Gout

References

Key articles

Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1093-1103.Full text  Abstract

Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:499-516. Abstract

Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1301-1311. Abstract

FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Abstract

FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Jackson G, Wright C, Thornley S, et al. Potential unmet need for gout diagnosis and treatment: capture-recapture analysis of a national administrative dataset. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Oct;51(10):1820-4.Full text  Abstract

3. Chen-Xu M, Yokose C, Rai SK, et al. Contemporary prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the United States and decadal trends: the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2016. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jun;71(6):991-9.Full text  Abstract

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5. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1093-1103.Full text  Abstract

6. Cea Soriano L, Rothenbacher D, Choi HK, et al. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Mar 3;13(2):R39.Full text  Abstract

7. Mikuls TR, Farrar JT, Bilker WB, et al. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK general practice research database, 1990-1999. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:267-272.Full text  Abstract

8. Singh JA, Reddy SG, Kundukulam J. Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011;23:192-202. Abstract

9. Campion EW, Glynn RJ, DeLabry LO. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Risks and consequences in the Normative Aging Study. Am J Med. 1987;82:421-426. Abstract

10. Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:499-516. Abstract

11. Ben Salem C, Slim R, Fathallah N, et al. Drug-induced hyperuricaemia and gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 May 1;56(5):679-88.Full text  Abstract

12. Afridi SM, Reddy S, Raja A, et al. Gout due to tacrolimus in a liver transplant recipient. Cureus. 2019 Mar 13;11(3):e4247.Full text  Abstract

13. Arromdee E, Michet CJ, Crowson CS, et al. Epidemiology of gout: is the incidence rising? J Rheumatol. 2002;29:2403-2406. Abstract

14. Evans PL, Prior JA, Belcher J, et al. Obesity, hypertension and diuretic use as risk factors for incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018 Jul 5;20(1):136.Full text  Abstract

15. Li R, Yu K, Li C. Dietary factors and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(6):1344-56.Full text  Abstract

16. Major TJ, Topless RK, Dalbeth N, et al. Evaluation of the diet wide contribution to serum urate levels: meta-analysis of population based cohorts. BMJ. 2018 Oct 10;363:k3951.Full text  Abstract

17. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men: the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:742-748.Full text  Abstract

18. Lee J, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, et al. Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk: evidence for a role of uric acid in obesity-insulin resistance syndrome. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:288-294. Abstract

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22. Dalbeth N, Merriman TR, Stamp LK. Gout. Lancet. 2016 Oct 22;388(10055):2039-52. Abstract

23. Shoji A, Yamanaka H, Kamatani N. A retrospective study of the relationship between serum urate level and recurrent attacks of gouty arthritis: evidence for reduction of recurrent gouty arthritis with antihyperuricemic therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;51:321-325.Full text  Abstract

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25. Yagnik DR, Hillyer P, Marshall D, et al. Noninflammatory phagocytosis of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals by mouse macrophages. Implications for the control of joint inflammation in gout. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1779-1789.Full text  Abstract

26. Cronstein BN, Molad Y, Reibman J, et al. Colchicine alters the quantitative and qualitative display of selectins on endothelial cells and neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1995 Aug;96(2):994-1002.Full text  Abstract

27. Terkeltaub R, Zachariae C, Santoro D, et al. Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 is a potential mediator of crystal-induced inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34:894-903. Abstract

28. Nishimura A, Akahoshi T, Takahashi M, et al. Attenuation of monosodium urate crystal-induced arthritis in rabbits by a neutralizing antibody against interleukin-8. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;62:444-449. Abstract

29. Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, et al. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. 2006;440:237-241. Abstract

30. Liu R, Liote F, Rose DM, et al. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and Src kinase signaling transduce monosodium urate crystal-induced nitric oxide production and matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:247-258.Full text  Abstract

31. Bouchard L, de Medicis R, Lussier A, et al. Inflammatory microcrystals alter the functional phenotype of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro: synergism with IL-1 to overexpress cyclooxygenase-2. J Immunol. 2002;168:5310-5317.Full text  Abstract

32. Akashi A, Nakayama A, Kamatani Y, et al. A common variant of LDL receptor related protein 2 (LRP2) gene is associated with gout susceptibility: a meta-analysis in a Japanese population. Hum Cell. 2020 Apr;33(2):303-7.Full text  Abstract

33. Zhou Z, Li Z, Wang C, et al. Common variants in the SLC28A2 gene are associated with serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia and gout in Han Chinese. Hereditas. 2019 Jan 16;156:4.Full text  Abstract

34. Nakayama A, Nakatochi M, Kawamura Y, et al. Subtype-specific gout susceptibility loci and enrichment of selection pressure on ABCG2 and ALDH2 identified by subtype genome-wide meta-analyses of clinically defined gout patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 May;79(5):657-65.Full text  Abstract

35. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men: the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:742-748.Full text  Abstract

36. Lee J, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, et al. Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk: evidence for a role of uric acid in obesity-insulin resistance syndrome. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:288-294. Abstract

37. Glynn RJ, Campion EW, Silbert JE. Trends in serum uric acid levels 1961-1980. Arthritis Rheum. 1983;26:87-93. Abstract

38. Emmerson B. Hyperlipidaemia in hyperuricaemia and gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:509-510.Full text  Abstract

39. Rathmann W, Funkhouser E, Dyer AR, et al. Relations of hyperuricemia with the various components of the insulin resistance syndrome in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Ann Epidemiol. 1998;8:250-261. Abstract

40. Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, et al. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;59:539-543.Full text  Abstract

41. Yamashita S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, et al. Studies on the impaired metabolism of uric acid in obese subjects: marked reduction of renal urate excretion and its improvement by a low-calorie diet. Int J Obes. 1986;10:255-264. Abstract

42. Nielsen SM, Bartels EM, Henriksen M, et al. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Nov;76(11):1870-1882.Full text  Abstract

43. Ter Maaten JC, Voorburg A, Heine RJ, et al. Renal handling of urate and sodium during acute physiological hyperinsulinaemia in healthy subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 1997;92:51-58. Abstract

44. MacFarlane LA, Liu CC, Solomon DH. The effect of initiating pharmacologic insulin on serum uric acid levels in patients with diabetes: a matched cohort analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015 Apr;44(5):592-6.Full text  Abstract

45. Prebis JW, Gruskin AB, Polinsky MS, et al. Uric acid in childhood essential hypertension. J Pediatr. 1981;98:702-707. Abstract

46. Baker JF, Krishnan E, Chen L, et al. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: recent developments, and where do they leave us? Am J Med. 2005;118:816-826. Abstract

47. Abhishek A, Courtney P, Jenkins W, et al. Brief report: monosodium urate monohydrate crystal deposits are common in asymptomatic sons of patients with gout: the Sons of Gout Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;70(11):1847-52.Full text  Abstract

48. Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, See LC, et al. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Feb;74(2):369-74.Full text  Abstract

49. Sivera F, Andrés M, Carmona L, et al. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout: integrating systematic literature review and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Feb;73(2):328-35.Full text  Abstract

50. Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, et al. Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout. Arthritis Rheum. 1977;20:895-900. Abstract

51. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:2557-2568.Full text  Abstract

52. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1789-1798.Full text  Abstract

53. Hainer BL, Matheson E, Wilkes RT. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gout. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Dec 15;90(12):831-6.Full text  Abstract

54. Qaseem A, McLean RM, Starkey M, et al. Diagnosis of acute gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):52-7.Full text  Abstract

55. Bădulescu M, Macovei L, Rezuş E. Acute gout attack with normal serum uric acid levels. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2014 Oct-Dec;118(4):942-5. Abstract

56. Lee YH, Song GG. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in patients with gout: a meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Apr;47(5):703-9. Abstract

57. Zhang Q, Gao F, Sun W, et al. The diagnostic performance of musculoskeletal ultrasound in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 6;13(7):e0199672.Full text  Abstract

58. Ogdie A, Taylor WJ, Weatherall M, et al. Imaging modalities for the classification of gout: systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1868-1874. Abstract

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60. Ramon A, Bohm-Sigrand A, Pottecher P, et al. Role of dual-energy CT in the diagnosis and follow-up of gout: systematic analysis of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Mar;37(3):587-95. Abstract

61. Chen J, Liao M, Zhang H, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT and ultrasound in gouty arthritis: a systematic review. Z Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;76(8):723-9. Abstract

62. Yu Z, Mao T, Xu Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Dec;47(12):1587-93. Abstract

63. Gamala M, Jacobs JWG, van Laar JM. The diagnostic performance of dual energy CT for diagnosing gout: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Dec 1;58(12):2117-21. Abstract

64. Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1301-1311. Abstract

65. Rettenbacher T, Ennemoser S, Weirich H, et al. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray. Eur Radiol. 2008 Mar;18(3):621-30. Abstract

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77. Richette P, Doherty M, Pascual E, et al. 2018 updated European League Against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis of gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Jan;79(1):31-8.Full text  Abstract

78. FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Abstract

79. Billy CA, Lim RT, Ruospo M, et al. Corticosteroid or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of acute gout: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;45(1):128-36.Full text  Abstract

80. Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):58-68.Full text  Abstract

81. Schumacher HR Jr, Boice JA, Daikh DI, et al. Randomised double blind trial of etoricoxib and indometacin in treatment of acute gouty arthritis. BMJ. 2002;324:1488-1492.Full text  Abstract

82. Rubin BR, Burton R, Navarra S, et al. Efficacy and safety profile of treatment with etoricoxib 120 mg once daily compared with indomethacin 50 mg three times daily in acute gout: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:598-606.Full text  Abstract

83. Curiel RV, Guzman NJ. Challenges associated with the management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;42:166-178. Abstract

84. Rainer TH, Cheng CH, Janssens HJ, et al. Oral prednisolone in the treatment of acute gout: a pragmatic, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164:464-471. Abstract

85. Janssen CA, Oude Voshaar MAH, Vonkeman HE, et al. Anakinra for the treatment of acute gout flares: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, non-inferiority trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Jan 2 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

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97. Dalbeth N, Billington K, Doyle A, et al. Effects of allopurinol dose escalation on bone erosion and urate volume in gout: a dual-energy computed tomography imaging study within a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Oct;71(10):1739-46. Abstract

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126. Lin KC, Lin HY, Chou P. The interaction between uric acid level and other risk factors on the development of gout among asymptomatic hyperuricemic men in a prospective study. J Rheumatol. 2000;27:1501-1505. Abstract

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