References

Key articles

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Shehata MM, Gomaa MR, Ali MA, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review. Front Med. 2016;10:120-136.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Alraddadi BM, Watson JT, Almarashi A, et al. Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus illness in humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:49-55.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Zumla A, Hui DS, Perlman S. Middle East respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2015;386:995-1007.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is suspected. Interim guidance. July 2015 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Chong YP, Song JY, Seo YB, et al. Antiviral treatment guidelines for Middle East respiratory syndrome. Infect Chemother. 2015;47:212-222.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Reference articles

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6. Oboho IK, Tomczyk SM, Al-Asmari AM, et al. 2014 MERS-CoV outbreak in Jeddah - a link to health care facilities. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:846-854.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

7. Assiri A, McGeer A, Perl TM, et al. Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:407-416.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

8. Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761.Abstract external link opens in a new window

9. Al-Tawfiq JA, Hinedi K, Ghandour J, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a case-control study of hospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:160-165.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

10. Memish ZA, Zumla AI, Assiri A. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections in health care workers. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:884-886.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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19. Lee SI. Costly lessons from the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea. J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48:274-276.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

20. Hui DS, Perlman S, Zumla A. Spread of MERS to South Korea and China. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3:509-510.Abstract external link opens in a new window

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26. Omrani AS, Saad MM, Baig K, et al. Ribavirin and interferon alfa-2a for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:1090-1095.Abstract external link opens in a new window

27. Saad M, Omrani AS, Baig K, et al. Clinical aspects and outcomes of 70 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a single-center experience in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;29:301-306.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

28. Alenazi TH, Al Arbash H, El-Saed A, et al. Identified transmission dynamics of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection during an outbreak: implications of an overcrowded emergency department. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65:675-679.Abstract external link opens in a new window

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30. Memish ZA, Zumla AI, Al-Hakeem RF, et al. Family cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:2487-2494.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

31. Omrani AS, Matin MA, Haddad Q, et al. A family cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus infections related to a likely unrecognized asymptomatic or mild case. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e668-e672.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

32. Memish ZA, Cotten M, Watson SJ, et al. Community case clusters of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;23:63-68.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

33. Al-Abdallat MM, Payne DC, Alqasrawi S, et al. Hospital-associated outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a serologic, epidemiologic, and clinical description. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:1225-1233.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

34. Shehata MM, Gomaa MR, Ali MA, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review. Front Med. 2016;10:120-136.Abstract external link opens in a new window

35. van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Lauber C, et al. Genomic characterization of a newly discovered coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. MBio. 2012;3:e00473-12.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

36. Raj VS, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA, et al. MERS: emergence of a novel human coronavirus. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;5:58-62.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

37. Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28:465-522.Abstract external link opens in a new window

38. Cotten M, Watson SJ, Zumla AI, et al. Spread, circulation, and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. MBio. 2014;5:e01062-13.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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41. Reusken CB, Ababneh M, Raj VS, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) serology in major livestock species in an affected region in Jordan, June to September 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20662.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

42. Perera RA, Wang P, Gomaa MR, et al. Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, June 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20574.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

43. Muller MA, Corman VM, Jores J, et al. MERS coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in camels, Eastern Africa, 1983-1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:2093-2095.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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45. Hemida MG, Perera RA, Wang P, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20659.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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47. Alagaili AN, Briese T, Mishra N, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio. 2014;5:e00884-14.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

48. Alexandersen S, Kobinger GP, Soule G, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2014;61:105-108.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

49. Ferguson NM, Van Kerkhove MD. Identification of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:93-94.Abstract external link opens in a new window

50. Hemida MG, Chu DK, Poon LL, et al. MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infect Dis. 2014;20:1231-1234.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

51. Hemida MG, Elmoslemany A, Al-Hizab F, et al. Dromedary camels and the transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017;64:344-353.Abstract external link opens in a new window

52. Hemida MG, Perera RA, Al Jassim RA, et al. Seroepidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus in Saudi Arabia (1993) and Australia (2014) and characterisation of assay specificity. Euro Surveill. 2014;19:20828.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

53. Nowotny N, Kolodziejek J. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels, Oman, 2013. Euro Surveill. 2014;19:20781.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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55. Farag EA, Reusken CB, Haagmans BL, et al. High proportion of MERS-CoV shedding dromedaries at slaughterhouse with a potential epidemiological link to human cases, Qatar 2014. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015;5:28305.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

56. Briese T, Mishra N, Jain K, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus quasispecies that include homologues of human isolates revealed through whole-genome analysis and virus cultured from dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio. 2014;5:e01146-14.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

57. Adney DR, van Doremalen N, Brown VR, et al. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in upper respiratory tract of inoculated dromedary camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1999-2005.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

58. Anthony SJ, Gilardi K, Menachery VD, et al. Further evidence for bats as the evolutionary source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. MBio. 2017;8:e00373-17.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

59. Haagmans BL, Al Dhahiry SH, Reusken CB, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: an outbreak investigation. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:140-145.Abstract external link opens in a new window

60. Al Hammadi AM, Chu DKW, Eltahir YM, et al. Asymptomatic MERS-CoV infection in humans possibly linked to infected dromedaries imported from Oman to United Arab Emirates, May 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:2197-2200.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

61. Memish ZA, Cotten M, Meyer B, et al. Human infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1012-1015.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

62. Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, et al. Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2499-2505.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

63. Hemida MG, Al-Naeem A, Perera RA, et al. Lack of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission from infected camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:699-701.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

64. Alraddadi BM, Watson JT, Almarashi A, et al. Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus illness in humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:49-55.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

65. Kim SH, Chang SY, Sung M, et al. Extensive viable Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus contamination in air and surrounding environment in MERS isolation wards. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:363-369.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MERS clinical features. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

67. Park HY, Lee EJ, Ryu YW, et al. Epidemiological investigation of MERS-CoV spread in a single hospital in South Korea, May to June 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:21169.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

68. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Munster VJ. Stability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) under different environmental conditions. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20590.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

69. Bin SY, Heo JY, Song MS, et al. Environmental contamination and viral shedding in MERS patients during MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:755-760.Abstract external link opens in a new window

70. Cauchemez S, Van Kerkhove MD, Riley S, et al. Transmission scenarios for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and how to tell them apart. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20503.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

71. Cauchemez S, Fraser C, Van Kerkhove MD, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: quantification of the extent of the epidemic, surveillance biases, and transmissibility. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:50-56.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

72. Breban R, Riou J, Fontanet A. Interhuman transmissibility of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: estimation of pandemic risk. Lancet. 2013;382:694-699.Abstract external link opens in a new window

73. Zumla A, Hui DS. Infection control and MERS-CoV in health-care workers. Lancet. 2014;383:1869-1871.Abstract external link opens in a new window

74. Raj VS, Mou H, Smits SL, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC. Nature. 2013;495:251-254.Abstract external link opens in a new window

75. Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, et al. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses. 2012;4:1011-1033.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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77. Bosch BJ, Raj VS, Haagmans BL. Spiking the MERS-coronavirus receptor. Cell Res. 2013;23:1069-1070.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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80. Bialek SR, Allen D, Alvarado-Ramy F, et al. First confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States, updated information on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities - May 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:431-436.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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88. Shalhoub S, Al-Zahrani A, Simhairi R, et al. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. J Clin Virol. 2015;62:69-71.Abstract external link opens in a new window

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90. World Health Organization (WHO). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: case definition for reporting to WHO. July 2017 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

91. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim patient under investigation (PUI) guidance and case definitions. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

92. World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is suspected. Interim guidance. July 2015 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

93. Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Makhdoom HQ, et al. Respiratory tract samples, viral load, and genome fraction yield in patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:1590-1594.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

94. World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Interim guidance (revised). January 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

95. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC laboratory testing for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). June 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

96. Corman VM, Muller MA, Costabel U, et al. Assays for laboratory confirmation of novel human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) infections. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:20334.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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98. Guery B, Poissy J, el Mansouf L, et al. Clinical features and viral diagnosis of two cases of infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus: a report of nosocomial transmission. Lancet. 2013;381:2265-2272.Abstract external link opens in a new window

99. Lee SI. Costly lessons from the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea. J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48:274-276.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

100. Reuss A, Litterst A, Drosten C, et al. Contact investigation for imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:620-625.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

101. Bialek SR, Allen D, Alvarado-Ramy F, et al. First confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States, updated information on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities - May 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:431-436.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

102. Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761.Abstract external link opens in a new window

103. Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Assiri A, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33:904-906.Abstract external link opens in a new window

104. Khuri-Bulos N, Payne DC, Lu X, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:678-682.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

105. Assiri A, McGeer A, Perl TM, et al. Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:407-416.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

106. Al-Tawfiq JA, Hinedi K, Ghandour J, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a case-control study of hospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:160-165.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

107. Shalhoub S, Farahat F, Al-Jiffri A, et al. IFN-alpha-2a or IFN-beta-1a in combination with ribavirin to treat Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus pneumonia: a retrospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70:2129-2132.Abstract external link opens in a new window

108. Shalhoub S, Al-Zahrani A, Simhairi R, et al. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. J Clin Virol. 2015;62:69-71.Abstract external link opens in a new window

109. Saad M, Omrani AS, Baig K, et al. Clinical aspects and outcomes of 70 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a single-center experience in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;29:301-306.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

110. WHO MERS-CoV Research Group. State of knowledge and data gaps of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans. PLoS Curr. 2013;5:pii ecurrents.outbreaks.0bf719e352e7478f8ad85fa30127ddb8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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