Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

References

Key articles

Carpenter S, Karpati G. Pathology of skeletal muscle. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA; 2001.

Oldroyd A, Lilleker J, Chinoy H. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: a guide to subtypes, diagnostic approach and treatment. Clin Med (Lond). 2017 Jul;17(4):322-8.Full text  Abstract

Dalakas MC. Inflammatory disorders of muscle: progress in polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004;17:561-567. Abstract

Greenberg SA. Inflammatory myopathies: disease mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:516-523. Abstract

Schmidt J. Current classification and management of inflammatory myopathies. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2018;5(2):109-29.Full text  Abstract

Feasby T, Banwell B, Benstead T, et al. Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for neurologic conditions. Transfus Med Rev. 2007;21(2 suppl 1):S57-S107. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Carpenter S, Karpati G. Pathology of skeletal muscle. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA; 2001.

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4. Lundberg IE, Tjärnlund A, Bottai M, et al. 2017 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Dec;76(12):1955-64.Full text  Abstract

5. Madan V, Chinoy H, Griffiths CE, et al. Defining cancer risk in dermatomyositis: part I. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009 Jun;34(4):451-5. Abstract

6. Engel A, Franzini-Armstrong C. Myology: basic and clinical. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Publishing Division; 2004.

7. Buchbinder R, Forbes A, Hall S, et al. Incidence of malignant disease in biopsy-proven inflammatory myopathy: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jun 19;134(12):1087-95. Abstract

8. Wakata N, Kurihara T, Saito E, et al. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis associated with malignancy: a 30-year retrospective study. Int J Dermatol. 2002 Nov;41(11):729-34. Abstract

9. Hill CL, Zhang Y, Sigurgeirsson B, et al. Frequency of specific cancer types in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a population-based study. Lancet. 2001 Jan 13;357(9250):96-100. Abstract

10. Callen JP. Relation between dermatomyositis and polymyositis and cancer. Lancet. 2001 Jan 13;357(9250):85-6. Abstract

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12. Meyer A, Meyer N, Schaeffer M, et al. Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory myopathies: a systematic review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Jan;54(1):50-63.Full text  Abstract

13. Oldroyd A, Lilleker J, Chinoy H. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: a guide to subtypes, diagnostic approach and treatment. Clin Med (Lond). 2017 Jul;17(4):322-8.Full text  Abstract

14. Furst DE, Amato AA, Iorga ŞR, et al. Epidemiology of adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in a U.S. managed care plan. Muscle Nerve. 2012 May;45(5):676-83. Abstract

15. Oddis CV, Conte CG, Steen VD, et al. Incidence of polymyositis-dermatomyositis: a 20-year study of hospital diagnosed cases in Allegheny County, PA 1963-1982. J Rheumatol. 1990;17:1329-1334. Abstract

16. Bernatsky S, Joseph L, Pineau CA, et al. Estimating the prevalence of polymyositis and dermatomyositis from administrative data: age, sex and regional differences. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Jul;68(7):1192-6. Abstract

17. Badrising UA, Maat-Schieman M, van Duinen SG, et al. Epidemiology of inclusion body myositis in the Netherlands: a nationwide study. Neurology. 2000 Nov 14;55(9):1385-7. Abstract

18. Molberg Ø, Dobloug C. Epidemiology of sporadic inclusion body myositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2016 Nov;28(6):657-60. Abstract

19. Dalakas MC. Inflammatory, immune, and viral aspects of inclusion-body myositis. Neurology. 2006;66(2 suppl 1):S33-S38. Abstract

20. Chou SM. Inclusion body myositis: a chronic persistent mumps myositis? Hum Pathol. 1986;17:765-777. Abstract

21. Dalakas MC, Pezeshkpour GH, Gravell M, et al. Polymyositis associated with AIDS retrovirus. JAMA. 1986 Nov 7;256(17):2381-3. Abstract

22. Dalakas MC, Rakocevic G, Shatunov A, et al. Inclusion body myositis with human immunodeficiency virus infection: four cases with clonal expansion of viral-specific T cells. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:466-475. Abstract

23. Christopher-Stine L, Plotz PH. Myositis: an update on pathogenesis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004 Nov;16(6):700-6. Abstract

24. Okada S, Weatherhead E, Targoff IN, et al. Global surface ultraviolet radiation intensity may modulate the clinical and immunologic expression of autoimmune muscle disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Aug;48(8):2285-93.Full text  Abstract

25. Seidler AM, Gottlieb AB. Dermatomyositis induced by drug therapy: a review of case reports. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:872-880. Abstract

26. Fathi M, Dastmalchi M, Rasmussen E, et al. Interstitial lung disease, a common manifestation of newly diagnosed polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Mar;63(3):297-301.Full text  Abstract

27. Schiffenbauer A, Faghihi-Kashani S, O'Hanlon TP, et al. The effect of cigarette smoking on the clinical and serological phenotypes of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Dec;48(3):504-12.Full text  Abstract

28. Banker BQ. Dermatomyostis of childhood, ultrastructural alterations of muscle and intramuscular blood vessels. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1975;34:46-75. Abstract

29. Carpenter S, Karpati G, Rothman S, et al. The childhood type of dermatomyositis. Neurology. 1976;26:952-962. Abstract

30. Dalakas MC. Inflammatory disorders of muscle: progress in polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004;17:561-567. Abstract

31. Dalakas MC. Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion-body myositis. N Engl J Med. 1991 Nov 21;325(21):1487-98. Abstract

32. Choi YC, Dalakas MC. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the muscle of patients with inflammatory myopathies. Neurology. 2000;54:65-71. Abstract

33. Lindvall B, Dahlbom K, Henriksson KG, et al. The expression of adhesion molecules in muscle biopsies: the LFA-1/VLA-4 ratio in polymyositis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;107:134-141. Abstract

34. Greenberg SA. Proposed immunologic models of the inflammatory myopathies and potential therapeutic implications. Neurology. 2007;69:2008-2019. Abstract

35. Greenberg SA. Inflammatory myopathies: disease mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:516-523. Abstract

36. Greenberg SA. Dermatomyositis and type 1 interferons. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2010;12:198-203. Abstract

37. Miller FW, Chen W, O'Hanlon TP, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes. Genes Immun. 2015 Oct;16(7):470-80.Full text  Abstract

38. Miller FW, Lamb JA, Schmidt J, et al. Risk factors and disease mechanisms in myositis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2018 Apr 20;14(5):255-68.Full text  Abstract

39. Medsger TA, Dawson WN Jr, Masi AT. The epidemiology of polymyositis. Am J Med. 1970;48:715-723. Abstract

40. Christopher-Stine L, Plotz PH. Adult inflammatory myopathies. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2004;18:331-344. Abstract

41. Dorph C, Lundberg IE. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies - myositis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2002;16:817-832. Abstract

42. Lotz BP, Engel AG, Nishino H, et al. Inclusion body myositis. Observations in 40 patients. Brain. 1989;112:727-747. Abstract

43. Reed AM, Ytterberg SR. Genetic and environmental risk factors for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Nov;28(4):891-916. Abstract

44. Caughey GE, Gabb GM, Ronson S, et al. Association of statin exposure with histologically confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myositis in an Australian population. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Sep 1;178(9):1224-9.Full text  Abstract

45. Landon-Cardinal O, Gallay L, Dubourg O, et al. Expanding the spectrum of HIV-associated myopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2019 Nov;90(11):1296-8. Abstract

46. Gan L, Miller FW. State of the art: what we know about infectious agents and myositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011 Nov;23(6):585-94. Abstract

47. Martin F, Taylor GP, Jacobson S. Inflammatory manifestations of HTLV-1 and their therapeutic options. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014 Nov;10(11):1531-46. Abstract

48. Lyon MG, Bloch DA, Hollak B, et al. Predisposing factors in polymyositis-dermatomyositis: results of a nationwide survey. J Rheumatol. 1989;16:1218-1224. Abstract

49. Albert JM, Ott HJ. Calcifying dermatomyositis following antitentanus vaccination. Arch Int Med. 1983 Jul;143(7):1457-8. Abstract

50. Kass E, Straume S, Mellbye OJ, et al. Dermatomyositis associated with BCG vaccination. Scand J Rheumatol. 1979;8(3):187-91. Abstract

51. Ehrengut W. Dermatomyositis and vaccination. Lancet. 1978 May 13;1(8072):1040-1. Abstract

52. Schmidt J. Current classification and management of inflammatory myopathies. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2018;5(2):109-29.Full text  Abstract

53. Motomura K, Yamashita H, Yamada S, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of polymyositis and dermatomyositis associated with malignancy: a 25-year retrospective study. Rheumatol Int. 2019 Oct;39(10):1733-9. Abstract

54. Qiang JK, Kim WB, Baibergenova A, et al. Risk of malignancy in dermatomyositis and polymyositis. J Cutan Med Surg. 2017 Mar/Apr;21(2):131-6. Abstract

55. Lundberg I. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis. In: Bijlsma J, ed. Eular textbook on rheumatic diseases. 1st ed. London: BMJ Group; 2012: 568-93.

56. Dion E, Chérin P. Use of muscular MRI in inflammatory myopathies [in French]. Rev Med Interne. 2004;25:435-441. Abstract

57. Betteridge Z, McHugh N. Myositis-specific autoantibodies: an important tool to support diagnosis of myositis. J Intern Med. 2016 Jul;280(1):8-23.Full text  Abstract

58. Mittal GA, Wadhwani R, Shroff M, et al. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis and follow-up of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies - a preliminary study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:252-256. Abstract

59. Backhaus M, Schmidt WA, Mellerowicz H, et al. Technique and diagnostic value of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in rheumatology. Part 6: ultrasonography of the wrist/hand [in German]. Z Rheumatol. 2002;61:674-687. Abstract

60. Al-Nahhas A, Jawad AS. PET/CT imaging in inflammatory myopathies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Jun;1228:39-45. Abstract

61. Badrising UA, Maat-Schieman ML, van Houwelingen JC, et al. Inclusion body myositis. Clinical features and clinical course of the disease in 64 patients. J Neurol. 2005;252:1448-1454. Abstract

62. Fan X, Rouleau GA. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2003;30:8-14. Abstract

63. Amato AA, Griggs RC. Treatment of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003 Oct;16(5):569-75. Abstract

64. Schneider C, Gold R, Schafers M, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil in the therapy of polymyositis associated with a polyautoimmune syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2002;25:286-288. Abstract

65. Gelber AC, Nousari HC, Wigley FM. Mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of severe skin manifestations of dermatomyositis: a series of 4 cases. J Rheumatol. 2000 Jun;27(6):1542-5. Abstract

66. Edge JC, Outland JD, Dempsey JR, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil as an effective corticosteroid-sparing therapy for recalcitrant dermatomyositis. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Jan;142(1):65-9. Abstract

67. Ytterberg SR. Treatment of refractory polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2006 Jun;8(3):167-73. Abstract

68. Greenberg SA, Amato AA. Inflammatory myopathy associated with mixed connective tissue disease and scleroderma renal crisis. Muscle Nerve. 2001 Nov;24(11):1562-6. Abstract

69. Cordeiro AC, Isenberg DA. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Jul;82(969):417-24.Full text  Abstract

70. Correia O, Polónia J, Nunes JP, et al. Severe acute form of adult dermatomyositis treated with cyclosporine. Int J Dermatol. 1992 Jul;31(7):517-9. Abstract

71. Heckmatt J, Hasson N, Saunders C, et al. Cyclosporin in juvenile dermatomyositis. Lancet. 1989 May 13;1(8646):1063-6. Abstract

72. Qushmaq KA, Chalmers A, Esdaile JM. Cyclosporin A in the treatment of refractory adult polymyositis/dermatomyositis: population based experience in 6 patients and literature review. J Rheumatol. 2000 Dec;27(12):2855-9. Abstract

73. Dalakas MC. Immunotherapy of myositis: issues, concerns and future prospects. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010;6:129-137. Abstract

74. Dalakas MC. Inflammatory myopathies: management of steroid resistance. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011 Oct;24(5):457-62. Abstract

75. Danieli MG, Malcangi G, Palmieri C, et al. Cyclosporin A and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002 Jan;61(1):37-41.Full text  Abstract

76. Oddis CV, Sciurba FC, Elmagd KA, et al. Tacrolimus in refractory polymyositis with interstitial lung disease. Lancet. 1999 May 22;353(9166):1762-3.Full text  Abstract

77. Waite LE, Madhok R. Tacrolimus - a potential therapy for polymyositis? Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:858-859.Full text  Abstract

78. Shimojima Y, Gono T, Yamamoto K, et al. Efficacy of tacrolimus in treatment of polymyositis associated with myasthenia gravis. Clin Rheumatol. 2004;23:262-265. Abstract

79. Schneider-Gold C, Hartung HP, Gold R. Mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus: new therapeutic options in neuroimmunological diseases. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:284-291. Abstract

80. Oddis CV, Reed AM, Aggarwal R, et al. Rituximab in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:314-324. Abstract

81. Fasano S, Gordon P, Hajji R, et al. Rituximab in the treatment of inflammatory myopathies: a review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jan;56(1):26-36.Full text  Abstract

82. Tymms KE, Webb J. Dermatopolymyositis and other connective tissue diseases: a review of 105 cases. J Rheumatol. 1985 Dec;12(6):1140-8. Abstract

83. Leroy JP, Drosos AA, Yiannopoulos DI, et al. Intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy in myositis and Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 1990 Oct;33(10):1579-81.Full text  Abstract

84. Wiendl H. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: current and future therapeutic options. Neurotherapeutics. 2008;5:548-557. Abstract

85. Joffe MM, Love LA, Leff RL, et al. Drug therapy of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: predictors of response to prednisone, azathioprine, and methotrexate and a comparison of their efficacy. Am J Med. 1993 Apr;94(4):379-87. Abstract

86. Amato AA, Gronseth GS, Jackson CE, et al. Inclusion body myositis: clinical and pathological boundaries. Ann Neurol. 1996;40:581-586. Abstract

87. Chérin P, Herson S, Wechsler B, et al. Effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulins in polymyositis and dermatomyositis: an open trial in 15 patients [in French]. Presse Med. 1991 Feb 16;20(6):244-9. Abstract

88. Chérin P, Herson S, Wechsler B, et al. Efficacy of intravenous gammaglobulin therapy in chronic refractory polymyositis and dermatomyositis: an open study with 20 adult patients. Am J Med. 1991 Aug;91(2):162-8. Abstract

89. Chérin P, Pelletier S, Teixeira A, et al. Results and long-term followup of intravenous immunoglobulin infusions in chronic, refractory polymyositis: an open study with thirty-five adult patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Feb;46(2):467-74. Abstract

90. Al-Mayouf S, Al-Mazyed A, Bahabri S. Efficacy of early treatment of severe juvenile dermatomyositis with intravenous methylprednisolone and methotrexate. Clin Rheumatol. 2000;19(2):138-41. Abstract

91. Feasby T, Banwell B, Benstead T, et al. Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for neurologic conditions. Transfus Med Rev. 2007;21(2 suppl 1):S57-S107. Abstract

92. Pul R, Stangel M. Using immunoglobulins in muscular disease treatment. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008;8:1143-1150. Abstract

93. Cagnoli M, Marchesoni A, Tosi S. Combined steroid, methotrexate and chlorambucil therapy for steroid-resistant dermatomyositis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1991 Nov-Dec;9(6):658-9. Abstract

94. Giannini M, Callen JP. Treatment of dermatomyositis with methotrexate and prednisone. Arch Dermatol. 1979 Oct;115(10):1251-2. Abstract

95. Mastaglia FL, Garlepp MJ, Phillips BA, et al. Inflammatory myopathies: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Muscle Nerve. 2003 Apr;27(4):407-25. Abstract

96. Tjärnlund A, Tang Q, Wick C, et al. Abatacept in the treatment of adult dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a randomised, phase IIb treatment delayed-start trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jan;77(1):55-62. Abstract

97. Babaoglu H, Varan O, Atas N, et al. Tofacitinib for the treatment of refractory polymyositis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2019 Dec;25(8):e141-2. Abstract

98. Fioranelli M, Roccia MG, Lotti T. Treatment of dermatomyositis with ruxolitinib. Dermatol Ther. 2016 Jul;29(4):285. Abstract

99. Lindberg C, Trysberg E, Tarkowski A, et al. Anti-T-lymphocyte globulin treatment in inclusion body myositis: a randomized pilot study. Neurology. 2003;61:260-262. Abstract

100. Hengstman GJ, van den Hoogen FH, Barrera P, et al. Successful treatment of dermatomyositis and polymyositis with anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha: preliminary observations. Eur Neurol. 2003;50:10-15. Abstract

101. Elovaara I, Apostolski S, van Doorn P, et al. EFNS guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases: EFNS task force on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases. Eur J Neurol. 2008 Sep;15(9):893-908.Full text  Abstract

102. Oddis CV. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: management and prognosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28:979-1001. Abstract

103. Sultan SM, Ioannou Y, Moss K, et al. Outcome in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis: morbidity and mortality. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002;41:22-26.Full text  Abstract

104. Torres C, Belmonte R, Carmona L, et al. Survival, mortality and causes of death in inflammatory myopathies. Autoimmunity. 2006;39:205-215. Abstract

105. Medsger TA Jr, Robinson H, Masi AT. Factors affecting survivorship in polymyositis. A life-table study of 124 patients. Arthritis Rheum. 1971;14:249-258. Abstract

106. Maugar YM, Berthelot JM, Abbas AA, et al. Long-term prognosis of 69 patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996;14:263-274. Abstract

107. Marie I, Hatron PY, Levesque H, et al. Influence of age on characteristics of polymyositis and dermatomyositis in adults. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999 May;78(3):139-47. Abstract

108. Marie I, Hachulla E, Hatron PY, et al. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: short term and longterm outcome, and predictive factors of prognosis. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:2230-2237. Abstract

109. Danko K, Ponyi A, Constantin T, et al. Long-term survival of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies according to clinical features: a longitudinal study of 162 cases. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004;83:35-42. Abstract

110. Oddis CV, Okano Y, Rudert WA, et al. Serum autoantibody to the nucleolar antigen PM-Scl. Clinical and immunogenetic associations. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35:1211-1217. Abstract

111. Briani C, Doria A, Sarzi-Puttini P, et al. Update on idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Autoimmunity. 2006;39:161-170. Abstract

112. de Merieux P, Verity MA, Clements PJ, et al. Esophageal abnormalities and dysphagia in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 1983 Aug;26(8):961-8. Abstract

113. Kagen LJ, Hochman RB, Strong EW. Cricopharyngeal obstruction in inflammatory myopathy (polymyositis/dermatomyositis). Report of three cases and review of the literature. Arthritis Rheum. 1985;28:630-636. Abstract

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