Evaluation of chronic diarrhea


Key articles

Arasaradnam RP, Brown S, Forbes A, et al. Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea in adults: British Society of Gastroenterology, 3rd edition. Gut. 2018 Aug;67(8):1380-99.Full text  Abstract

Talley NJ. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2007 and Rome III: something new, something borrowed, something objective. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2007;7:97-105. Abstract

Makins R, Ballinger A. Gastrointestinal side effects of drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2003;2:421-429. Abstract

Spiller R. Role of motility in chronic diarrhoea. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:1045-1055. Abstract

Benson AB 3rd, Ajani JA, Catalano RB, et al. Recommended guidelines for the treatment of cancer treatment-induced diarrhea. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2918-2926. Abstract

Fine KD, Schiller LR. AGA technical review on the evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:1464-1486. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Holt PR. Intestinal malabsorption in the elderly. Dig Dis. 2007;25:144-150. Abstract

2. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:1461-1463. Abstract

3. Fernández-Bañares F, Esteve M, Salas A, et al. Systematic evaluation of the causes of chronic watery diarrhea with functional characteristics. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2520-2528. Abstract

4. Arasaradnam RP, Brown S, Forbes A, et al. Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea in adults: British Society of Gastroenterology, 3rd edition. Gut. 2018 Aug;67(8):1380-99.Full text  Abstract

5. Lewis SJ, Heaton KW. Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:920-924. Abstract

6. Bossi P, Antonuzzo A, Cherny NI, et al. Diarrhoea in adult cancer patients: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Ann Oncol. 2018 Oct;29 Suppl 4:iv126-iv142.Full text  Abstract

7. van Rheenen PF, Van de Vijver E, Fidler V. Faecal calprotectin for screening of patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c3369.Full text  Abstract

8. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Faecal calprotectin diagnostic tests for inflammatory diseases of the bowel. October 2013 [internet publication].Full text

9. Yantiss RK, Odze RD. Diagnostic difficulties in inflammatory bowel disease pathology. Histopathology. 2006;48:116-132. Abstract

10. Bossuyt X. Serologic markers in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Chem. 2006;52:171-181. Abstract

11. Quigley EM. Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: interrelated diseases? Chin J Dig Dis. 2005;6:122-132. Abstract

12. Kalla R, Ventham NT, Satsangi J, et al. Crohn's disease. BMJ. 2014;349:g6670. Abstract

13. Kafil TS, Nguyen TM, Patton PH, et al. Interventions for treating collagenous colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;11:CD003575.Full text  Abstract

14. Chande N, Al Yatama N, Bhanji T, et al. Interventions for treating lymphocytic colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 13;7:CD006096.Full text  Abstract

15. Chande N, Driman DK. Microscopic colitis associated with lansoprazole: report of two cases and a review of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:530-533. Abstract

16. Liszka L, Woszczyk D, Pajak J. Histopathological diagnosis of microscopic colitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:792-797. Abstract

17. Nyhlin N, Bohr J, Eriksson S, et al. Systematic review: microscopic colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23:1525-1534. Abstract

18. Tysk C, Bohr J, Olesen M, et al. Microscopic colitis - more common cause of diarrhea than believed. Biopsies are the only way to diagnosis, drug treatment is effective. Lakartidningen. 2005;102:2210-2214. Abstract

19. Chang F, Deere H, Vu C. Atypical forms of microscopic colitis: morphological features and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol. 2005;12:203-211. Abstract

20. Yen EF, Pardi DS. Review article: microscopic colitis - lymphocytic, collagenous and 'mast cell' colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34:21-32.Full text  Abstract

21. Münch A, Sanders DS, Molloy-Bland M, et al. Undiagnosed microscopic colitis: a hidden cause of chronic diarrhoea and a frequently missed treatment opportunity. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2020;11(3):228-34.Full text  Abstract

22. Gibbons T, Fuchs GJ. Chronic enteropathy: clinical aspects. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2007;59:89-101. Abstract

23. de Saussure P, Hadengue A. Persistent diarrhea in the returned traveler. Rev Med Suisse. 2006;2:1235-1236, 1238-1239. Abstract

24. Diniz-Santos DR, Jambeiro J, Mascarenhas RR, et al. Massive Trichuris trichiura infection as a cause of chronic bloody diarrhea in a child. J Trop Pediatr. 2006;52:66-68. Abstract

25. Landzberg BR, Connor BA. Persistent diarrhea in the returning traveler: think beyond persistent infection. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005;40:112-114. Abstract

26. Okhuysen PC. Traveler's diarrhea due to intestinal protozoa. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:110-114. Abstract

27. Nataro JP, Sears CL. Infectious causes of persistent diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:195-196. Abstract

28. Altuntas B, Gul H, Yarali N, et al. Etiology of chronic diarrhea. Indian J Pediatr. 1999;66:657-661. Abstract

29. Feasey NA, Healey P, Gordon MA. The aetiology, investigation and management of diarrhoea in the HIV-positive patient. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34:587-603. Abstract

30. Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 29;65(12):e45-e80.Full text  Abstract

31. Flanigan T, Whalen C, Turner J, et al. Cryptosporidium infection and CD4 counts. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:840-842. Abstract

32. Talley NJ. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2007 and Rome III: something new, something borrowed, something objective. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2007;7:97-105. Abstract

33. Gilkin RJ Jr. The spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review. Clin Ther. 2005;27:1696-1709. Abstract

34. Farthing MJ. Functional diarrhea. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:350-357. Abstract

35. Naim HY. Molecular and cellular aspects and regulation of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Histol Histopathol. 2001;16:553-561. Abstract

36. Sellin JH. The pathophysiology of diarrhea. Clin Transplant. 2001;15(suppl 4):2-10. Abstract

37. Ratnaike RN, Jones TE. Mechanisms of drug-induced diarrhoea in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 1998;13:245-253. Abstract

38. Shiau YF. Clinical and laboratory approaches to evaluate diarrheal disorders. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1987;25:43-69. Abstract

39. Makins R, Ballinger A. Gastrointestinal side effects of drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2003;2:421-429. Abstract

40. Baker EH, Sandle GI. Complications of laxative abuse. Annu Rev Med. 1996;47:127-134. Abstract

41. Leffler DA, Dennis M, Hyett B, et al. Etiologies and predictors of diagnosis in nonresponsive celiac disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:445-450. Abstract

42. Leffler DA, Kelly CP. Update on the evaluation and diagnosis of celiac disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;6:191-196. Abstract

43. Leffler D, Saha S, Farrell RJ. Celiac disease. Am J Manag Care. 2003;9:825-831. Abstract

44. Farrell RJ, Kelly CP. Celiac sprue. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 17;346(3):180-8. Abstract

45. Hofmann AF. Biliary secretion and excretion in health and disease: current concepts. Ann Hepatol. 2007;6:15-27. Abstract

46. Porter JL, Fordtran JS, Santa Ana CA, et al. Accurate enzymatic measurement of fecal bile acids in patients with malabsorption. J Lab Clin Med. 2003;141:411-418. Abstract

47. Lanzini A, Lanzarotto F. Review article: the 'mechanical pumps' and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids - defects in coeliac disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14(suppl 2):58-61. Abstract

48. DiBaise JK, Paustian FF. Steatorrhea and weight loss in a 72-year-old man: primary biliary cirrhosis? Celiac disease? Bacterial overgrowth? What else? Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:2226-2230. Abstract

49. Bai J. Malabsorption syndromes. Digestion. 1998;59:530-546. Abstract

50. Craddock AL, Love MW, Daniel RW, et al. Expression and transport properties of the human ileal and renal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:G157-G169.Full text  Abstract

51. Rossi E, Lentze MJ. Clinical significance of enzymatic deficiencies in the gastrointestinal tract with particular reference to lactase deficiency. Ann Allergy. 1984;53:649-656. Abstract

52. Alpers DH, Seetharam B. Pathophysiology of diseases involving intestinal brush-border proteins. N Engl J Med. 1977;296:1047-1050. Abstract

53. Sibley E. Carbohydrate intolerance. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004;20:162-167. Abstract

54. Riordan SM, Kim R. Bacterial overgrowth as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006;22:669-673. Abstract

55. Elphick HL, Elphick DA, Sanders DS. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth. An under recognized cause of malnutrition in older adults. Geriatrics. 2006;61:21-26. Abstract

56. Van Citters GW, Lin HC. Management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:317-320. Abstract

57. Keller J, Franke A, Storr M, et al. Clinically relevant breath tests in gastroenterological diagnostics - recommendations of the German Society for Neurogastroenterology and Motility as well as the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases [in German]. Z Gastroenterol. 2005;43:1071-1090. Abstract

58. Pimentel M, Saad RJ, Long MD, et al. ACG clinical guideline: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020 Feb;115(2):165-78.Full text  Abstract

59. Losurdo G, Leandro G, Ierardi E, et al. Breath tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2020 Jan 30;26(1):16-28.Full text  Abstract

60. David-Henriau L, Bui S, Molinari I, et al. Fecal elastase-1: a useful test in pediatric practice [in French]. Arch Pediatr. 2005;12:1221-1225. Abstract

61. Dominguez-Munoz JE. Pancreatic enzyme therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007;9:116-122. Abstract

62. DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006;22:487-497. Abstract

63. Bricker LA, Such F, Loehrke ME, et al. Intractable diarrhea in hyperthyroidism: management with beta-adrenergic blockade. Endocr Pract. 2001;7:28-31. Abstract

64. Sharma S, Longo WE, Baniadam B, et al. Colorectal manifestations of endocrine disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38:318-323. Abstract

65. Alam MJ. Chronic refractory diarrhoea: a manifestation of endocrine disorders. Dig Dis. 1994;12:46-61. Abstract

66. Chandran M, Chu NV, Edelman SV. Gastrointestinal disturbances in diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2003;3:43-48. Abstract

67. Valdovinos MA, Camilleri M, Zimmerman BR. Chronic diarrhea in diabetes mellitus: mechanisms and an approach to diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993;68:691-702. Abstract

68. Spiller R. Role of motility in chronic diarrhoea. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:1045-1055. Abstract

69. Wilson SA, Rex DK. Endoscopic treatment of chronic radiation proctopathy. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006;22:536-540. Abstract

70. Benson AB 3rd, Ajani JA, Catalano RB, et al. Recommended guidelines for the treatment of cancer treatment-induced diarrhea. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2918-2926. Abstract

71. Lee JJ, Furuta GT. Upper gastrointestinal tract eosinophilic disorders: pathobiology and management. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2006;8:439-442. Abstract

72. Baig MA, Qadir A, Rasheed J. A review of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98:1616-1619. Abstract

73. Sampson HA, Sicherer SH, Birnbaum AH. AGA technical review on the evaluation of food allergy in gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:1026-1040. Abstract

74. Sicherer SH. Clinical aspects of gastrointestinal food allergy in childhood. Pediatrics. 2003;111:1609-1616. Abstract

75. Butterfield JH, Murray JA. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and gluten-sensitive enteropathy in the same patient. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;34:552-553. Abstract

76. Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ. Allergic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001;4:553-556. Abstract

77. Westvik TS, Longo WE. Ischemic colitis. Rozhl Chir. 2005;84:476-481. Abstract

78. Sreenarasimhaiah J. Diagnosis and management of ischemic colitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:421-426. Abstract

79. Green BT, Tendler DA. Ischemic colitis: a clinical review. South Med J. 2005;98:217-222. Abstract

80. Misiakos EP, Macheras A, Kapetanakis T, et al. Short bowel syndrome: current medical and surgical trends. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:5-18. Abstract

81. Abell TL, Minocha A. Gastrointestinal complications of bariatric surgery: diagnosis and therapy. Am J Med Sci. 2006;331:214-218. Abstract

82. Carvajal SH, Mulvihill SJ. Postgastrectomy syndromes: dumping and diarrhea. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1994;23:261-279. Abstract

83. Eagon JC, Miedema BW, Kelly KA. Postgastrectomy syndromes. Surg Clin North Am. 1992;72:445-465. Abstract

84. Faucheron JL. Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the large bowel. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;11:389-392. Abstract

85. Zalev AH, Gardiner GW, Warren RE. NSAID injury to the small intestine. Abdom Imaging. 1998;23:40-44. Abstract

86. Faucheron JL, Parc R. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1996;11:99-101. Abstract

87. Davies NM. Toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the large intestine. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38:1311-1321. Abstract

88. Zhang WY, Li GD, Liu WP, et al. Features of intestinal T-cell lymphomas in Chinese population without evidence of celiac disease and their close association with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:1542-1548. Abstract

89. Fine KD, Schiller LR. AGA technical review on the evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:1464-1486. Abstract

90. Florent C, L'Hirondel C, Desmazures C, et al. Intestinal clearance of alpha 1-antitrypsin. A sensitive method for the detection of protein-losing enteropathy. Gastroenterology. 1981;81:777-780. Abstract

91. Sanders JE. Chronic graft-versus-host disease and late effects after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2002;76(suppl 2):15-28. Abstract

92. Papadopoulou A, Lloyd DR, Williams MD, et al. Gastrointestinal and nutritional sequelae of bone marrow transplantation. Arch Dis Child. 1996;75:208-213. Abstract

93. Snover DC. Graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14(suppl 1):101-108. Abstract

94. Catassi C, Bearzi I, Holmes GK. Association of celiac disease and intestinal lymphomas and other cancers. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:S79-S86. Abstract

95. Ramakrishna BS, Venkataraman S, Mukhopadhya A. Tropical malabsorption. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82:779-787. Abstract

96. Nath SK. Tropical sprue. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:343-349. Abstract

97. Westergaard H. Tropical sprue. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2004;7:7-11. Abstract

98. Rodriguez Leal G. Intestinal lymphangiectasia: a forgotten cause of chronic diarrhea. Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2006;71:55-58. Abstract

99. Roy PK, Venzon DJ, Shojamanesh H, et al. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: clinical presentation in 261 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000 Nov;79(6):379-411. Abstract

100. Oberg K, Kvols L, Caplin M, et al. Consensus report on the use of somatostatin analogs for the management of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system. Ann Oncol. 2004 Jun;15(6):966-73.Full text  Abstract

101. Selimoglu MA, Esrefoglu M, Gundogdu C. Abetalipoproteinemia: a case report. Turk J Pediatr. 2001;43:243-245. Abstract

102. Berriot-Varoqueaux N, Aggerbeck LP, Samson-Bouma M. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and abetalipoproteinemia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2000;61:125-129. Abstract

103. Ogershok PR, Hogan MB, Welch JE, et al. Spectrum of illness in pediatric common variable immunodeficiency. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:653-656. Abstract

104. Kalha I, Sellin JH. Common variable immunodeficiency and the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2004;6:377-383. Abstract

105. Luzi G, Zullo A, Iebba F, et al. Duodenal pathology and clinical-immunological implications in common variable immunodeficiency patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:118-121. Abstract

106. Bloch-Michel C, Viallard JF, Blanco P, et al. Common variable immunodeficiency: 17 observations in the adult. Rev Med Interne. 2003;24:640-650. Abstract

107. el-Salhy M, Nyhlin N, Ando Y, et al. The neuroendocrine system and gastrointestinal complications in patients with familial amyloidosis and polyneuropathy. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:849-854. Abstract

108. Lovat LB, Pepys MB, Hawkins PN. Amyloid and the gut. Dig Dis. 1997;15:155-171. Abstract

109. Eganian GA, Arutiunian VM. Gastroenteropathies in patients with periodic disease and amyloidosis [in Russian]. Ter Arkh. 1990;62:79-85. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer