Sepsis in children


Key articles

Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;6(1):2-8. Abstract

Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Feb;21(2):e52-e106.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Davis AL, Carcillo JA, Aneja RK, et al. American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun;45(6):1061-93.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Bone RC. The sepsis syndrome: definition and general approach to management. Clin Chest Med. 1996 Jun;17(2):175-81. Abstract

2. Angus DC, van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):840-51.Full text  Abstract

3. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;6(1):2-8. Abstract

4. World Health Organization Global Health Observatory. Causes of child mortality. 2017 [internet publication].

5. Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Feb;21(2):e52-e106.Full text  Abstract

6. Behrman RE, Kliegman R, Jenson HB. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000:544.

7. Brierley J, Peters MJ. Distinct hemodynamic patterns of septic shock at presentation to pediatric intensive care. Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122(4):752-9. Abstract

8. Rudd KE, Johnson SC, Agesa KM, et al. Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990-2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 2020 Jan 18;395(10219):200-211.Full text  Abstract

9. Watson RS, Carcillo JA, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. The epidemiology of severe sepsis in children in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar 1;167(5):695-701.Full text  Abstract

10. Hartman ME, Linde-Zwirble WT, Angus DC, et al. Trends in the epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep;14(7):686-93. Abstract

11. Fleischmann-Struzek C, Goldfarb DM, Schlattmann P, et al. The global burden of paediatric and neonatal sepsis: a systematic review. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Mar;6(3):223-230.Full text  Abstract

12. Ruth A, McCracken CE, Fortenberry JD, et al. Pediatric severe sepsis: current trends and outcomes from the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;15(9):828-38. Abstract

13. Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Pappachan J, et al. Global epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis: the sepsis prevalence, outcomes, and therapies study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 May 15;191(10):1147-57.Full text  Abstract

14. Kissoon N, Uyeki TM. Sepsis and the global burden of disease in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Feb;170(2):107-8. Abstract

15. Greenhow TL, Hung YY, Herz AM. Changing epidemiology of bacteremia in infants aged 1 week to 3 months. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):e590-6. Abstract

16. Puopolo KM, Benitz WE, Zaoutis TE, et al. Management of neonates born at ≥35 0/7 weeks' gestation with suspected or proven early-onset bacterial sepsis. Pediatrics. 2018 Dec;142(6):.Full text  Abstract

17. Schrag SJ, Farley MM, Petit S, et al. Epidemiology of invasive early-onset neonatal sepsis, 2005 to 2014. Pediatrics. 2016 Dec;138(6):.Full text  Abstract

18. Stoll BJ, Puopolo KM, Hansen NI, et al. Early-onset neonatal sepsis 2015 to 2017, the rise of Escherichia coli, and the need for novel prevention strategies. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jul 1;174(7):e200593.Full text  Abstract

19. Soeorg H, Huik K, Parm U, et al. Genetic relatedness of coagulase-negative Staphylococci from gastrointestinal tract and blood of preterm neonates with late-onset sepsis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Apr;32(4):389-93. Abstract

20. Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr. 1996 Jul;129(1):63-71. Abstract

21. World Health Organization Global Health Observatory. Causes of child mortality. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

22. Randolph AG, McCulloh RJ. Pediatric sepsis: important considerations for diagnosing and managing severeinfections in infants, children, and adolescents. Virulence. 2014 Jan 1;5(1):179-89.Full text  Abstract

23. Lee CY, Chen PY, Huang FL, et al. Microbiologic spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from the pediatric intensive care unit in a single medical center - 6 years' experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2009 Apr;42(2):160-5. Abstract

24. Lee GM. Preventing infections in children and adults with asplenia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2020 Dec 4;2020(1):328-335.Full text  Abstract

25. AlFawaz T, Alzumar O, AlShahrani D, et al. Severity of Salmonella infection among sickle cell diseases pediatric patients: Description of the infection pattern. Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2019 Sep;6(3):115-117.Full text  Abstract

26. Olupot-Olupot P, Engoru C, Nteziyaremye J, et al. The clinical spectrum of severe childhood malaria in Eastern Uganda. Malar J. 2020 Sep 3;19(1):322.Full text  Abstract

27. Gotts JE, Matthay MA. Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management. BMJ. 2016 May 23;353:i1585.Full text  Abstract

28. Hack CE, Zeerleder S. The endothelium in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7 suppl):S21-7. Abstract

29. Pathan N, Hemingway CA, Alizadeh AA, et al. Role of interleukin 6 in myocardial dysfunction of meningococcal septic shock. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):203-9. Abstract

30. Bantel H, Schulze-Osthoff K. Cell death in sepsis. Crit Care. 2009;13(4):173.Full text  Abstract

31. Brown GC, Borutaite V. Nitric oxide and mitochondrial respiration in the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jul 15;75(2):283-90.Full text  Abstract

32. Singer M. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure. Virulence. 2014 Jan 1;5(1):66-72.Full text  Abstract

33. Bone RC, Grodzin CJ, Balk RA. Sepsis: a new hypothesis for pathogenesis of the disease process. Chest. 1997 Jul;112(1):235-43. Abstract

34. Munford RS, Pugin J. Normal responses to injury prevent systemic inflammation and can be immunosuppressive. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Feb;163(2):316-21.Full text  Abstract

35. Peters M, Petros A, Dixon G, et al. Acquired immunoparalysis in paediatric intensive care: prospective observational study. BMJ. 1999 Sep 4;319(7210):609-10.Full text  Abstract

36. Adib-Conquy M, Cavaillon JM. Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jan;101(1):36-47. Abstract

37. Remick DG. Pathophysiology of sepsis. Am J Pathol. 2007 May;170(5):1435-44.Full text  Abstract

38. Yao TC, Wang JY, Chang SM, et al. Association of Oral Corticosteroid Bursts With Severe Adverse Events in Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jul 1;175(7):723-729.Full text  Abstract

39. Feudtner C, Christakis DA, Connell FA. Pediatric deaths attributable to complex chronic conditions: a population-based study of Washington State, 1980-1997. Pediatrics. 2000 Jul;106(1 Pt 2):205-9.Full text  Abstract

40. Fraser LK, Miller M, Hain R, et al. Rising national prevalence of life-limiting conditions in children in England. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129(4):e923-9.Full text  Abstract

41. Ge WJ, Mirea L, Yang J, et al; Canadian Neonatal Network. Prediction of neonatal outcomes in extremely preterm neonates. Pediatrics. 2013 Oct;132(4):e876-85. Abstract

42. Bateman SL, Seed PC. Procession to pediatric bacteremia and sepsis: covert operations and failures in diplomacy. Pediatrics. 2010 Jul;126(1):137-50.Full text  Abstract

43. Polin RA, Denson S, Brady MT; Committee on Fetus and Newborn; Committee on Infectious Diseases. Epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in the NICU. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129(4):e1104-9.Full text  Abstract

44. Soman M, Green B, Daling J. Risk factors for early neonatal sepsis. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 May;121(5):712-9. Abstract

45. Herbst A, Källén K. Time between membrane rupture and delivery and septicemia in term neonates. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Sep;110(3):612-8. Abstract

46. Sohn AH, Garrett DO, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, et al; Pediatric Prevention Network. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: results from the first national point-prevalence survey. J Pediatr. 2001 Dec;139(6):821-7. Abstract

47. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

48. Levine MM, Campbell JD, Kotloff KL. Overview of vaccines and immunisation. Br Med Bull. 2002;62:1-13.Full text  Abstract

49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meningococcal outbreaks. May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

50. Robinson CL, Bernstein H, Poehling K, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger - United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 7;69(5):130-132.Full text  Abstract

51. World Health Organization. Decade of vaccines - global vaccine action plan 2011-2020. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

52. Bion J, Richardson A, Hibbert P, et al; Matching Michigan Collaboration & Writing Committee. 'Matching Michigan': a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013 Feb;22(2):110-23.Full text  Abstract

53. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: central line-associated blood stream infections. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

54. de Souza DC, Barreira ER, Faria LS. The epidemiology of sepsis in childhood. Shock. 2017 Jan;47(1S suppl 1):2-5. Abstract

55. Weiss SL, Parker B, Bullock ME, et al. Defining pediatric sepsis by different criteria: discrepancies in populations and implications for clinical practice. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul;13(4):e219-26. Abstract

56. Daniels R, Nutbeam T, McNamara G, et al. The sepsis six and the severe sepsis resuscitation bundle: a prospective observational cohort study. Emerg Med J. 2011 Jun;28(6):507-12.Full text  Abstract

57. Pantell RH, Roberts KB, Adams WG, et al. Evaluation and management of well-appearing febrile infants 8 to 60 days old. Pediatrics. 2021 Aug;148(2):.Full text  Abstract

58. Kim F, Polin RA, Hooven TA. Neonatal sepsis. BMJ. 2020 Oct 1;371:m3672.Full text  Abstract

59. Garcia-Prats JA, Cooper TR, Schneider VF, et al. Rapid detection of microorganisms in blood cultures of newborn infants utilizing an automated blood culture system. Pediatrics. 2000 Mar;105(3 Pt 1):523-7. Abstract

60. Kayange N, Kamugisha E, Mwizamholya DL, et al. Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital, Mwanza-Tanzania. BMC Pediatr. 2010 Jun 4;10:39.Full text  Abstract

61. Pammi M, Flores A, Versalovic J, et al. Molecular assays for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 25;(2):CD011926.Full text  Abstract

62. Borthwick EMJ, Hill CJ, Rabindranath KS, et al. High-volume haemofiltration for sepsis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 31;(1):CD008075.Full text  Abstract

63. Levi M, Toh CH, Thachil J, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Br J Haematol. 2009 Apr;145(1):24-33.Full text  Abstract

64. Pontrelli G, De Crescenzo F, Buzzetti R, et al. Accuracy of serum procalcitonin for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates and children with systemic inflammatory syndrome: a meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Apr 24;17(1):302.Full text  Abstract

65. Trippella G, Galli L, De Martino M, et al. Procalcitonin performance in detecting serious and invasive bacterial infections in children with fever without apparent source: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2017 Nov;15(11):1041-1057.Full text  Abstract

66. Downes KJ, Fitzgerald JC, Weiss SL. Utility of procalcitonin as a biomarker for sepsis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Jun 24;58(7):.Full text  Abstract

67. Kaplan JM, Wong HR. Biomarker discovery and development in pediatric critical care medicine. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar;12(2):165-73.Full text  Abstract

68. Casado-Flores J, Blanco-Quirós A, Asensio J, et al. Serum procalcitonin in children with suspected sepsis: a comparison with C-reactive protein and neutrophil count. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr;4(2):190-5. Abstract

69. Brown JVE, Meader N, Cleminson J, et al. C-reactive protein for diagnosing late-onset infection in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 14;1:CD012126.Full text  Abstract

70. Stocker M, van Herk W, El Helou S, et al. Procalcitonin-guided decision making for duration of antibiotic therapy in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (NeoPIns). Lancet. 2017 Aug 26;390(10097):871-81. Abstract

71. Dai J, Jiang W, Min Z, et al. Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker for neonatal sepsis: meta-analysis. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017 Mar-Apr;26(2):327-32.Full text  Abstract

72. Shahkar L, Keshtkar A, Mirfazeli A, et al. The role of IL-6 for predicting neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Pediatr. 2011 Dec;21(4):411-7.Full text  Abstract

73. Shi J, Tang J, Chen D. Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil CD64 for neonatal sepsis. Ital J Pediatr. 2016 Jun 7;42(1):57.Full text  Abstract

74. Zhou M, Cheng S, Yu J, et al. Interleukin-8 for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 May 21;10(5):e0127170.Full text  Abstract

75. Sun B, Liang LF, Li J, et al. A meta-analysis of interleukin-6 as a valid and accurate index in diagnosing early neonatal sepsis. Int Wound J. 2019 Apr;16(2):527-533.Full text  Abstract

76. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fever in under 5s. Jul 2014 [internet publication].Full text

77. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neonatal infection: antibiotics for prevention and treatment. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

78. Martin K, Weiss SL. Initial resuscitation and management of pediatric septic shock. Minerva Pediatr. 2015 Apr;67(2):141-58.Full text  Abstract

79. Macrae D, Grieve R, Allen E, et al. A randomized trial of hyperglycemic control in pediatric intensive care. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 9;370(2):107-18.Full text  Abstract

80. Deep A, Sagar H, Goonasekera C, et al. Evolution of acute kidney injury and its association with systemic hemodynamics in children with fluid-refractory septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul;46(7):e677-83. Abstract

81. Liguoro I, Pilotto C, Bonanni M, et al. SARS-COV-2 infection in children and newborns: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;179(7):1029-46.Full text  Abstract

82. Salazar ML, Eiland LS. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal resembling serotonin syndrome in an adolescent boy with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008 Oct;24(10):691-3. Abstract

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

84. Vergnano S, Sharland M, Kazembe P, et al. Neonatal sepsis: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 May;90(3):F220-4.Full text  Abstract

85. Koenig JM, Keenan WJ. Group B streptococcus and early-onset sepsis in the era of maternal prophylaxis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;56(3):689-708.Full text  Abstract

86. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Perinatal group B streptococcal disease after universal screening recommendations - United States, 2003-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Jul 20;56(28):701-5.Full text  Abstract

87. Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Early-Onset Disease in Newborns: ACOG Committee Opinion, Number 797. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Feb;135(2):e51-e72.Full text  Abstract

88. Puopolo KM, Lynfield R, Cummings JJ, et al. Management of infants at risk for group B streptococcal disease. Pediatrics. 2019 Aug;144(2):.Full text  Abstract

89. Davis AL, Carcillo JA, Aneja RK, et al. American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun;45(6):1061-93.Full text  Abstract

90. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

91. Pearson GA, ed. Why children die: a pilot study 2006; England (South West, North East and West Midlands), Wales and Northern Ireland. London: CEMACH; 2008.

92. Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman. Time to act: severe sepsis - rapid diagnosis and treatment saves lives. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

93. Paul R, Neuman MI, Monuteaux MC, et al. Adherence to PALS sepsis guidelines and hospital length of stay. Pediatrics. 2012 Aug;130(2):e273-80.Full text  Abstract

94. Paul R, Melendez E, Stack A, et al. Improving adherence to PALS septic shock guidelines. Pediatrics. 2014 May;133(5):e1358-66.Full text  Abstract

95. Larsen GY, Mecham N, Greenberg R. An emergency department septic shock protocol and care guideline for children initiated at triage. Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):e1585-92. Abstract

96. Cruz AT, Perry AM, Williams EA, et al. Implementation of goal-directed therapy for children with suspected sepsis in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e758-66. Abstract

97. Chong SL, Ong GY, Venkataraman A, et al. The golden hours in paediatric septic shock--current updates and recommendations. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2014 May;43(5):267-74. Abstract

98. Shekerdemian L, Bohn D. Cardiovascular effects of mechanical ventilation. Arch Dis Child. 1999 May;80(5):475-80.Full text  Abstract

99. Akech S, Ledermann H, Maitland K. Choice of fluids for resuscitation in children with severe infection and shock: systematic review. BMJ. 2010 Sep 2;341:c4416.Full text  Abstract

100. Carcillo JA. Intravenous fluid choices in critically ill children. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014 Aug;20(4):396-401. Abstract

101. Medeiros DN, Ferranti JF, Delgado AF, et al. Colloids for the initial management of severe sepsis and septic shock in pediatric patients: a systematic review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015 Nov;31(11):e11-6. Abstract

102. Food and Drug Administration. Labeling changes on mortality, kidney injury, and excess bleeding with hydroxyethyl starch products. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

103. European Medicines Agency. PRAC recommends suspending hydroxyethyl-starch solutions for infusion from the market. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

104. Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Turgeon AF, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013 Feb 20;309(7):678-88.Full text  Abstract

105. Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency. Drug safety update: Hydroxyethyl starch intravenous infusions. Dec 2014 [internet publication].Full text

106. Lewis SR, Pritchard MW, Evans DJ, et al. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 3;8:CD000567.Full text  Abstract

107. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

108. Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, et al. Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2483-95.Full text  Abstract

109. Li D, Li X, Cui W, et al. Liberal versus conservative fluid therapy in adults and children with sepsis or septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 10;12:CD010593.Full text  Abstract

110. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in children and young people in hospital. Jun 2020 [internet publication].Full text

111. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

112. Bagshaw SM, Brophy PD, Cruz D, et al. Fluid balance as a biomarker: impact of fluid overload on outcome in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2008;12(4):169.Full text  Abstract

113. Boschee ED, Cave DA, Garros D, et al. Indications and outcomes in children receiving renal replacement therapy in pediatric intensive care. J Crit Care. 2014 Feb;29(1):37-42. Abstract

114. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun;34(6):1589-96. Abstract

115. Wang XD, Huo XM, Xu MX, et al. Clinical research of timing of application of antibiotics in septic shock of pediatric patients [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2013 Apr;25(4):207-10. Abstract

116. Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Balamuth F, et al. Delayed antimicrobial therapy increases mortality and organ dysfunction duration in pediatric sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2409-17.Full text  Abstract

117. Korang SK, Safi S, Nava C, et al. Antibiotic regimens for early-onset neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 17;5:CD013837.Full text  Abstract

118. Korang SK, Safi S, Nava C, et al. Antibiotic regimens for late-onset neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 8;5:CD013836.Full text  Abstract

119. Simmons ML, Durham SH, Carter CW. Pharmacological management of pediatric patients with sepsis. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2012 Oct-Dec;23(4):437-48. Abstract

120. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neutropenic sepsis: prevention and management in people with cancer. Sep 2012 [internet publication].Full text

121. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

122. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

123. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects. Jul 2016 [internet publication].Full text

124. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

125. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

126. Ninis N, Phillips C, Bailey L, et al. The role of healthcare delivery in the outcome of meningococcal disease in children: case-control study of fatal and non-fatal cases. BMJ. 2005 Jun 25;330(7506):1475.Full text  Abstract

127. Ozturk MA, Gunes T, Koklu E, et al. Oral nystatin prophylaxis to prevent invasive candidiasis in neonatal intensive care unit. Mycoses. 2006 Nov;49(6):484-92. Abstract

128. Hsieh E, Smith PB, Jacqz-Aigrain E, et al. Neonatal fungal infections: when to treat? Early Hum Dev. 2012 May;88(suppl 2):S6-10.Full text  Abstract

129. El-Wiher N, Cornell TT, Kissoon N, et al. Management and treatment guidelines for sepsis in pediatric patients. Open Inflamm J. 2011 Oct 7;4(suppl 1-M11):101-9.Full text  Abstract

130. Malosh RE, Martin ET, Heikkinen T, et al. Efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in children: Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 May 2;66(10):1492-1500.Full text  Abstract

131. Karam O, Tucci M, Ducruet T, et al. Red blood cell transfusion thresholds in pediatric patients with sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep;12(5):512-8. Abstract

132. Holst LB, Haase N, Wetterslev J, et al; TRISS Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 9;371(15):1381-91.Full text  Abstract

133. Zimmerman JJ. A history of adjunctive glucocorticoid treatment for pediatric sepsis: moving beyond steroid pulp fiction toward evidence-based medicine. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007 Nov;8(6):530-9. Abstract

134. Aneja R, Carcillo JA. What is the rationale for hydrocortisone treatment in children with infection-related adrenal insufficiency and septic shock? Arch Dis Child. 2007 Feb;92(2):165-9.Full text  Abstract

135. Ohlsson A, Lacy JB. Intravenous immunoglobulin for suspected or proven infection in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 27;(3):CD001239.Full text  Abstract

136. Alejandria MM, Lansang MD, Dans LF, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 16;(9):CD001090.Full text  Abstract

137. INIS Collaborative Group, Brocklehurst P, Farrell B, King A, et al. Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 29;365(13):1201-11.Full text  Abstract

138. Parks T, Wilson C, Curtis N, et al. Polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin in clindamycin-treated patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 15;67(9):1434-1436.Full text  Abstract

139. Marlow N, Morris T, Brocklehurst P, et al. A randomised trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for neonatal sepsis: outcomes at 2 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013 Jan;98(1):F46-53.Full text  Abstract

140. Carr R, Brocklehurst P, Doré CJ, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor administered as prophylaxis for reduction of sepsis in extremely preterm, small for gestational age neonates (the PROGRAMS trial): a single-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 Jan 17;373(9659):226-33. Abstract

141. Harris E, Schulzke SM, Patole SK. Pentoxifylline in preterm neonates: a systematic review. Paediatr Drugs. 2010 Oct 1;12(5):301-11. Abstract

142. Pammi M, Haque KN. Pentoxifylline for treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 9;(3):CD004205.Full text  Abstract

143. Adel M, Awad HA, Abdel-Naim AB, et al. Effects of pentoxifylline on coagulation profile and disseminated intravascular coagulation incidence in Egyptian septic neonates. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010 Jun;35(3):257-65. Abstract

144. Skarda DE, Mulier KE, Myers DE, et al. Dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in patients with severe sepsis. Shock. 2007 Apr;27(4):348-53. Abstract

145. Mesquida J, Masip J, Gili G, et al. Thenar oxygen saturation measured by near infrared spectroscopy as a noninvasive predictor of low central venous oxygen saturation in septic patients. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Jun;35(6):1106-9. Abstract

146. Lima A, van Bommel J, Jansen TC, et al. Low tissue oxygen saturation at the end of early goal-directed therapy is associated with worse outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2009;13(suppl 5):S13.Full text  Abstract

147. Allen UD, Robinson JL; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Aug 2018 [internet publication].Full text

148. Friedman G, Silva E, Vincent JL. Has the mortality of septic shock changed with time? Crit Care Med. 1998 Dec;26(12):2078-86. Abstract

149. Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7):1303-10. Abstract

150. Watson RS, Carcillo JA. Scope and epidemiology of pediatric sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 May;6(3 suppl):S3-5. Abstract

151. Fiser RT, West NK, Bush AJ, et al. Outcome of severe sepsis in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep;6(5):531-6. Abstract

152. Inwald DP, Tasker RC, Peters MJ, et al; Paediatric Intensive Care Society Study Group (PICS-SG). Emergency management of children with severe sepsis in the United Kingdom: the results of the Paediatric Intensive Care Society sepsis audit. Arch Dis Child. 2009 May;94(5):348-53. Abstract

153. Han YY, Carcillo JA, Dragotta MA, et al. Early reversal of pediatric-neonatal septic shock by community physicians is associated with improved outcome. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):793-9. Abstract

154. Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Treating patients with severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 21;340(3):207-14. Abstract

155. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D, et al. Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Crit Care Med. 2004 Sep;32(9):1928-48. Abstract

156. Haller S, Deindl P, Cassini A, et al. Neurological sequelae of healthcare-associated sepsis in very-low-birthweight infants: umbrella review and evidence-based outcome tree. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(8):30143. Abstract

157. Kukreti V, Shamim M, Khilnani P. Intensive care unit acquired weakness in children: critical illness neuropathy and myopathy. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014 Feb;18(2):95-101.Full text  Abstract

158. Neu J, Walker WA. Necrotizing enterocolitis. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 20;364(3):255-64.Full text  Abstract

159. Drop LJ, Laver MB. Low plasma ionized calcium and response to calcium therapy in critically ill man. Anesthesiology. 1975 Sep;43(3):300-6. Abstract

160. van de Wetering MD, van Woensel JB, Lawrie TA. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing Gram positive infections associated with long-term central venous catheters in oncology patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 25;(11):CD003295.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer