Discogenic low back pain

References

Key articles

Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Farfan HF. Instability of the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 May;(165):110-23. Abstract

Glassman SD, Bridewell K, Dimar JR, et al. The impact of positive sagittal balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine. 2005 Sep 15;30(18):2024-9. Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

Modic MT, Steinberg PM, Ross JS, et al. Degenerative disk disease: assessment of changes in vertebral body marrow with MR imaging. Radiology. 1988 Jan;166(1 Pt 1):193-9. Abstract

Pfirrmann CW, Metzdorf A, Zanetti M, et al. Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Sep 1;26(17):1873-8. Abstract

Chou R, Huffman LH. Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):505-14.Full text  Abstract

Fritzell P, Hägg O, Wessberg P, et al. Chronic low back pain and fusion: a comparison of three surgical techniques: a prospective randomized study from the Swedish lumbar spine study group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002 Jun 1;27(11):1131-41. Abstract

Reference articles

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72. Modic MT, Steinberg PM, Ross JS, et al. Degenerative disk disease: assessment of changes in vertebral body marrow with MR imaging. Radiology. 1988 Jan;166(1 Pt 1):193-9. Abstract

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121. Saper RB, Lemaster C, Delitto A, et al. Yoga, physical therapy, or education for chronic low back pain: a randomized noninferiority trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 18;167(2):85-94. Abstract

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124. Benoist M, Boulu P, Hayem G. Epidural steroid injections in the management of low-back pain with radiculopathy: an update of their efficacy and safety. Eur Spine J. 2012 Feb;21(2):204-13. Abstract

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