Gout

References

Key articles

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Gout: diagnosis and management. June 2022. [internet publication].Full text

FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Abstract

Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):58-68.Full text  Abstract

Richette P, Doherty M, Pascual E, et al. 2016 updated EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the management of gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Jan;76(1):29-42.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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22. Dalbeth N, Merriman TR, Stamp LK. Gout. Lancet. 2016 Oct 22;388(10055):2039-52. Abstract

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25. Yagnik DR, Hillyer P, Marshall D, et al. Noninflammatory phagocytosis of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals by mouse macrophages. Implications for the control of joint inflammation in gout. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1779-1789.Full text  Abstract

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28. Nishimura A, Akahoshi T, Takahashi M, et al. Attenuation of monosodium urate crystal-induced arthritis in rabbits by a neutralizing antibody against interleukin-8. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;62:444-449. Abstract

29. Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, et al. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. 2006;440:237-241. Abstract

30. Liu R, Liote F, Rose DM, et al. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and Src kinase signaling transduce monosodium urate crystal-induced nitric oxide production and matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:247-258.Full text  Abstract

31. Bouchard L, de Medicis R, Lussier A, et al. Inflammatory microcrystals alter the functional phenotype of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro: synergism with IL-1 to overexpress cyclooxygenase-2. J Immunol. 2002;168:5310-5317.Full text  Abstract

32. Akashi A, Nakayama A, Kamatani Y, et al. A common variant of LDL receptor related protein 2 (LRP2) gene is associated with gout susceptibility: a meta-analysis in a Japanese population. Hum Cell. 2020 Apr;33(2):303-7.Full text  Abstract

33. Zhou Z, Li Z, Wang C, et al. Common variants in the SLC28A2 gene are associated with serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia and gout in Han Chinese. Hereditas. 2019 Jan 16;156:4.Full text  Abstract

34. Nakayama A, Nakatochi M, Kawamura Y, et al. Subtype-specific gout susceptibility loci and enrichment of selection pressure on ABCG2 and ALDH2 identified by subtype genome-wide meta-analyses of clinically defined gout patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 May;79(5):657-65.Full text  Abstract

35. Kawaguchi M, Nakayama A, Aoyagi Y, et al. Both variants of A1CF and BAZ1B genes are associated with gout susceptibility: a replication study and meta-analysis in a Japanese population. Hum Cell. 2021 Mar;34(2):293-9.Full text  Abstract

36. Lukkunaprasit T, Rattanasiri S, Turongkaravee S, et al. The association between genetic polymorphisms in ABCG2 and SLC2A9 and urate: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med Genet. 2020 Oct 21;21(1):210.Full text  Abstract

37. Singh JA, Reddy SG, Kundukulam J. Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011;23:192-202. Abstract

38. Wilson JM, Young AB, Kelley WN. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. The molecular basis of the clinical syndromes. N Engl J Med. 1983 Oct 13;309(15):900-10. Abstract

39. Glynn RJ, Campion EW, Silbert JE. Trends in serum uric acid levels 1961-1980. Arthritis Rheum. 1983;26:87-93. Abstract

40. Emmerson B. Hyperlipidaemia in hyperuricaemia and gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:509-510.Full text  Abstract

41. Rathmann W, Funkhouser E, Dyer AR, et al. Relations of hyperuricemia with the various components of the insulin resistance syndrome in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Ann Epidemiol. 1998;8:250-261. Abstract

42. Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, et al. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;59:539-543.Full text  Abstract

43. Yamashita S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, et al. Studies on the impaired metabolism of uric acid in obese subjects: marked reduction of renal urate excretion and its improvement by a low-calorie diet. Int J Obes. 1986;10:255-264. Abstract

44. Nielsen SM, Bartels EM, Henriksen M, et al. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Nov;76(11):1870-1882.Full text  Abstract

45. Ter Maaten JC, Voorburg A, Heine RJ, et al. Renal handling of urate and sodium during acute physiological hyperinsulinaemia in healthy subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 1997;92:51-58. Abstract

46. MacFarlane LA, Liu CC, Solomon DH. The effect of initiating pharmacologic insulin on serum uric acid levels in patients with diabetes: a matched cohort analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015 Apr;44(5):592-6.Full text  Abstract

47. Prebis JW, Gruskin AB, Polinsky MS, et al. Uric acid in childhood essential hypertension. J Pediatr. 1981;98:702-707. Abstract

48. Baker JF, Krishnan E, Chen L, et al. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: recent developments, and where do they leave us? Am J Med. 2005;118:816-826. Abstract

49. Li X, Li L, Xing Y, et al. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a lower risk of gout: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020:5470739.Full text  Abstract

50. Abhishek A, Courtney P, Jenkins W, et al. Brief report: monosodium urate monohydrate crystal deposits are common in asymptomatic sons of patients with gout: the Sons of Gout Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;70(11):1847-52.Full text  Abstract

51. Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, See LC, et al. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Feb;74(2):369-74.Full text  Abstract

52. Sivera F, Andrés M, Carmona L, et al. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout: integrating systematic literature review and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Feb;73(2):328-35.Full text  Abstract

53. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Gout: diagnosis and management. June 2022. [internet publication].Full text

54. Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, et al. Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout. Arthritis Rheum. 1977;20:895-900. Abstract

55. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:2557-2568.Full text  Abstract

56. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1789-1798.Full text  Abstract

57. Hainer BL, Matheson E, Wilkes RT. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gout. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Dec 15;90(12):831-6.Full text  Abstract

58. Qaseem A, McLean RM, Starkey M, et al. Diagnosis of acute gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):52-7.Full text  Abstract

59. Bădulescu M, Macovei L, Rezuş E. Acute gout attack with normal serum uric acid levels. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2014 Oct-Dec;118(4):942-5. Abstract

60. Lee YH, Song GG. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in patients with gout: a meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Apr;47(5):703-9. Abstract

61. Zhang Q, Gao F, Sun W, et al. The diagnostic performance of musculoskeletal ultrasound in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 6;13(7):e0199672.Full text  Abstract

62. Ogdie A, Taylor WJ, Weatherall M, et al. Imaging modalities for the classification of gout: systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1868-1874. Abstract

63. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: chronic extremity joint pain - suspected inflammatory arthritis. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

64. Carotti M, Salaffi F, Filippucci E, et al. Clinical utility of dual energy computed tomography in gout: current concepts and applications. Acta Biomed. 2020 Jul 13;91(8-s):116-24.Full text  Abstract

65. Ramon A, Bohm-Sigrand A, Pottecher P, et al. Role of dual-energy CT in the diagnosis and follow-up of gout: systematic analysis of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Mar;37(3):587-95. Abstract

66. Chen J, Liao M, Zhang H, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT and ultrasound in gouty arthritis: a systematic review. Z Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;76(8):723-9. Abstract

67. Yu Z, Mao T, Xu Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Dec;47(12):1587-93. Abstract

68. Gamala M, Jacobs JWG, van Laar JM. The diagnostic performance of dual energy CT for diagnosing gout: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Dec 1;58(12):2117-21. Abstract

69. Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1301-1311. Abstract

70. Rettenbacher T, Ennemoser S, Weirich H, et al. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray. Eur Radiol. 2008 Mar;18(3):621-30. Abstract

71. Ahmed I, Gertner E. Safety of arthrocentesis and joint injection in patients receiving anticoagulation at therapeutic levels. Am J Med. 2012 Mar;125(3):265-9.Full text  Abstract

72. Bashir MA, Ray R, Sarda P, et al. Determination of a safe INR for joint injections in patients taking warfarin. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2015 Nov;97(8):589-91.Full text  Abstract

73. Primary Care Rheumatology Society. Joint and soft tissue injection guidelines. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

74. Mushtaq S, Choudhary R, Scanzello CR. Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis-related pain in the elderly. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011 Sep;4(3):113-22.Full text  Abstract

75. Bashir MA, Ray R, Sarda P, et al. Determination of a safe INR for joint injections in patients taking warfarin. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2015 Nov;97(8):589-91.Full text  Abstract

76. Mushtaq S, Choudhary R, Scanzello CR. Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis-related pain in the elderly. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011;4:113-122.Full text  Abstract

77. Neustadt DH. Intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cleve Clin J Med. 2006;73:897-898, 901-904, 906-911. Abstract

78. Chowalloor PV, Siew TK, Keen HI. Imaging in gout: a review of the recent developments. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2014;6:131-143.Full text  Abstract

79. Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Rheumatoid factor in the serum of gouty patients. Arthritis Rheum. 1977;20:1559-1560. Abstract

80. Niewold TB, Harrison MJ, Paget SA. Anti-CCP antibody testing as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in rheumatoid arthritis. QJM. 2007;100:193-201.Full text  Abstract

81. Ory PA, Gladman DD, Mease PJ. Psoriatic arthritis and imaging. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 Mar;64 Suppl 2:ii55-7.Full text  Abstract

82. Richette P, Doherty M, Pascual E, et al. 2018 updated European League Against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis of gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Jan;79(1):31-8.Full text  Abstract

83. FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Abstract

84. Billy CA, Lim RT, Ruospo M, et al. Corticosteroid or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of acute gout: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;45(1):128-36.Full text  Abstract

85. Zhang X, Tang Y, Wang M, et al. The clinical efficacy of urate-lowering therapy in acute gout: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Rheumatol. 2021 Feb;40(2):701-10. Abstract

86. Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):58-68.Full text  Abstract

87. van Durme CM, Wechalekar MD, Landewé RB, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for acute gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Dec 9;12:CD010120.Full text  Abstract

88. Li M, Yu C, Zeng X. Comparative efficacy of traditional non-selective NSAIDs and selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors in patients with acute gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 10;10(9):e036748.Full text  Abstract

89. Curiel RV, Guzman NJ. Challenges associated with the management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;42:166-178. Abstract

90. McKenzie BJ, Wechalekar MD, Johnston RV, et al. Colchicine for acute gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 26;8:CD006190.Full text  Abstract

91. Stewart S, Yang KCK, Atkins K, et al. Adverse events during oral colchicine use: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Arthritis Res Ther. 2020 Feb 13;22(1):28.Full text  Abstract

92. Singer A, Grinshpun-Cohen J, Sagi-Dain L. Colchicine treatment increases the risk for fetal chromosomal aberrations - an observational study and systematic literature review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021 May 14;60(5):2342-7.Full text  Abstract

93. Janssen CA, Oude Voshaar MAH, Vonkeman HE, et al. Anakinra for the treatment of acute gout flares: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, non-inferiority trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Jan 2 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

94. Saag K, So A, Khanna P, et al. THU0409 a randomized, phase 2 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of anakinra in difficult-to-treat acute gouty arthritis: the anaGO study. 2020;79 (Suppl 1):442.Full text

95. Schlesinger N, Alten RE, Bardin T, et al. Canakinumab for acute gouty arthritis in patients with limited treatment options: results from two randomised, multicentre, active-controlled, double-blind trials and their initial extensions. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1839-1848. Abstract

96. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA briefing document supplemental BLA 125319: Ilaris (canakinumab) for the following proposed indication: "ILARIS is indicated for the treatment of gouty arthritis attacks. ILARIS has also been shown to extend the time to the next attack and reduce the frequency of subsequent attacks."June 2011 [internet publication].

97. Ayoub-Charette S, Liu Q, Khan TA, et al. Important food sources of fructose-containing sugars and incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2019 May 5;9(5):e024171.Full text  Abstract

98. Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Saneei P, Larijani B, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and dietary fructose in relation to risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60(1):1-10. Abstract

99. Moi JH, Sriranganathan MK, Edwards CJ, et al. Lifestyle interventions for chronic gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD010039.Full text  Abstract

100. Andrés M, Sivera F, Buchbinder R, et al. Dietary supplements for chronic gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 12;11:CD010156.Full text  Abstract

101. Hill EM, Sky K, Sit M, et al. Does starting allopurinol prolong acute treated gout? A randomized clinical trial. J Clin Rheumatol. 2015 Apr;21(3):120-5. Abstract

102. Taylor TH, Mecchella JN, Larson RJ, et al. Initiation of allopurinol at first medical contact for acute attacks of gout: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Med. 2012 Nov;125(11):1126-34. Abstract

103. Dalbeth N, Doyle AJ, Billington K, et al. Intensive serum urate lowering with oral urate-lowering therapy for erosive gout: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2022 Jun;74(6):1059-69.Full text  Abstract

104. Yin R, Li L, Zhang G, et al. Rate of adherence to urate-lowering therapy among patients with gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2018 Apr 10;8(4):e017542.Full text  Abstract

105. Beslon V, Moreau P, Maruani A, et al. Effects of discontinuation of urate-lowering therapy: a systematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Mar;33(3):358-66.Full text  Abstract

106. Wei J, Choi HK, Neogi T, et al. Allopurinol initiation and all-cause mortality among patients with gout and concurrent chronic kidney disease : a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2022 Apr;175(4):461-70.Full text  Abstract

107. Dalbeth N, Billington K, Doyle A, et al. Effects of allopurinol dose escalation on bone erosion and urate volume in gout: a dual-energy computed tomography imaging study within a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Oct;71(10):1739-46. Abstract

108. Stamp LK, Taylor WJ, Jones PB, et al. Starting dose is a risk factor for allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome: a proposed safe starting dose of allopurinol. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2529-2536. Abstract

109. Vargas-Santos AB, Peloquin CE, Zhang Y, et al. Association of chronic kidney disease with allopurinol use in gout treatment. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Nov 1;178(11):1526-33.Full text  Abstract

110. Krishnan E, Akhras KS, Sharma H, et al. Serum urate and incidence of kidney disease among veterans with gout. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:1166-1172.Full text  Abstract

111. Yang CY, Chen CH, Deng ST, et al. Allopurinol use and risk of fatal hypersensitivity reactions: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175:1550-1557. Abstract

112. Lin CW, Huang WI, Chao PH, et al. Risk of cutaneous adverse reactions associated with allopurinol or febuxostat in real-world patients: a nationwide study. Int J Clin Pract. 2019 May;73(5):e13316. Abstract

113. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA adds Boxed Warning for increased risk of death with gout medicine Uloric (febuxostat). Feb 2019 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

114. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Febuxostat (Adenuric): increased risk of cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality in clinical trial in patients with a history of major cardiovascular disease. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

115. Becker MA, Schumacher HR Jr, Wortmann RL, et al. Febuxostat compared with allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2450-2461.Full text  Abstract

116. Schumacher HR Jr, Becker MA, Wortmann RL, et al. Effects of febuxostat versus allopurinol and placebo in reducing serum urate in subjects with hyperuricemia and gout: a 28-week, phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59:1540-1548.Full text  Abstract

117. Becker MA, Schumacher HR, MacDonald PA, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of successful longterm urate lowering with febuxostat or allopurinol in subjects with gout. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1273-1282. Abstract

118. O'Dell JR, Brophy MT, Pillinger MH, et al. Comparative effectiveness of allopurinol and febuxostat in gout management. NEJM Evid. 2022 Mar;1(3):10.1056/evidoa2100028.Full text  Abstract

119. Ernst ME, Fravel MA. Febuxostat: a selective xanthine-oxidase/xanthine-dehydrogenase inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in adults with gout. Clin Ther. 2009;31:2503-2518. Abstract

120. Stevenson M, Pandor A. Febuxostat for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in people with gout: a single technology appraisal. Health Technol Assess. 2009;13(Suppl 3):37-42. Abstract

121. White WB, Saag KG, Becker MA, et al. Cardiovascular safety of febuxostat or allopurinol in patients with gout. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 12;378(13):1200-10.Full text  Abstract

122. Barrientos-Regala M, Macabeo RA, Ramirez-Ragasa R, et al. The association of febuxostat compared with allopurinol on blood pressure and major adverse cardiac events among adult patients with hyperuricemia: a meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2020 Oct;76(4):461-71. Abstract

123. Zhao L, Cao L, Zhao TY, et al. Cardiovascular events in hyperuricemia population and a cardiovascular benefit-risk assessment of urate-lowering therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2020 Apr 20;133(8):982-93.Full text  Abstract

124. Hay CA, Prior JA, Belcher J, et al. Mortality in patients with gout treated with allopurinol: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Jul;73(7):1049-54.Full text  Abstract

125. Hui M, Carr A, Cameron S, et al; British Society for Rheumatology Standards, Audit and Guidelines Working Group. The British Society for Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jul 1;56(7):e1-20. [Erratum in: Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jul 1;56(7):1246.]Full text  Abstract

126. Sundy JS, Baraf HS, Yood RA, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2011;306:711-720.Full text  Abstract

127. Sriranganathan MK, Vinik O, Pardo Pardo J, et al. Interventions for tophi in gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 11;8:CD010069.Full text  Abstract

128. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Febuxostat for the management of hyperuricaemia in people with gout. Dec 2008 [internet publication].Full text

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