Autoimmune hepatitis

References

Key articles

Manns MP, Czaja AJ, Gorham JD, et al. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology. 2010;51:2193-2213.Full text  Abstract

Mack CL, Adams D, Assis DN, et al. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis in adults and children: 2019 practice guidance and guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2020 Aug;72(2):671-722.Full text  Abstract

Gleeson D, Heneghan MA; British Society of Gastroenterology. British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines for management of autoimmune hepatitis. Gut. 2011 Dec;60(12):1611-29.Full text  Abstract

Strassburg CP, Manns MP. Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 2009 Aug;29(3):273-85. Abstract

Selvarajah V, Montano-Loza AJ, Czaja AJ. Systematic review: managing suboptimal treatment responses in autoimmune hepatitis with conventional and nonstandard drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;36(8):691-707.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Manns MP, Czaja AJ, Gorham JD, et al. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology. 2010;51:2193-2213.Full text  Abstract

2. Zachou K, Rigopoulou E, Dalekos GN. Autoantibodies and autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis: important tools in clinical practice and to study pathogenesis of the disease. J Autoimmune Dis. 2004 Oct 15;1(1):2.Full text  Abstract

3. Krawitt EL. Autoimmune hepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 5;354(1):54-66. Abstract

4. Krawitt EL. Autoimmune hepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:54-66. Abstract

5. Boberg KM. Prevalence and epidemiology of autoimmune hepatitis. Clin Liver Dis. 2002 Aug;6(3):635-47. Abstract

6. Czaja AJ. Autoimmune hepatitis: approach to diagnosis. MedGenMed. 2006 May 23;8(2):55.Full text  Abstract

7. Ngu JH, Bechly K, Chapman BA, et al. Population-based epidemiology study of autoimmune hepatitis: a disease of older women? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Oct;25(10):1681-6. Abstract

8. Grønbæk L, Vilstrup H, Jepsen P. Autoimmune hepatitis in Denmark: incidence, prevalence, prognosis, and causes of death. A nationwide registry-based cohort study. J Hepatol. 2014 Mar;60(3):612-7. Abstract

9. van Gerven NM, Verwer BJ, Witte BI, et al. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis in the Netherlands. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct;49(10):1245-54. Abstract

10. Radhakrishnan KR, Alkhouri N, Worley S, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis in children--impact of cirrhosis at presentation on natural history and long-term outcome. Dig Liver Dis. 2010 Oct;42(10):724-8. Abstract

11. Deneau M, Jensen MK, Holmen J, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and overlap in Utah children: epidemiology and natural history. Hepatology. 2013 Oct;58(4):1392-400.Full text  Abstract

12. Jiménez-Rivera C, Ling SC, Ahmed N, et al. Incidence and characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis. Pediatrics. 2015 Nov;136(5):e1237-48. Abstract

13. Moy L, Levine J. Autoimmune hepatitis: a classic autoimmune liver disease. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2014 Dec;44(11):341-6. Abstract

14. Czaja AJ. Autoimmune liver disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 May;22(3):234-40. Abstract

15. Jenkins A, Austin A, Hughes K, et al. Infliximab-induced autoimmune hepatitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2021 May 24;14(5):e239944. Abstract

16. Franco DL, Kale S, Lam-Himlin DM, et al. Black cohosh hepatotoxicity with autoimmune hepatitis presentation. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2017 Jan-Apr;11(1):23-8.Full text  Abstract

17. Manns MP, Vogel A. Autoimmune hepatitis, from mechanisms to therapy. Hepatology. 2006 Feb;43(2 Suppl 1):S132-44. Abstract

18. Doherty DG, Donaldson PT, Underhill JA, et al. Allelic sequence variation in the HLA class II genes and proteins in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology. 1994 Mar;19(3):609-15.Full text  Abstract

19. Mack CL, Adams D, Assis DN, et al. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis in adults and children: 2019 practice guidance and guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2020 Aug;72(2):671-722.Full text  Abstract

20. Wang Q, Yang F, Miao Q, et al. The clinical phenotypes of autoimmune hepatitis: a comprehensive review. J Autoimmun. 2016 Jan;66:98-107. Abstract

21. Potts JR, Verma S. Optimizing management in autoimmune hepatitis with liver failure at initial presentation. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Apr 28;17(16):2070-5.Full text  Abstract

22. Braga AC, Vasconcelos C, Braga J. Pregnancy with autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2016 Summer;9(3):220-4.Full text  Abstract

23. Al-Chalabi T, Underhill JA, Portmann BC, et al. Effects of serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with autoimmune hepatitis influence disease course and outcome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Dec;6(12):1389-95.Full text  Abstract

24. Giannini EG, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians. CMAJ. 2005 Feb 1;172(3):367-79.Full text  Abstract

25. Zeman MV, Hirschfield GM. Autoantibodies and liver disease: uses and abuses. Can J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr;24(4):225-31.Full text  Abstract

26. Manns MP. Antibodies to soluble liver antigen: specific marker of autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2000 Aug;33(2):326-8.Full text  Abstract

27. Sebode M, Weiler-Normann C, Liwinski T, et al. Autoantibodies in autoimmune liver disease-clinical and diagnostic relevance. Front Immunol. 2018 Mar 27;9:609.Full text  Abstract

28. Martini E, Abuaf N, Cavalli F, et al. Antibody to liver cytosol (anti-LC1) in patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis type 2. Hepatology. 1988 Nov-Dec;8(6):1662-6.Full text  Abstract

29. Abuaf N, Johanet C, Chretien P, et al. Characterization of the liver cytosol antigen type 1 reacting with autoantibodies in chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology. 1992 Oct;16(4):892-8.Full text  Abstract

30. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2015 Oct;63(4):971-1004. Abstract

31. Czaja AJ. Autoimmune liver disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 May;21(3):293-9. Abstract

32. Czaja AJ. Natural history, clinical features, and treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 1984 Feb;4(1):1-12. Abstract

33. Sue MJ, Lee EW, Saab S, et al. Transjugular liver biopsy: safe even in patients with severe coagulopathies and multiple biopsies. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2019 Jul;10(7):e00063.Full text  Abstract

34. Maharaj B, Bhoora IG. Complications associated with percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver when one, two or three specimens are taken. Postgrad Med J. 1992 Dec;68(806):964-7.Full text  Abstract

35. Tonolini M, Bianco R. HIV-related/AIDS cholangiopathy: pictorial review with emphasis on MRCP findings and differential diagnosis. Clin Imaging. 2013 Mar-Apr;37(2):219-26. Abstract

36. Alvarez F, Berg PA, Bianchi FB, et al. International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group Report: review of criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 1999 Nov;31(5):929-38. Abstract

37. Hennes EM, Zeniya M, Czaja AJ, et al. Simplified criteria for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology. 2008 Jul;48(1):169-76.Full text  Abstract

38. Gleeson D, Heneghan MA; British Society of Gastroenterology. British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines for management of autoimmune hepatitis. Gut. 2011 Dec;60(12):1611-29.Full text  Abstract

39. Lamers MM, van Oijen MG, Pronk M, et al. Treatment options for autoimmune hepatitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hepatol. 2010 Jul;53(1):191-8.Full text  Abstract

40. Yeoman AD, Longhi MS, Heneghan MA. Review article: the modern management of autoimmune hepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Apr;31(8):771-87.Full text  Abstract

41. Zandieh I, Krygier D, Wong V, et al. The use of budesonide in the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in Canada. Can J Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr;22(4):388-92.Full text  Abstract

42. Wiegand J, Schüler A, Kanzler S, et al. Budesonide in previously untreated autoimmune hepatitis. Liver Int. 2005 Oct;25(5):927-34. Abstract

43. Strassburg CP, Manns MP. Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 2009 Aug;29(3):273-85. Abstract

44. Manns MP, Woynarowski M, Kreisel W, et al. Budesonide induces remission more effectively than prednisone in a controlled trial of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2010 Oct;139(4):1198-206. Abstract

45. Danielsson A, Prytz H. Oral budesonide for treatment of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Dec;8(6):585-90. Abstract

46. Czaja AJ, Lindor KD. Failure of budesonide in a pilot study of treatment-dependent autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1312-6. Abstract

47. Csepregi A, Röcken C, Treiber G, et al. Budesonide induces complete remission in autoimmune hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar 7;12(9):1362-6. Abstract

48. Woynarowski M, Nemeth A, Baruch Y, et al; European Autoimmune Hepatitis-Budesonide Study Group. Budesonide versus prednisone with azathioprine for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2013 Nov;163(5):1347-53.e1. Abstract

49. Yu ZJ, Zhang LL, Huang TT, et al. Comparison of mycophenolate mofetil with standard treatment for autoimmune hepatitis: a meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jul;31(7):873-7. Abstract

50. Selvarajah V, Montano-Loza AJ, Czaja AJ. Systematic review: managing suboptimal treatment responses in autoimmune hepatitis with conventional and nonstandard drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;36(8):691-707.Full text  Abstract

51. Nasseri-Moghaddam S, Nikfam S, Karimian S, et al. Cyclosporine-A versus prednisolone for induction of remission in auto-immune hepatitis: interim analysis report of a randomized controlled trial. Middle East J Dig Dis. 2013 Oct;5(4):193-200.Full text  Abstract

52. Malekzadeh R, Nasseri-Moghaddam S, Kaviani MJ, et al. Cyclosporin A is a promising alternative to corticosteroids in autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2001 Jun;46(6):1321-7. Abstract

53. Molmenti EP, Netto GJ, Murray NG, et al. Incidence and recurrence of autoimmune/alloimmune hepatitis in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl. 2002 Jun;8(6):519-26.Full text  Abstract

54. Chatrath H, Allen L, Boyer TD. Use of sirolimus in the treatment of refractory autoimmune hepatitis. Am J Med. 2014 Nov;127(11):1128-31. Abstract

55. D'Agostino D, Costaguta A, Álvarez F. Successful treatment of refractory autoimmune hepatitis with rituximab. Pediatrics. 2013 Aug;132(2):e526-30. Abstract

56. Weiler-Normann C, Schramm C, Quaas A, et al. Infliximab as a rescue treatment in difficult-to-treat autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2013 Mar;58(3):529-34. Abstract

57. Wong F, Al Ibrahim B, Walsh J, et al. Infliximab-induced autoimmune hepatitis requiring liver transplantation. Clin Case Rep. 2019 Sep 27;7(11):2135-9.Full text  Abstract

58. Karanfilian B, Mahpour N, Sarkar A. Infliximab drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis in a patient with Crohn's ileocolitis. Am J Ther. 2020 Dec 29 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

59. Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Lindor KD. Ursodeoxycholic acid as adjunctive therapy for problematic type 1 autoimmune hepatitis: a randomized placebo-controlled treatment trial. Hepatology. 1999 Dec;30(6):1381-6. Abstract

60. Joshi S, Cauch-Dudek K, Wanless IR, et al. Primary biliary cirrhosis with additional features of autoimmune hepatitis: response to therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology. 2002 Feb;35(2):409-13.Full text  Abstract

61. Squires RH, Ng V, Romero R, et al. Evaluation of the pediatric patient for liver transplantation: 2014 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American Society of Transplantation and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Hepatology. 2014 Jul;60(1):362-98.Full text  Abstract

62. Kirk AP, Jain S, Pocock S, et al. Late results of the Royal Free Hospital prospective controlled trial of prednisolone therapy in hepatitis B surface antigen negative chronic active hepatitis. Gut. 1980 Jan;21(1):78-83.Full text  Abstract

63. Hoeroldt B, McFarlane E, Dube A, et al. Long-term outcomes of patients with autoimmune hepatitis managed at a nontransplant center. Gastroenterology. 2011 Jun;140(7):1980-9.Full text  Abstract

64. Czaja AJ. Rapidity of treatment response and outcome in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2009 Jul;51(1):161-7. Abstract

65. Czaja AJ, Menon KV, Carpenter HA. Sustained remission after corticosteroid therapy for type 1 autoimmune hepatitis: a retrospective analysis. Hepatology. 2002 Apr;35(4):890-7.Full text  Abstract

66. Roberts SK, Therneau TM, Czaja AJ. Prognosis of histological cirrhosis in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 1996 Mar;110(3):848-57. Abstract

67. Sucher E, Sucher R, Gradistanac T, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis-immunologically triggered liver pathogenesis-diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. J Immunol Res. 2019 Nov 25;2019:9437043.Full text  Abstract

68. Andries S, Casamayou L, Sempoux C, et al. Posttransplant immune hepatitis in pediatric liver transplant recipients: incidence and maintenance therapy with azathioprine. Transplantation. 2001 Jul 27;72(2):267-72. Abstract

69. Czaja AJ. Special clinical challenges in autoimmune hepatitis: the elderly, males, pregnancy, mild disease, fulminant onset, and nonwhite patients. Semin Liver Dis. 2009 Aug;29(3):315-30. Abstract

70. Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA. Distinctive clinical phenotype and treatment outcome of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis in the elderly. Hepatology. 2006 Mar;43(3):532-8.Full text  Abstract

71. Miyake T, Miyaoka H, Abe M, et al. Clinical characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis in older aged patients. Hepatol Res. 2006 Oct;36(2):139-42. Abstract

72. Cross TJ, Antoniades CG, Muiesan P, et al. Liver transplantation in patients over 60 and 65 years: an evaluation of long-term outcomes and survival. Liver Transpl. 2007 Oct;13(10):1382-8.Full text  Abstract

73. Candia L, Marquez J, Espinoza LR. Autoimmune hepatitis and pregnancy: a rheumatologist's dilemma. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug;35(1):49-56. Abstract

74. Francella A, Dyan A, Bodian C, et al. The safety of 6-mercaptopurine for childbearing patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort study. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jan;124(1):9-17.Full text  Abstract

75. Natekar A, Pupco A, Bozzo P, et al. Safety of azathioprine use during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician. 2011 Dec;57(12):1401-2.Full text  Abstract

76. Akbari M, Shah S, Velayos FS, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of thiopurines on birth outcomes from female and male patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Jan;19(1):15-22. Abstract

77. Viruet EJ, Torres EA. Steroid therapy in fulminant hepatic failure secondary to autoimmune hepatitis. P R Health Sci J. 1998 Sep;17(3):297-300. Abstract

78. Czaja AJ, Rakela J, Ludwig J. Features reflective of early prognosis in corticosteroid-treated severe autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 1988 Aug;95(2):448-53. Abstract

79. Montano-Loza AJ, Carpenter HA, Czaja AJ. Features associated with treatment failure in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and predictive value of the model of end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2007 Oct;46(4):1138-45. Abstract

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