Key articles

Rooks DS. Fibromyalgia treatment update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2007 Mar;19(2):111-7. Abstract

Goldenberg DL, Burckhardt C, Crofford L. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome. JAMA. 2004 Nov 17;292(19):2388-95.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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28. Kim SH, Kim DH, Oh DH, et al. Characteristic electron microscopic findings in the skin of patients with fibromyalgia - preliminary study. Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Mar;27(3):407-11. Abstract

29. Oaklander AL, Fields HL. Is reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome type I a small-fiber neuropathy? Ann Neurol. 2009 Jun;65(6):629-38. Abstract

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45. Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014 Apr 16;311(15):1547-55. Abstract

46. Clauw DJ. Pain management: Fibromyalgia drugs are 'as good as it gets' in chronic pain. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010 Aug;6(8):439-40. Abstract

47. Welsch P, Üçeyler N, Klose P, et al. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Feb 28;(2):CD010292.Full text  Abstract

48. Häuser W, Bernardy K, Uçeyler N, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with antidepressants: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009 Jan 14;301(2):198-209.Full text  Abstract

49. Arnold LM, Chatamra K, Hirsch I, et al. Safety and efficacy of esreboxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2010 Aug;32(9):1618-32. Abstract

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53. O'Malley PG, Balden E, Tomkins G, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia with antidepressants. J Gen Intern Med. 2000 Sep;15(9):659-66.Full text  Abstract

54. Nishishinya B, Urrútia G, Walitt B, et al. Amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of its efficacy. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Dec;47(12):1741-6.Full text  Abstract

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64. Arnold LM, Goldenberg DL, Stanford SB, et al. Gabapentin in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Apr;56(4):1336-44.Full text  Abstract

65. Crofford LJ, Rowbotham MC, Mease PJ, et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Apr;52(4):1264-73.Full text  Abstract

66. Derry S, Cording M, Wiffen PJ, et al. Pregabalin for pain in fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 29;(9):CD011790.Full text  Abstract

67. Häuser W, Bernardy K, Uçeyler N, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with gabapentin and pregabalin: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain. 2009 Sep;145(1-2):69-81. Abstract

68. Derry S, Wiffen PJ, Häuser W, et al. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 27;(3):CD012332.Full text  Abstract

69. Gaskell H, Moore RA, Derry S, et al. Oxycodone for pain in fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 1;(9):CD012329.Full text  Abstract

70. da Rocha AP, Mizzaci CC, Nunes Pinto AC, et al. Tramadol for management of fibromyalgia pain and symptoms: systematic review. Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Mar;74(3):e13455. Abstract

71. Macfarlane GJ, Kronisch C, Dean LE, et al. EULAR revised recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Feb;76(2):318-28.Full text  Abstract

72. Busch AJ, Webber SC, Richards RS, et al. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 20;2013(12):CD010884.Full text  Abstract

73. Bernardy K, Klose P, Busch AJ, et al. Cognitive behavioural therapies for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 10;2013(9):CD009796.Full text  Abstract

74. Bidonde J, Busch AJ, Schachter CL, et al. Mixed exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 24;(5):CD013340.Full text  Abstract

75. Williams DA, Kuper D, Segar M, et al. Internet-enhanced management of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2010 Dec;151(3):694-702. Abstract

76. Luciano JV, Sabes-Figuera R, Cardeñosa E, et al. Cost-utility of a psychoeducational intervention in fibromyalgia patients compared with usual care: an economic evaluation alongside a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2013 Aug;29(8):702-11. Abstract

77. Radvanski DC, Vaschillo EG, Vaschillo B, et al. A pilot study of the efficacy of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia. App Psychophys Biofeedback. 2007 Mar;32(1):1-10. Abstract

78. Babu AS, Mathew E, Danda D, et al. Management of patients with fibromyalgia using biofeedback: a randomized control trial. Indian J Med Sci. 2007 Aug;61(8):455-61. Abstract

79. Wang C, Schmid CH, Rones R, et al. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 19;363(8):743-54.Full text  Abstract

80. Barker AL, Talevski J, Morello RT, et al. Effectiveness of aquatic exercise for musculoskeletal conditions: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Sep;95(9):1776-86. Abstract

81. Johnson MI, Claydon LS, Herbison GP, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 9;(10):CD012172.Full text  Abstract

82. Mhalla A, Baudic S, Ciampi de Andrade D, et al. Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia. Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1478-85. Abstract

83. O'Connell NE, Marston L, Spencer S, et al. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Apr 13;(4):CD008208.Full text  Abstract

84. Fagerlund AJ, Hansen OA, Aslaksen PM. Transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2015 Jan;156(1):62-71. Abstract

85. Schneider M, Vernon H, Ko G, et al. Chiropractic management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Jan;32(1):25-40. Abstract

86. Bronfort GH, Haas M, Evans R, et al. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report. Chiroprac Osteopat. 2010 Feb 25;18:3.Full text  Abstract

87. Kalichman L. Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms. Rheumatol Int. 2010 Jul;30(9):1151-7. Abstract

88. Ernst E. Chiropractic treatment for fibromyalgia: a systematic review. Clin Rheumatol. 2009 Oct;28(10):1175-8. Abstract

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90. Assefi NP, Sherman KJ, Jacobsen C, et al. A randomized clinical trial of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jul 5;143(1):10-9. Abstract

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92. Rooks DS. Fibromyalgia treatment update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2007 Mar;19(2):111-7. Abstract

93. Martin-Sanchez E, Torralba E, Díaz-Domínguez E, et al. Efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of fibromyalgia: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Open Rheumatol J. 2009 Jun 16;3:25-9. Abstract

94. Cao H, Liu J, Lewith GT. Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Apr;16(4):397-409. Abstract

95. Perry R, Terry R, Ernst E. A systematic review of homoeopathy for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol. 2010 May;29(5):457-64. Abstract

96. Porter NS, Jason LA, Boulton A, et al. Alternative medical interventions used in the treatment and management of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Mar;16(3):235-49. Abstract

97. Russell IJ, Holman AJ, Swick TJ, et al. Sodium oxybate reduces pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance and improves functionality in fibromyalgia: results from a 14-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2011 May;152(5):1007-17. Abstract

98. Russell IJ, Bennett RM, Michalek JE. Sodium oxybate relieves pain and improves sleep in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial. Paper presented at: 69th Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology. 2005. San Diego, CA. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Sep;52(9 Suppl):S31-741. Abstract

99. Younger J, Mackey S. Fibromyalgia symptoms are reduced by low-dose naltrexone: a pilot study. Pain Med. 2009 May-Jun;10(4):663-72.Full text  Abstract

100. Lynch ME, Campbell F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Nov;72(5):735-44.Full text  Abstract

101. Walitt B, Klose P, Fitzcharles MA, et al. Cannabinoids for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 18;(7):CD011694.Full text  Abstract

102. Cohen SP, Verdolin MH, Chang AS, et al. The intravenous ketamine test predicts subsequent response to an oral dextromethorphan treatment regimen in fibromyalgia patients. J Pain. 2006 Jun;7(6):391-8. Abstract

103. Olivan-Blázquez B, Herrera-Mercadal P, Puebla-Guedea M, et al. Efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. Pain. 2014 Dec;155(12):2517-25. Abstract

104. Chen KW, Hassett AL, Hou F, et al. A pilot study of external qigong therapy for patients with fibromyalgia. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):851-6. Abstract

105. Langhorst J, Musial F, Klose P, et al. Efficacy of hydrotherapy in fibromyalgia syndrome - a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009 Sep;48(9):1155-9. Abstract

106. Brosseau L, Wells GA, Tugwell P, et al. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for aerobic fitness exercises in the management of fibromyalgia: part 1. Phys Ther. 2008 Jul;88(7):857-71.Full text  Abstract

107. Brosseau L, Wells GA, Tugwell P, et al. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for strengthening exercises in the management of fibromyalgia: part 2. Phys Ther. 2008 Jul;88(7):873-86.Full text  Abstract

108. Goldenberg DL, Burckhardt C, Crofford L. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome. JAMA. 2004 Nov 17;292(19):2388-95.Full text  Abstract

109. Silber MH. Chronic insomnia. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 25;353(8):803-10. Abstract

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