Sjogren syndrome


Key articles

Foulks GN, Forstot SL, Donshik PC, et al. The Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation clinical practice guidelines. Ocular management in Sjogren's patients. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

Vivino FB, Zero D, Brennan M, et al. Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation's clinical practice guidelines. Oral management: caries prevention in Sjogren's patients. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

Carsons SE, Vivino FB, Parke A, et al. Treatment guidelines for rheumatologic manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome: use of biologic agents, management of fatigue, and inflammatory musculoskeletal pain. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017 Apr;69(4):517-27.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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26. Sullivan DA, Belanger A, Cermak JM, et al. Are women with Sjogren's syndrome androgen-deficient? J Rheumatol. 2003 Nov;30(11):2413-9. Abstract

27. Delaleu N, Jonsson R, Koller MM. Sjogren's syndrome. Eur J Oral Sci. 2005 Apr;113(2):101-13. Abstract

28. Liu K, Kurien BT, Zimmerman SL, et al. X chromosome dose and sex bias in autoimmune diseases: increased prevalence of 47,XXX in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 May;68(5):1290-1300.Full text  Abstract

29. Harris VM, Sharma R, Cavett J, et al. Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY) is in excess among men with Sjogren's syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2016 Jul;168:25-29.Full text  Abstract

30. Scofield RH, Kurien BT, Reichlin M. Immunologically restricted and inhibitory anti-Ro in monozygotic twins. Lupus. 1997;6(4):395-8. Abstract

31. Bolstad AI, Haga HJ, Wassmuth R, et al. Monozygotic twins with primary Sjogren's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2000 Sep;27(9):2264-6. Abstract

32. Sumida T, Azuma N, Moriyama M, et al. Clinical practice guideline for Sjögren's syndrome 2017. Mod Rheumatol. 2018 May;28(3):383-408. Abstract

33. Romão VC, Talarico R, Scirè CA, et al. Sjögren's syndrome: state of the art on clinical practice guidelines. RMD Open. 2018 Oct 18;4(suppl 1):e000789.Full text  Abstract

34. Vitali C, Moutsopoulos HM, Bombardieri S. The European Community Study Group on diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome. Sensitivity and specificity of tests for ocular and oral involvement in Sjögren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994 Oct;53(10):637-47.Full text  Abstract

35. Shiboski CH, Shiboski SC, Seror R, et al. 2016 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome: a consensus and data-driven methodology involving three international patient cohorts. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Jan;69(1):35-45.Full text  Abstract

36. Foulks GN, Forstot SL, Donshik PC, et al. The Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation clinical practice guidelines. Ocular management in Sjogren's patients. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

37. Venables PJ. Sjogren's syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Jun;18(3):313-29. Abstract

38. Fox PC, Brennan M, Pillemer S, et al. Sjogren's syndrome: a model for dental care in the 21st century. J Am Dent Assoc. 1998 Jun;129(6):719-28. Abstract

39. Barendregt PJ, Visser MR, Smets EM, et al. Fatigue in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998 May;57(5):291-5.Full text  Abstract

40. Gudbjornsson B, Broman JE, Hetta J, et al. Sleep disturbances in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Br J Rheumatol. 1993 Dec;32(12):1072-6. Abstract

41. Rozis M, Vlamis J, Vasiliadis E, et al. Musculoskeletal manifestations in Sjogren's syndrome: an orthopedic point of view. J Clin Med. 2021 Apr 8;10(8):1574.Full text  Abstract

42. Lei L, Morgan S, Ntatsaki E, et al. Comparative assessment of hand joint ultrasound findings in symptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome: a pilot study. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2019 Feb;45(2):452-60. Abstract

43. Colafrancesco S, Priori R, Gattamelata A, et al. Myositis in primary Sjögren's syndrome: data from a multicentre cohort. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Jul-Aug;33(4):457-64. Abstract

44. Ramos-Casals M, Anaya JM, García-Carrasco M, et al. Cutaneous vasculitis in primary Sjögren syndrome: classification and clinical significance of 52 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004 Mar;83(2):96-106.Full text  Abstract

45. Kittridge A, Routhouska SB, Korman NJ. Dermatologic manifestations of Sjögren syndrome. J Cutan Med Surg. 2011 Jan-Feb;15(1):8-14. Abstract

46. Chapnick SL, Merkel PA. Skin ulcers in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Jul;62(7):1040-6.Full text  Abstract

47. Guellec D, Cornec-Le Gall E, Groh M, et al. ANCA-associated vasculitis in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: detailed analysis of 7 new cases and systematic literature review. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 Aug;14(8):742-50. Abstract

48. Lu MC, Yin WY, Tsai TY, et al. Increased risk of primary Sjögren's syndrome in female patients with thyroid disorders: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e77210.Full text  Abstract

49. Ramos-Casals M, García-Carrasco M, Cervera R, et al. Thyroid disease in primary Sjögren syndrome. Study in a series of 160 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000 Mar;79(2):103-8.Full text  Abstract

50. Flament T, Bigot A, Chaigne B, et al. Pulmonary manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome. Eur Respir Rev. 2016 Jun;25(140):110-23.Full text  Abstract

51. Ebert EC. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of Sjogren syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Jan;46(1):25-30.Full text  Abstract

52. Maury CP, Törnroth T, Teppo AM. Atrophic gastritis in Sjögren's syndrome. Morphologic, biochemical, and immunologic findings. Arthritis Rheum. 1985 Apr;28(4):388-94.Full text  Abstract

53. Melchor S, Sánchez-Piedra C, Fernández Castro M, et al. Digestive involvement in primary Sjögren's syndrome: analysis from the Sjögrenser registry. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2020 Jul-Aug;38 Suppl 126(4):110-115. Abstract

54. Skopouli FN, Barbatis C, Moutsopoulos HM. Liver involvement in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Aug;33(8):745-8.Full text  Abstract

55. Montaño-Loza AJ, Crispín-Acuña JC, Remes-Troche JM, et al. Abnormal hepatic biochemistries and clinical liver disease in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Ann Hepatol. 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):150-5. Abstract

56. François H, Mariette X. Renal involvement in primary Sjögren syndrome. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2016 Feb;12(2):82-93. Abstract

57. François H, Mariette X. Renal involvement in Sjögren's syndrome [in French]. Nephrol Ther. 2020 Dec;16(7):440-52. Abstract

58. Leppilahti M, Tammela TL, Huhtala H, et al. Interstitial cystitis-like urinary symptoms among patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a population-based study in Finland. Am J Med. 2003 Jul;115(1):62-5. Abstract

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60. Delalande S, de Seze J, Fauchais AL, et al. Neurologic manifestations in primary Sjögren syndrome: a study of 82 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004 Sep;83(5):280-91.Full text  Abstract

61. Scofield AK, Radfar L, Ice JA, et al. Relation of sensory peripheral neuropathy in Sjogren syndrome to anti-Ro/SSA. J Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Sep;18(6):290-3. Abstract

62. Pavlakis PP, Alexopoulos H, Kosmidis ML, et al. Peripheral neuropathies in Sjogren syndrome: a new reappraisal. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;82(7):798-802. Abstract

63. Napeñas JJ, Rouleau TS. Oral complications of Sjogren's syndrome. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;26(1):55-62. Abstract

64. Al-Hashimi I, Khuder S, Haghighat N, et al. Frequency and predictive value of the clinical manifestations in Sjogren's syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2001 Jan;30(1):1-6. Abstract

65. Soto-Rojas AE, Kraus A. The oral side of Sjogren syndrome. Diagnosis and treatment. A review. Arch Med Res. 2002 Mar-Apr;33(2):95-106. Abstract

66. Klasser GD, Balasubramaniam R, Epstein J. Topical review-connective tissue diseases: orofacial manifestations including pain. J Orofac Pain. 2007 Summer;21(3):171-84. Abstract

67. Liao MT, Chien WC, Wang JC, et al. Increased risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: nationwide population-based cohort study. BMJ Open. 2019 Feb 13;9(2):e024655.Full text  Abstract

68. Seneff S, Swanson NL, Koenig G, et al. Is GERD a Factor in Osteonecrosis of the Jaw? Evidence of Pathology Linked to G6PD Deficiency and Sulfomucins. Dis Markers. 2016 Sep 28;2016:8376979.Full text  Abstract

69. Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Jonsson R, et al. Classification criteria for Sjogren's syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002 Jun;61(6):554-8.Full text  Abstract

70. Colella G, Cannavale R, Vicidomini A, et al. Salivary gland biopsy: a comprehensive review of techniques and related complications. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010 Nov;49(11):2117-21. Abstract

71. Jonsson MV, Baldini C. Major salivary gland ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Sjogren’s syndrome - a place in the diagnostic criteria? Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2016 Aug;42(3):501-17. Abstract

72. Zhang X, Zhang S, He J, et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of major salivary glands in primary Sjogren's syndrome: comparison of two scoring systems. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Sep;54(9):1680-7.Full text  Abstract

73. Luciano N, Baldini C, Tarantini G, et al. Ultrasonography of major salivary glands: a highly specific tool for distinguishing primary Sjogren's syndrome from undifferentiated connective tissue diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Dec;54(12):2198-204. Abstract

74. Zabotti A, Zandonella Callegher S, Tullio A, et al. Salivary gland ultrasonography in Sjögren's syndrome: a European multicenter reliability exercise for the HarmonicSS project. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:581248.Full text  Abstract

75. Newbrun E. Current treatment modalities of oral problems of patients with Sjogren's syndrome: caries prevention. Adv Dent Res. 1996 Apr;10(1):29-34. Abstract

76. Pedersen AM, Bardow A, Nauntofte B. Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjogren's syndrome. BMC Clin Pathol. 2005 Mar 1;5(1):4.Full text  Abstract

77. Kassan SS, Moutsopoulos HM. Clinical manifestations and early diagnosis of Sjogren syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jun 28;164(12):1275-84.Full text  Abstract

78. Tucci M, Quatraro C, Silvestris F. Sjogren's syndrome: an autoimmune disorder with otolaryngological involvement. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2005 Jun;25(3):139-44.Full text  Abstract

79. Segerberg-Konttinen M, Konttinen YT, Bergroth V. Focus score in the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1986;61:47-51. Abstract

80. Whitcher JP, Shiboski CH, Shiboski SC, et al; Sjogren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Research Groups. A simplified quantitative method for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca from the Sjogren's Syndrome International Registry. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 Mar;149(3):405-15. Abstract

81. Daniels TE, Benn DK. Is sialography effective in diagnosing the salivary component of Sjogren's syndrome? Adv Dent Res. 1996 Apr;10(1):25-8. Abstract

82. Nicholson DA. Contrast media in sialography: a comparison of Lipiodol Ultra Fluid and Urografin 290. Clin Radiol 1990 Dec;42(6):423-6. Abstract

83. Hernández-Molina G, Avila-Casado C, Nuñez-Alvarez C, et al. Utility of the American-European Consensus Group and American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for Sjogren's syndrome in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases in the clinical setting. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Mar;54(3):441-8. Abstract

84. Shiboski SC, Shiboski CH, Criswell L, et al; Sjogren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) Research Groups. American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for Sjogren's syndrome: a data-driven, expert consensus approach in the Sjogren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance cohort. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Apr;64(4):475-87.Full text  Abstract

85. Lee AS, Scofield RH, Hammitt KM, et al. Consensus guidelines for evaluation and management of pulmonary disease in Sjögren's. Chest. 2021 Feb;159(2):683-98.Full text  Abstract

86. Ramos-Casals M, Tzioufas AG, Stone JH, et al. Treatment of primary Sjogren syndrome: a systematic review. JAMA. 2010 Jul 28;304(4):452-60.Full text  Abstract

87. Kalk WW, Mansour K, Vissink A, et al. Oral and ocular manifestations in Sjogren's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2002 May;29(5):924-30. Abstract

88. Vivino FB, Zero D, Brennan M, et al. Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation's clinical practice guidelines. Oral management: caries prevention in Sjogren's patients. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

89. Samarkos M, Moutsopoulos HM. Recent advances in the management of ocular complications of Sjogren's syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2005 Jul;5(4):327-32. Abstract

90. Jacobi C, Cursiefen C. Ophthalmological complications in Sjogren's syndrome [in German]. Z Rheumatol. 2010 Feb;69(1):32-40. Abstract

91. Byun YJ, Kim TI, Kwon SM, et al. Efficacy of combined 0.05% cyclosporine and 1% methylprednisolone treatment for chronic dry eye. Cornea. 2012 May;31(5):509-13. Abstract

92. Marsh P, Pflugfelder SC. Topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1999 Apr;106(4):811-6.Full text  Abstract

93. Hong S, Kim T, Chung SH, et al. Recurrence after topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;23(1):78-82. Abstract

94. Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zerón P, Sisó-Almirall A, et al. Punctal occlusion in Sjogren's syndrome needs clarification. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012;8:752. Abstract

95. Zandbelt MM, van den Hoogen FH, de Wilde PC, et al. Reversibility of histological and immunohistological abnormalities in sublabial salivary gland biopsy specimens following treatment with corticosteroids in Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001 May;60(5):511-3. Abstract

96. Mavragani CP, Moutsopoulos HM. Conventional therapy of Sjogren's syndrome. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2007 Jun;32(3):284-91. Abstract

97. Mavragani CP, Moutsopoulos HM. Immunosuppression and immunomodulation in Sjogren’s syndrome - what is the evidence? Does it relieve the sicca symptoms? Aktuelle Rheumatologie. 2005;30:66-70.

98. Fox PC, Datiles M, Atkinson JC, et al. Prednisone and piroxicam for treatment of primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1993 Mar-Apr;11(2):149-56. Abstract

99. Akpek EK, Lindsley KB, Adyanthaya RS, et al. Treatment of Sjogren's syndrome-associated dry eye: an evidence-based review. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jul;118(7):1242-52. Abstract

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102. Drosos AA, Skopouli FN, Galanopoulu VK, et al. Cyclosporin A therapy in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome: results at one year. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1986;61:246-9. Abstract

103. Drosos AA, Skopouli FN, Costopoulos JS, et al. Cyclosporin A (CyA) in primary Sjogren’s syndrome: a double blind study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1986 Sep;45(9):732-5.Full text  Abstract

104. Skopouli FN, Jagiello P, Tsifetaki N, et al. Methotrexate in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996 Sep-Oct;14(5):555-8. Abstract

105. Boumba D, Skopouli FN, Moutsopoulos HM. Cytokine mRNA expression in the labial salivary gland tissues from patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Br J Rheumatol. 1995 Apr;34(4):326-33. Abstract

106. Thanou-Stavraki A, James JA. Primary Sjogren's syndrome: current and prospective therapies. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Apr;37(5):273-92. Abstract

107. Touma Z, Sayad J, Arayssi T. Successful treatment of Sjogren's syndrome with rituximab. Scand J Rheumatol. 2006 Jul-Aug;35(4):323-5. Abstract

108. Devauchelle-Pensec V, Mariette X, Jousse-Joulin S, et al. Treatment of primary Sjogren syndrome with rituximab: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Feb 18;160(4):233-42. Abstract

109. Gottenberg JE, Ravaud P, Puéchal X, et al. Effects of hydroxychloroquine on symptomatic improvement in primary Sjogren syndrome: the JOQUER randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Jul 16;312(3):249-58.Full text  Abstract

110. Carsons SE, Vivino FB, Parke A, et al. Treatment guidelines for rheumatologic manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome: use of biologic agents, management of fatigue, and inflammatory musculoskeletal pain. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017 Apr;69(4):517-27.Full text  Abstract

111. Scofield RH. Vasculitis in Sjogren's Syndrome. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011 Dec;13(6):482-8. Abstract

112. Wakasugi D, Kato T, Gono T, et al. Extreme efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe burning pain in a patient with small fiber neuropathy associated with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Mod Rheumatol. 2009;19(4):437-40. Abstract

113. Rist S, Sellam J, Hachulla E, et al. Experience of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in neuropathy associated with primary Sjogren's syndrome: a national multicentric retrospective study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Sep;63(9):1339-44. Abstract

114. Morozumi S, Kawagashira Y, Iijima M, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for painful sensory neuropathy associated with Sjogren's syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Apr 15;279(1-2):57-61. Abstract

115. Porter SR, Scully C, Hegarty AM. An update of the etiology and management of xerostomia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004 Jan;97(1):28-46. Abstract

116. Pan Q, Angelina A, Marrone M, et al. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(2):CD009327.Full text  Abstract

117. López-García JS, García-Lozano I, Rivas L, et al. Autologous serum eye drops diluted with sodium hyaluronate: clinical and experimental comparative study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb;92(1):e22-9.Full text  Abstract

118. Kim BH, Kim MH, Kang SH, et al. Optimizing acupuncture treatment for dry eye syndrome: a systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 May 3;18(1):145.Full text  Abstract

119. Bass AR, Chakravarty E, Akl EA, et al. 2022 American College of Rheumatology guideline for vaccinations in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2023 Mar;75(3):449-64.Full text  Abstract

120. Vivino FB, Al-Hashimi I, Khan Z, et al; P92-01 Study Group. Pilocarpine tablets for the treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in patients with Sjogren syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Jan 25;159(2):174-81.Full text  Abstract

121. Harboe E, Tjensvoll AB, Maroni S, et al. Neuropsychiatric syndromes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and primary Sjögren syndrome: a comparative population-based study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Oct;68(10):1541-6. Abstract

122. Westhoff G, Dörner T, Zink A. Fatigue and depression predict physician visits and work disability in women with primary Sjögren's syndrome: results from a cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Feb;51(2):262-9.Full text  Abstract

123. Voulgarelis M, Skopouli FN. Clinical, immunologic, and molecular factors predicting lymphoma development in Sjogren's syndrome patients. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2007 Jun;32(3):265-74. Abstract

124. Fox RI. Sjogren's syndrome: current therapies remain inadequate for a common disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000 Sep;9(9):2007-16. Abstract

125. Mariette X. Lymphomas complicating Sjogren's syndrome and hepatitis C virus infection may share a common pathogenesis: chronic stimulation of rheumatoid factor B cells. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001 Nov;60(11):1007-10.Full text  Abstract

126. Bartoloni E, Baldini C, Schillaci G, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk burden in primary Sjögren's syndrome: results of a population-based multicentre cohort study. J Intern Med. 2015 Aug;278(2):185-92.Full text  Abstract

127. Yong WC, Sanguankeo A, Upala S. Association between primary Sjögren's syndrome, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2018 May-Jun;36 Suppl 112(3):190-7. Abstract

128. Berardicurti O, Ruscitti P, Cipriani P, et al. Cardiovascular disease in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2018;13(3):164-9. Abstract

129. Mofors J, Holmqvist M, Westermark L, et al. Concomitant Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies are biomarkers for the risk of venous thromboembolism and cerebral infarction in primary Sjögren's syndrome. J Intern Med. 2019 Oct;286(4):458-68.Full text  Abstract

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