in a health maintenance organization. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:1134-1141. Abstract

13. Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, et al. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30:914-918. Abstract

14. Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, et al. The incidence and natural history of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:1500-1505. Abstract

15. Kim C, Linsenmeyer KD, Vlad SC, et al. Prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis in an urban United States community: the Framingham osteoarthritis study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Nov;66(11):3013-7.Full text  Abstract

16. Nevitt MC, Xu L, Zhang Y, et al. Very low prevalence of hip osteoarthritis among Chinese elderly in Beijing, China, compared with whites in the United States: the Beijing osteoarthritis study. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:1773-1779. Abstract

17. Zhang Y, Xu L, Nevitt MC, et al. Comparison of the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis between the elderly Chinese population in Beijing and whites in the United States: the Beijing Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:2065-2071. Abstract

18. Glyn-Jones S, Palmer AJ, Agricola R, et al. Osteoarthritis. Lancet. 2015 Jul 25;386(9991):376-87. Abstract

19. Reyes C, Leyland KM, Peat G, et al. Association between overweight and obesity and risk of clinically diagnosed knee, hip, and hand osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Aug;68(8):1869-75.Full text  Abstract

20. Silverwood V, Blagojevic-Bucknall M, Jinks C, et al. Current evidence on risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Apr;23(4):507-15.Full text  Abstract

21. Spector TD, Cicuttini F, Baker J, et al. Genetic influences on osteoarthritis in women: a twin study. BMJ. 1996;312:940-943. Abstract

22. Valdes AM, Spector TD. Genetic epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011 Jan;7(1):23-32. Abstract

23. Cinque ME, Dornan GJ, Chahla J, et al. High rates of osteoarthritis develop after anterior cruciate ligament surgery: an analysis of 4108 patients. Am J Sports Med. 2018 Jul;46(8):2011-19. Abstract

24. Chen T, Wang S, Li Y, et al. Radiographic osteoarthritis prevalence over ten years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Int J Sports Med. 2019 Oct;40(11):683-95.Full text  Abstract

25. Felson DT. Clinical practice. Osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:841-848. Abstract

26. Heinemeier KM, Schjerling P, Heinemeier J, et al. Radiocarbon dating reveals minimal collagen turnover in both healthy and osteoarthritic human cartilage. Sci Transl Med. 2016 Jul 6;8(346):346ra90. Abstract

27. Troeberg L, Nagase H. Proteases involved in cartilage matrix degradation in osteoarthritis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Jan;1824(1):133-45.Full text  Abstract

28. Sohn DH, Sokolove J, Sharpe O, et al. Plasma proteins present in osteoarthritic synovial fluid can stimulate cytokine production via Toll-like receptor 4. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012 Jan 8;14(1):R7.Full text  Abstract

29. Li T, Chubinskaya S, Esposito A, et al. TGF-β type 2 receptor-mediated modulation of the IL-36 family can be therapeutically targeted in osteoarthritis. Sci Transl Med. 2019 May 8;11(491):eaan2585.Full text  Abstract

30. Loeser RF, Collins JA, Diekman BO. Ageing and the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 Jul;12(7):412-20.Full text  Abstract

31. Coryell PR, Diekman BO, Loeser RF. Mechanisms and therapeutic implications of cellular senescence in osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2021 Jan;17(1):47-57. Abstract

32. Zheng L, Zhang Z, Sheng P, et al. The role of metabolism in chondrocyte dysfunction and the progression of osteoarthritis. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Mar;66:101249.Full text  Abstract

33. Sharma L, Song J, Felson DT, et al. The role of knee alignment in disease progression and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis. JAMA. 2001;286:188-195. Abstract

34. Hart DJ, Doyle DV, Spector TD. Incidence and risk factors for radiographic knee osteoarthritis in middle-aged women: the Chingford Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42:17-24. Abstract

35. Kallman DA, Wigley FM, Scott WW Jr, et al. The longitudinal course of hand osteoarthritis in a male population. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33:1323-1331. Abstract

36. Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, et al. Risk factors for incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Apr;40(4):728-33.Full text  Abstract

37. Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A, et al. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:18-24. Abstract

38. Francomano CA, Liberfarb RM, Hirose T, et al. The Stickler syndrome: evidence for close linkage to the structural gene for type II collagen. Genomics. 1987;1:293-296. Abstract

39. Kannu P, Bateman JF, Randle S, et al. Premature arthritis is a distinct type II collagen phenotype. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 May;62(5):1421-30.Full text  Abstract

40. Kannu P, Bateman J, Savarirayan R. Clinical phenotypes associated with type II collagen mutations. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Feb;48(2):E38-43. Abstract

41. Zhang W, Doherty M, Leeb BF, et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis of hand osteoarthritis: report of a task force of ESCISIT. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Jan;68(1):8-17.Full text  Abstract

42. van Tunen JAC, Dell'Isola A, Juhl C, et al. Association of malalignment, muscular dysfunction, proprioception, laxity and abnormal joint loading with tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis - a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Jul 28;19(1):273.Full text  Abstract

43. Chang A, Hayes K, Dunlop D, et al. Thrust during ambulation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3897-3903. Abstract

44. Cooper C. Occupational activity and the risk of osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol Suppl. 1995;22(Suppl 43):10-12. Abstract

45. Maetzel A, Makela M, Hawker G, et al. Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee and mechanical occupational exposure - a systematic overview of the evidence. J Rheumatol. 1997;24:1599-1607. Abstract

46. Croft P, Cooper C, Wickham C, et al. Osteoarthritis of the hip and occupational activity. Scand J Work Env Health. 1992;18:59-63. Abstract

47. Driban JB, Hootman JM, Sitler MR, et al. Is participation in certain sports associated with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review. J Athl Train. 2017 Jun 2;52(6):497-506.Full text  Abstract

48. Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Zhang Y, et al. Bone mineral density and knee osteoarthritis in elderly men and women. The Framingham Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1993;36:1671-1680. Abstract

49. Bergink AP, Rivadeneira F, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, et al. Are bone mineral density and fractures related to the incidence and progression of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, and hand in elderly men and women? The Rotterdam study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Mar;71(3):361-9. Abstract

50. Hartley A, Hardcastle SA, Frysz M, et al. Increased development of radiographic hip osteoarthritis in individuals with high bone mass: a prospective cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2021 Jan 6;23(1):4.Full text  Abstract

51. Brandt KD, Mazzuca SA, Katz BP, et al. Effects of doxycycline on progression of osteoarthritis: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:2015-2025. Abstract

52. da Costa BR, Nüesch E, Reichenbach S, et al. Doxycycline for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;(11):CD007323.Full text  Abstract

53. Lee YH, Woo JH, Choi SJ, et al. Effect of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on the osteoarthritis progression: a meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int. 2010 Jan;30(3):357-63. Abstract

54. Gallagher B, Tjoumakaris FP, Harwood MI, et al. Chondroprotection and the prevention of osteoarthritis progression of the knee: a systematic review of treatment agents. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):734-44. Abstract

55. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Osteoarthritis: care and management. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

56. Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hand. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33:1601-1610. Abstract

57. Peat G, Duncan RC, Wood LR, et al. Clinical features of symptomatic patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012 Mar 14;14(2):R63.Full text  Abstract

58. Sakellariou G, Conaghan PG, Zhang W, et al. EULAR recommendations for the use of imaging in the clinical management of peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Sep;76(9):1484-94.Full text  Abstract

59. Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34:505-514. Abstract

60. Fox MG, Chang EY, Amini B, et al; Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging. ACR appropriateness criteria®: chronic knee pain. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Nov;15(11s):S302-12.Full text  Abstract

61. Hayashi D, Roemer FW, Guermazi A. Imaging for osteoarthritis. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2016 Jun;59(3):161-9.Full text  Abstract

62. Wesseling J, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Kloppenburg M, et al. Worsening of pain and function over 5 years in individuals with 'early' OA is related to structural damage: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative and CHECK (Cohort Hip & Cohort Knee) study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:347-353. Abstract

63. Yusuf E, Kortekaas MC, Watt I, et al. Do knee abnormalities visualised on MRI explain knee pain in knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Jan;70(1):60-7. Abstract

64. Foong YC, Khan HI, Blizzard L, et al. The clinical significance, natural history and predictors of bone marrow lesion change over eight years. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014 Jul 14;16(4):R149.Full text  Abstract

65. Felson DT, McLaughlin S, Goggins J, et al. Bone marrow edema and its relation to progression to knee osteoarthritis. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:330-336. Abstract

66. Imhof H, Breitenseher M, Trattnig S, et al. Imaging of avascular necrosis of bone. Eur Radiol. 1997;7:180-186. Abstract

67. Zhang W, Robertson J, Jones AC, et al. The placebo effect and its determinants in osteoarthritis: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:1716-1723. Abstract

68. Bannuru RR, McAlindon TE, Sullivan MC, et al. Effectiveness and implications of alternative placebo treatments: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of osteoarthritis trials. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163:365-372. Abstract

69. Bricca A, Juhl CB, Steultjens M, et al. Impact of exercise on articular cartilage in people at risk of, or with established, knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med. 2019 Aug;53(15):940-7.Full text  Abstract

70. Gohir SA, Eek F, Kelly A, et al. Effectiveness of internet-based exercises aimed at treating knee osteoarthritis: the iBEAT-OA randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Feb 1;4(2):e210012.Full text  Abstract

71. Dong R, Wu Y, Xu S, et al. Is aquatic exercise more effective than land-based exercise for knee osteoarthritis? Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Dec;97(52):e13823.Full text  Abstract

72. Jenkinson CM, Doherty M, Avery AJ, et al. Effects of dietary intervention and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain and function in overweight people with knee pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009;339:b3170. Abstract

73. Brosseau L, Wells GA, Kenny GP, et al. The implementation of a community-based aerobic walking program for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis: a knowledge translation randomized controlled trial: part II: clinical outcomes. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1073.Full text  Abstract

74. Tse MM, Vong SK, Tang SK. Motivational interviewing and exercise programme for community-dwelling older persons with chronic pain: a randomised controlled study. J Clin Nurs. 2013;22:1843-1856. Abstract

75. Brosseau L, Wells GA, Pugh AG, et al. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic exercise in the management of hip osteoarthritis. Clin Rehabil. 2016 Oct;30(10):935-46. Abstract

76. Jansen MJ, Viechtbauer W, Lenssen AF, et al. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2011;57:11-20. Abstract

77. Dziedzic K, Nicholls E, Hill S, et al. Self-management approaches for osteoarthritis in the hand: a 2x2 factorial randomised trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:108-118.Full text  Abstract

78. Anwer S, Alghadir A, Zafar H, et al. Effects of orthopaedic manual therapy in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiotherapy. 2018 Sep;104(3):264-76. Abstract

79. Fransen M, McConnell S, Harmer AR, et al. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(1):CD004376.Full text  Abstract

80. Fransen M, McConnell S, Hernandez-Molina G, et al. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the hip. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD007912.Full text  Abstract

81. Hall M, Castelein B, Wittoek R, et al. Diet-induced weight loss alone or combined with exercise in overweight or obese people with knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Apr;48(5):765-77. Abstract

82. Messier SP, Mihalko SL, Legault C, et al. Effects of intensive diet and exercise on knee joint loads, inflammation, and clinical outcomes among overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis: the IDEA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310:1263-1273.Full text  Abstract

83. Christensen R, Henriksen M, Leeds AR, et al. Effect of weight maintenance on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis in obese patients: a twelve-month randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015;67:640-650.Full text  Abstract

84. Hislop AC, Collins NJ, Tucker K, et al. Does adding hip exercises to quadriceps exercises result in superior outcomes in pain, function and quality of life for people with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Mar;54(5):263-71.Full text  Abstract

85. Fransen M, McConnell S, Hernandez-Molina G, et al. Does land-based exercise reduce pain and disability associated with hip osteoarthritis? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18:613-620. Abstract

86. Bennell KL, Egerton T, Martin J, et al. Effect of physical therapy on pain and function in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311:1987-1997.Full text  Abstract

87. Duivenvoorden T, Brouwer RW, van Raaij TM, et al. Braces and orthoses for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(3):CD004020.Full text  Abstract

88. Moyer RF, Birmingham TB, Bryant DM, et al. Valgus bracing for knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015;67:493-501. Abstract

89. Gohal C, Shanmugaraj A, Tate P, et al. Effectiveness of valgus offloading knee braces in the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Sports Health. 2018 Nov/Dec;10(6):500-14. Abstract

90. Callaghan MJ, Parkes MJ, Hutchinson CE, et al. A randomised trial of a brace for patellofemoral osteoarthritis targeting knee pain and bone marrow lesions. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1164-1170.Full text  Abstract

91. Lu Z, Li X, Chen R, et al. Kinesio taping improves pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg. 2018 Nov;59:27-35.Full text  Abstract

92. Rahlf AL, Braumann KM, Zech A. Kinesio taping improves perceptions of pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled trial. J Sport Rehabil. 2019 Jul 1;28(5):481-7.Full text  Abstract

93. Parkes MJ, Maricar N, Lunt M, et al. Lateral wedge insoles as a conservative treatment for pain in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;310:722-730.Full text  Abstract

94. Hinman RS, Wrigley TV, Metcalf BR, et al. Unloading shoes for self-management of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:381-389. Abstract

95. Buhler M, Chapple CM, Stebbings S, et al. Effectiveness of splinting for pain and function in people with thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2019 Apr;27(4):547-59.Full text  Abstract

96. Honvo G, Reginster JY, Rabenda V, et al. Safety of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis: outcomes of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drugs Aging. 2019 Apr;36(suppl 1):65-99.Full text  Abstract

97. Gregori D, Giacovelli G, Minto C, et al. Association of pharmacological treatments with long-term pain control in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2018 Dec 25;320(24):2564-79.Full text  Abstract

98. Simental-Mendía M, Sánchez-García A, Vilchez-Cavazos F, et al. Effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Rheumatol Int. 2018 Aug;38(8):1413-28. Abstract

99. Singh JA, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R, et al. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(1):CD005614.Full text  Abstract

100. Ogata T, Ideno Y, Akai M, et al. Effects of glucosamine in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Sep;37(9):2479-87.Full text  Abstract

101. Knapik JJ, Pope R, Hoedebecke SS, et al. Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on osteoarthritis-related pain and joint structural changes: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Spec Oper Med. Spring 2019;19(1):113-24. Abstract

102. Bruyère O, Honvo G, Veronese N, et al. An updated algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO). Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Dec;49(3):337-50.Full text  Abstract

103. Suarez-Almazor ME, Looney C, Liu Y, et al. A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee: effects of patient-provider communication. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62:1229-1236. Abstract

104. Kwon YD, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:1331-1337.Full text  Abstract

105. Cao L, Zhang XL, Gao YS, et al. Needle acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee. A systematic review and updated meta-analysis. Saudi Med J. 2012;33:526-532. Abstract

106. Li J, Li YX, Luo LJ, et al. The effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis: an overview of systematic reviews. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jul;98(28):e16301.Full text  Abstract

107. Manheimer E, Cheng K, Wieland LS, et al. Acupuncture for hip osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 5;(5):CD013010.Full text  Abstract

108. Tu JF, Yang JW, Shi GX, et al. Efficacy of intensive acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021 Mar;73(3):448-58. Abstract

109. Rutjes AW, Nüesch E, Sterchi R, et al. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD002823.Full text  Abstract

110. Chen LX, Zhou ZR, Li YL, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from randomized-controlled trials. Clin J Pain. 2016;32:146-154. Abstract

111. Stewart M, Cibere J, Sayre EC, et al. Efficacy of commonly prescribed analgesics in the management of osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int. 2018 Nov;38(11):1985-97. Abstract

112. Zeng C, Wei J, Persson MS, et al. Relative efficacy and safety of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Br J Sports Med. 2018 May;52(10):642-50.Full text  Abstract

113. Sardana V, Burzynski J, Zalzal P. Safety and efficacy of topical ketoprofen in transfersome gel in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Musculoskeletal Care. 2017 Jun;15(2):114-21. Abstract

114. Honvo G, Leclercq V, Geerinck A, et al. Safety of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in osteoarthritis: outcomes of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drugs Aging. 2019 Apr;36(suppl 1):45-64.Full text  Abstract

115. Cameron M, Chrubasik S. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD010538.Full text  Abstract

116. Persson MSM, Stocks J, Walsh DA, et al. The relative efficacy of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and capsaicin in osteoarthritis: a network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2018 Dec;26(12):1575-82.Full text  Abstract

117. Machado GC, Maher CG, Ferreira PH, et al. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials. BMJ. 2015;350:h1225.Full text  Abstract

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119. Leopoldino AO, Machado GC, Ferreira PH, et al. Paracetamol versus placebo for knee and hip osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 25;(2):CD013273.Full text  Abstract

120. Bannuru RR, Schmid CH, Kent DM, et al. Comparative effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162:46-54. Abstract

121. Machado GC, Abdel-Shaheed C, Underwood M, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for musculoskeletal pain. BMJ. 2021 Jan 29;372:n104. Abstract

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124. Wang X, Tian HJ, Yang HK, et al. Meta-analysis: cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are no better than nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with proton pump inhibitors in regard to gastrointestinal adverse events in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23:876-880. Abstract

125. Curtis E, Fuggle N, Shaw S, et al. Safety of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in osteoarthritis: outcomes of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drugs Aging. 2019 Apr;36(suppl 1):25-44.Full text  Abstract

126. Cryer BL, Sostek MB, Fort JG, et al. A fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium has comparable upper gastrointestinal tolerability to celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: results from two randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials. Ann Med. 2011;43:594-605. Abstract

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129. Elliott SL, Yeomans ND, Buchanan RR, et al. Efficacy of 12 months' misoprostol as prophylaxis against NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. A placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Rheumatol. 1994;23:171-176. Abstract

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131. Atiquzzaman M, Karim ME, Kopec J, et al. Role of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular diseases: a longitudinal study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Nov;71(11):1835-43. Abstract

132. Trelle S, Reichenbach S, Wandel S, et al. Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:c7086.Full text  Abstract

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