Unstable angina

References

Key articles

Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, et al. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J. 2021 Apr 7;42(14):1289-1367.Full text  Abstract

Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 23;64(24):e139-228.Full text  Abstract

Gulati M, Levy PD, Mukherjee D, et al. 2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Nov 30;78(22):e187-e285.Full text  Abstract

Lawton JS, Tamis-Holland JE, Bangalore S, et al. 2021 ACC/AHA/SCAI guideline for coronary artery revascularization: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2022 Jan 18;145(3):e18-e114.Full text  Abstract

Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, et al. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J. 2020 Aug 29 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, et al. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J. 2021 Apr 7;42(14):1289-1367.Full text  Abstract

2. Wu AH, Apple FS, Gibler WB, et al. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry standards of laboratory practice: recommendations for the use of cardiac markers in coronary artery diseases. Clin Chem. 1999 Jul;45(7):1104-21.Full text  Abstract

3. Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 23;64(24):e139-228.Full text  Abstract

4. Erhardt L, Herlitz J, Bossaert L, et al. Task force on the management of chest pain. Eur Heart J. 2002 Aug;23(15):1153-76.Full text  Abstract

5. Canto JG, Fincher C, Kiefe CI, et al. Atypical presentations among Medicare beneficiaries with unstable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 2002 Aug 1;90(3):248-53. Abstract

6. Culić V, Eterović D, Mirić D, et al. Symptom presentation of acute myocardial infarction: influence of sex, age, and risk factors. Am Heart J. 2002 Dec;144(6):1012-7. Abstract

7. Graves EJ, Kozak LJ. Detailed diagnoses and procedures, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1996. Vital Health Stat 13. 1998 Sep;(138):i-iii, 1-151.Full text  Abstract

8. Nourjah P. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1997 emergency department summary. Adv Data. 1999 May 6;(304):1-24.Full text  Abstract

9. National Institutes for Health: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Morbidity and mortality: 2012 chart book on cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases. Feb 2012 [internet publication].Full text

10. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). May 2017 [internet publication].Full text

11. Libby P. Molecular bases of the acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 1995 Jun 1;91(11):2844-50.Full text  Abstract

12. Moreno PR, Falk E, Palacios IF, et al. Macrophage infiltration in acute coronary syndromes: implications for plaque rupture. Circulation. 1994 Aug;90(2):775-8. Abstract

13. Hansson GK, Libby P, Tabas I. Inflammation and plaque vulnerability. J Intern Med. 2015 Nov;278(5):483-93.Full text  Abstract

14. Akhter N, Milford-Beland S, Roe MT, et al. Gender differences among patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the American College of Cardiology-National Cardiovascular Data Registry (ACC-NCDR). Am Heart J. 2009 Jan;157(1):141-8. Abstract

15. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001 May 16;285(19):2486-97. Abstract

16. Sesso HD, Lee IM, Gaziano JM, et al. Maternal and paternal history of myocardial infarction and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. Circulation. 2001 Jul 24;104(4):393-8.Full text  Abstract

17. Wong ND, Cupples LA, Ostfeld AM, et al. Risk factors for long-term coronary prognosis after initial myocardial infarction: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Sep;130(3):469-80. Abstract

18. Connolly DC, Elveback LR, Oxman HA. Coronary heart disease in residents of Rochester, Minnesota, 1950-1975. III. Effect of hypertension and its treatment on survival of patients with coronary artery disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1983 Apr;58(4):249-54. Abstract

19. Shaper AG, Pocock SJ, Walker M, et al. Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease: the prospective phase of the British Regional Heart Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1985 Sep;39(3):197-209.Full text  Abstract

20. Hubert HB, Holford TR, Kannel WB. Clinical characteristics and cigarette smoking in relation to prognosis of angina pectoris in Framingham. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Feb;115(2):231-42. Abstract

21. Levine GN, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JA. Review article: Cholesterol reduction in cardiovascular disease. Clinical benefits and possible mechanisms. N Engl J Med. 1995 Feb 23;332(8):512-21. Abstract

22. Oliver M, Poole-Wilson P, Shepherd J, et al. Lower patients' cholesterol now. BMJ. 1995 May 20;310(6990):1280-1. Abstract

23. Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Levy D, et al. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation. 1998 May 12;97(18):1837-47.Full text  Abstract

24. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 23;351(13):1296-305.Full text  Abstract

25. Ridker PM, Stampfer MJ, Rifai N. Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: a comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA. 2001 May 16;285(19):2481-5.Full text  Abstract

26. Hooning MJ, Aleman BM, van Rosmalen AJ, et al. Cause-specific mortality in long-term survivors of breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Mar 15;64(4):1081-91. Abstract

27. Yeh ET, Tong AT, Lenihan DJ, et al. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management. Circulation. 2004 Jun 29;109(25):3122-31.Full text  Abstract

28. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-143.Full text  Abstract

29. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Sep 10;140(11):e596-646.Full text  Abstract

30. Parish S, Collins R, Peto R, et al. Cigarette smoking, tar yields, and non-fatal myocardial infarction: 14,000 cases and 32,000 controls in the United Kingdom. BMJ. 1995 Aug 19;311(7003):471-7.Full text  Abstract

31. Eisenberg MJ, Windle SB, Roy N, et al. Varenicline for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome. Circulation. 2016 Jan 5;133(1):21-30.Full text  Abstract

32. Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, et al; West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 16;333(20):1301-7.Full text  Abstract

33. Yan AT, Yan RT, Huynh T, et al; Canadian Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry 2 Investigators. Understanding physicians' risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes: insights from the Canadian ACS 2 Registry. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23;169(4):372-8. Abstract

34. Grundy SM, Pasternak R, Greenland P, et al. Assessment of cardiovascular risk by use of multiple-risk-factor assessment equations: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation. 1999 Sep 28;100(13):1481-92.Full text  Abstract

35. Prevention of coronary heart disease in clinical practice: recommendations of the Second Joint Task Force of European and other Societies on coronary prevention. Eur Heart J. 1998 Oct;19(10):1434-503.Full text  Abstract

36. Gulati M, Levy PD, Mukherjee D, et al. 2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Nov 30;78(22):e187-e285.Full text  Abstract

37. Diercks DB, Peacock WF, Hiestand BC, et al. Frequency and consequences of recording an electrocardiogram >10 minutes after arrival in an emergency room in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (from the CRUSADE Initiative). Am J Cardiol. 2006 Feb 15;97(4):437-42. Abstract

38. Holmvang L, Clemmensen P, Lindahl B, et al. Quantitative analysis of the admission electrocardiogram identifies patients with unstable coronary artery disease who benefit the most from early invasive treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Mar 19;41(6):905-15. Abstract

39. Kaul P, Fu Y, Chang WC, et al; PARAGON-A and GUSTO IIb Investigators, Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonism for the Reduction of Acute Global Organization Network. Prognostic value of ST segment depression in acute coronary syndromes: insights from PARAGON-A applied to GUSTO-IIb. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Jul;38(1):64-71. Abstract

40. Vafaie M, Slagman A, Möckel M, et al. Prognostic value of undetectable hs troponin T in suspected acute coronary syndrome. Am J Med. 2016 Mar;129(3):274-82. Abstract

41. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, White HD; Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Redefinition of Myocardial Infarction. Universal definition of myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2007 Oct;28(20):2525-38.Full text  Abstract

42. Fresco C, Maggioni FC, Signorini S, et al. Variations in lipopoprotein levels after myocardial infarction and unstable angina: the LATIN trial. Ital Heart J. 2002 Oct;3(10):587-92. Abstract

43. Hendel RC, Patel MR, Kramer CM, et al. ACCF/ACR/SCCT/SCMR/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SIR 2006 appropriateness criteria for cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Oct 3;48(7):1475-97.Full text  Abstract

44. Williams MC, Hunter A, Shah AS, et al. Use of coronary computed tomographic angiography to guide management of patients with coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Apr 19;67(15):1759-68.Full text  Abstract

45. Roos A, Bandstein N, Lundbäck M, et al. Stable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels and outcomes in patients with chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Oct 31;70(18):2226-36.Full text  Abstract

46. Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 23;64(24):e139-228.Full text  Abstract

47. Beltrame JF, Crea F, Kaski JC, et al. International standardization of diagnostic criteria for vasospastic angina. Eur Heart J. 2017 Sep 1;38(33):2565-8.Full text  Abstract

48. Aretz HT, Billingham ME, Edwards WD, et al. Myocarditis: a histopathologic definition and classification. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol. 1987 Jan;1(1):3-14. Abstract

49. Campeau L. Letter: Grading of angina pectoris. Circulation. 1976 Sep;54(3):522-3. Abstract

50. Montalescot G, Sechtem U, Achenbach S, et al; Task Force Members. 2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease: the Task Force on the management of stable coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2013 Oct;34(38):2949-3003.Full text  Abstract

51. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Cardiovascular disease risk: screening with electrocardiography. Jun 2018 [internet publication].Full text

52. Tatum JL, Jesse RL, Kontos MC, et al. Comprehensive strategy for the evaluation and triage of the chest pain patient. Ann Emerg Med. 1997 Jan;29(1):116-25. Abstract

53. Ornato JP. Chest pain emergency centers: improving acute myocardial infarction care. Clin Cardiol. 1999 Aug;22(8 Suppl):IV3-9. Abstract

54. Selker HP, Beshansky JR, Griffith JL, et al. Use of the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument (ACI-TIPI) to assist with triage of patients with chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia. A multicenter, controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Dec 1;129(11):845-55. Abstract

55. O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al; American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jan 29;61(4):e78-140.Full text  Abstract

56. Lawton JS, Tamis-Holland JE, Bangalore S, et al. 2021 ACC/AHA/SCAI guideline for coronary artery revascularization: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2022 Jan 18;145(3):e18-e114.Full text  Abstract

57. Knuuti J, Wijns W, Saraste A, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 14;41(3):407-77.Full text  Abstract

58. Kerensky RA, Wade M, Deedwania P, et al. Revisiting the culprit lesion in non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Results from the VANQWISH trial angiographic core laboratory. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 May 1;39(9):1456-63. Abstract

59. Gibler WB, Cannon CP, Blomkalns AL, et al. Practical implementation of the guidelines for unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the emergency department: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Acute Cardiac Care), Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in collaboration with the Society of Chest Pain Centers. Circulation. 2005 May 24;111(20):2699-710.Full text  Abstract

60. Bavishi C, Panwar S, Messerli FH, et al. Meta-analysis of comparison of the newer oral P2Y12 inhibitors (prasugrel or ticagrelor) to clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Sep 1;116(5):809-17. Abstract

61. Steg PG, Bhatt DL, Hamm CW, et al. Effect of cangrelor on periprocedural outcomes in percutaneous coronary interventions: a pooled analysis of patient-level data. Lancet. 2013 Dec 14;382(9909):1981-92. Abstract

62. Bhatt DL, Stone GW, Mahaffey KW, et al. Effect of platelet inhibition with cangrelor during PCI on ischemic events. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 4;368(14):1303-13.Full text  Abstract

63. Gibson RS, Hansen JF, Messerli F, et al. Long-term effects of diltiazem and verapamil on mortality and cardiac events in non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction without pulmonary congestion: post hoc subset analysis of the multicenter diltiazem postinfarction trial and the second Danish verapamil infarction trial studies. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Aug 1;86(3):275-9. Abstract

64. Boden WE, van Gilst WH, Scheldewaert RG, et al. Diltiazem in acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Incomplete Infarction Trial of European Research Collaborators Evaluating Prognosis post-Thrombolysis (INTERCEPT). Lancet. 2000 May 20;355(9217):1751-6. Abstract

65. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV. Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation. 1995 Sep 1;92(5):1326-31.Full text  Abstract

66. Thadani U, Opie LH. Nitrates for unstable angina. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1994 Oct;8(5):719-26. Abstract

67. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al; Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jan 20;342(3):145-53.Full text  Abstract

68. Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 6;354(14):1464-76.Full text  Abstract

69. Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the OASIS-6 randomized trial. JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1519-30.Full text  Abstract

70. Eikelboom JW, Anand SS, Malmberg K, et al. Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin in acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2000 Jun 3;355(9219):1936-42. Abstract

71. Andrade-Castellanos CA, Colunga-Lozano LE, Delgado-Figueroa N, et al. Heparin versus placebo for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 27;(6):CD003462.Full text  Abstract

72. Navarese EP, Andreotti F, Kołodziejczak M, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of anticoagulant strategies for acute coronary syndromes. Comprehensive network meta-analysis of 42 randomised trials involving 117,353 patients. Thromb Haemost. 2015 Nov;114(5):933-44. Abstract

73. Neumann FJ, Sousa-Uva M, Ahlsson A, et al. 2018 ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Eur Heart J. 2019 Jan 7;40(2):87-165.Full text  Abstract

74. Sandau KE, Funk M, Auerbach A, et al. Update to practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017 Nov 7;136(19):e273-344.Full text  Abstract

75. Maroko PR, Radvany P, Braunwald E, et al. Reduction of infarct size by oxygen inhalation following acute coronary occlusion. Circulation. 1975 Sep;52(3):360-8. Abstract

76. Madias JE, Hood WB Jr. Reduction of precordial ST-segment elevation in patients with anterior myocardial infarction by oxygen breathing. Circulation. 1976 Mar;53(3 Suppl):I198-200. Abstract

77. Capodanno D, Milluzzo RP, Angiolillo DJ. Intravenous antiplatelet therapies (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and cangrelor) in percutaneous coronary intervention: from pharmacology to indications for clinical use. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2019 Jan-Dec;13:1753944719893274.Full text  Abstract

78. Tricoci P, Huang Z, Held C, et al. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 5;366(1):20-33.Full text  Abstract

79. Vavalle JP, Cohen MG. The REG1 anticoagulation system: a novel actively controlled factor IX inhibitor using RNA aptamer technology for treatment of acute coronary syndrome. Future Cardiol. 2012 May;8(3):371-82.Full text  Abstract

80. Povsic TJ, Vavalle JP, Aberle LH, et al. A phase 2, randomized, partially blinded, active-controlled study assessing the efficacy and safety of variable anticoagulation reversal using the REG1 system in patients with acute coronary syndromes: results of the RADAR trial. Eur Heart J. 2013 Aug;34(31):2481-9.Full text  Abstract

81. Lincoff AM, Mehran R, Povsic TJ, et al. Effect of the REG1 anticoagulation system versus bivalirudin on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (REGULATE-PCI): a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2016 Jan 23;387(10016):349-56. Abstract

82. Komócsi A, Vorobcsuk A, Kehl D, et al. Use of new-generation oral anticoagulant agents in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Nov 12;172(20):1537-45. Abstract

83. Merchant RM, Topjian AA, Panchal AR, et al. Part 1: executive summary: 2020 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;142(16_suppl_2):S337-57.Full text  Abstract

84. Al-Khatib SM, Stevenson WG, Ackerman MJ, et al. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: executive summary - a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Heart Rhythm. 2018 Oct;15(10):e190-252.Full text  Abstract

85. Patel MR, Calhoon JH, Dehmer GJ, et al. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization in patients with acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Feb 7;69(5):570-91.Full text  Abstract

86. Smith SC Jr, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO, et al. AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2011 Nov 29;124(22):2458-73.Full text  Abstract

87. Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 1;41(1):111-88.Full text  Abstract

88. Eagle KA, Lim MJ, Dabbous OH, et al. A validated prediction model for all forms of acute coronary syndrome: estimating the risk of 6-month postdischarge death in an international registry. JAMA. 2004 Jun 9;291(22):2727-33.Full text  Abstract

89. Savonitto S, Ardissino D, Granger CB, et al. Prognostic value of the admission electrocardiogram in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 1999 Feb 24;281(8):707-13.Full text  Abstract

90. Chang WC, Boersma E, Granger CB, et al. Dynamic prognostication in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: insights from GUSTO-IIb and PURSUIT. Am Heart J. 2004 Jul;148(1):62-71. Abstract

91. Sheridan PJ, Crossman DC. Critical review of unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Postgrad Med J. 2002 Dec;78(926):717-26. Abstract

92. Antman EM, Cohen M, Bernink PJ, et al. The TIMI risk score for unstable angina/non-ST elevation MI: a method for prognostication and therapeutic decision making. JAMA. 2000 Aug 16;284(7):835-42.Full text  Abstract

93. Boersma E, Pieper KS, Steyerberg EW, et al; The PURSUIT Investigators. Predictors of outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-segment elevation. Results from an international trial of 9461 patients. Circulation. 2000 Jun 6;101(22):2557-67.Full text  Abstract

94. Granger CB, Goldberg RJ, Dabbous O, et al. Predictors of hospital mortality in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Oct 27;163(19):2345-53.Full text  Abstract

95. Giugliano RP, Braunwald E. The year in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Sep 6;46(5):906-19. Abstract

96. Moscucci M, Fox KA, Cannon CP, et al. Predictors of major bleeding in acute coronary syndromes: the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). Eur Heart J. 2003 Oct;24(20):1815-23.Full text  Abstract

97. Antman EM, Morrow DA, McCabe CH, et al. Enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin as antithrombin therapy in patients receiving fibrinolysis for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: design and rationale for the Enoxaparin and Thrombolysis Reperfusion for Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction study 25 (ExTRACT-TIMI 25). Am Heart J. 2005 Feb;149(2):217-26. Abstract

98. GUSTO Investigators. An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 2;329(10):673-82.Full text  Abstract

99. Keeling D, Davidson SJ, Watson H. The management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol. 2006 May;133(3):259-69. Abstract

100. Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, et al. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J. 2020 Aug 29 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

101. Keeling DM, Richards EM, Baglin TP. Platelet aggregation in response to four low molecular weight heparins and the heparinoid ORG 10172 in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol. 1994 Feb;86(2):425-6. Abstract

102. Schechtman KB, Capone RJ, Kleiger RE, et al. Risk stratification of patients with non-Q wave myocardial infarction: the critical role of ST segment depression - the Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Research Group. Circulation. 1989 Nov;80(5):1148-58. Abstract

103. Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, Talajic M. Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1995 Feb 15;91(4):999-1005.Full text  Abstract

104. Lichtman JH, Bigger JT Jr, Blumenthal JA, et al. Depression and coronary heart disease: recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association. Circulation. 2008 Oct 21;118(17):1768-75.Full text  Abstract

105. Wenger NK, Froelicher ES, Smith LK, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation as secondary prevention. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clin Pract Guidel Quick Ref Guide Clin. 1995 Oct;(17):1-23. Abstract

106. DeBusk RF, Miller NH, Superko HR, et al. A case-management system for coronary risk factor modification after acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med. 1994 May 1;120(9):721-9. Abstract

107. Witt BJ, Jacobsen SJ, Weston SA, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction in the community. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Sep 1;44(5):988-96. Abstract

108. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Cardiac rehabilitation: a national clinical guideline. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

109. Hague WE, Simes J, Kirby A, et al. Long-term effectiveness and safety of pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease: sixteen years of follow-up of the LIPID study. Circulation. 2016 May 10;133(19):1851-60. Abstract

110. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 May 15;71(19):e127-248.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer