Schizoaffective disorder

References

Key articles

Cheniaux E, Landeira-Fernandez J, Versiani M. The diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression: interrater reliability and congruence between DSM-IV and ICD-10. Psychopathology. 2009;42:293-298. Abstract

Jäger M, Haack S, Becker T, et al. Schizoaffective disorder: an ongoing challenge for psychiatric nosology. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;26:159-165. Abstract

Abrams DJ, Rojas DC, Arciniegas DB. Is schizoaffective disorder a distinct categorical diagnosis? A critical review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Dec;4(6):1089-109.Full text  Abstract

Lencz T, Lipsky RH, DeRosse P, et al. Molecular differentiation of schizoaffective disorder from schizophrenia using BDNF haplotypes. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:313-318.Full text  Abstract

Robinson DG, Woerner MG, Alvir JM, et al. Predictors of treatment response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Apr;156(4):544-9. Abstract

Turner DT, van der Gaag M, Karyotaki E, et al. Psychological interventions for psychosis: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 May;171(5):523-38. Abstract

Choi KH, Wykes T, Kurtz MM. Adjunctive pharmacotherapy for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: meta-analytical investigation of efficacy. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;203:172-178.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management. October 2016 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. February 2014. http://www.nice.org.uk/ (last accessed 27 September 2017).Full text

Harrow M, Grossman LS, Herbener ES, et al. Ten-year outcome: patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:421-426.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

2. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. 1993 (updated for 2016) [internet publication].Full text

3. Cheniaux E, Landeira-Fernandez J, Versiani M. The diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression: interrater reliability and congruence between DSM-IV and ICD-10. Psychopathology. 2009;42:293-298. Abstract

4. Jäger M, Haack S, Becker T, et al. Schizoaffective disorder: an ongoing challenge for psychiatric nosology. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;26:159-165. Abstract

5. Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A. Psychopathological and social status of patients with affective, schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders after long-term course. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990 Nov;82(5):352-8. Abstract

6. Abrams DJ, Rojas DC, Arciniegas DB. Is schizoaffective disorder a distinct categorical diagnosis? A critical review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Dec;4(6):1089-109.Full text  Abstract

7. Perala J, Suvisaari J, Saarni SI, et al. Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Jan;64(1):19-28.Full text  Abstract

8. Scully PJ, Owens JM, Kinsella A, et al. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder within an epidemiologically complete, homogeneous population in rural Ireland: small area variation in rate. Schizophr Res. 2004 Apr 1;67(2-3):143-55. Abstract

9. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Fakra E. Current issues on schizoaffective disorder [in French]. Encephale. 2005 May-Jun;31(3):359-6. Abstract

10. Hamshere ML, Bennett P, Williams N, et al. Genomewide linkage scan in schizoaffective disorder: significant evidence for linkage at 1q42 close to DISC1, and suggestive evidence at 22q11 and 19p13. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:1081-1088.Full text  Abstract

11. Lencz T, Lipsky RH, DeRosse P, et al. Molecular differentiation of schizoaffective disorder from schizophrenia using BDNF haplotypes. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:313-318.Full text  Abstract

12. Meltzer HY, Arora RC, Metz J. Biological studies of schizoaffective disorders. Schizophr Bull. 1984;10(1):49-70. Abstract

13. Westermeyer J. Comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse: a review of epidemiology and course. Am J Addict. 2006 Sep-Oct;15(5):345-55. Abstract

14. Caton CL, Samet S, Hasin DS. When acute-stage psychosis and substance use co-occur: differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders. J Psychiatr Pract. 2000 Sep;6(5):256-66. Abstract

15. Gregg L, Barrowclough C, Haddock G. Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007 May;27(4):494-510. Abstract

16. Sipos A, Rasmussen F, Harrison G, et al. Paternal age and schizophrenia: a population based cohort study. BMJ. 2004 Nov 6;329(7474):1070.Full text  Abstract

17. Corcoran C, Walker E, Huot R, et al. The stress cascade and schizophrenia: etiology and onset. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(4):671-92. Abstract

18. Morgan C, Fisher H. Environment and schizophrenia: environmental factors in schizophrenia: childhood trauma - a critical review. Schizophr Bull. 2007 Jan;33(1):3-10.Full text  Abstract

19. American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, et al. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;65(2):267-72. Abstract

20. Dazzan P, Murray RM. Neurological soft signs in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;43:s50-s57. Abstract

21. Tosato S, Dazzan P. The psychopathology of schizophrenia and the presence of neurological soft signs: a review. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2005;18:285-288. Abstract

22. Rector NA, Beck AT, Stolar N. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a cognitive perspective. Can J Psychiatry. 2005;50:247-257. Abstract

23. Bradizza CM, Stasiewicz PR. Integrating substance abuse treatment for the seriously mentally ill into inpatient psychiatric treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1997 Mar-Apr;14(2):103-11. Abstract

24. Tsuang MT, Stone WS, Faraone SV. Understanding predisposition to schizophrenia: toward intervention and prevention. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Aug;47(6):518-26. Abstract

25. Yung AR, McGorry PD. The prodromal phase of first-episode psychosis: past and current conceptualizations. Schizophr Bull. 1996;22(2):353-70. Abstract

26. Klosterkotter J, Ebel H, Schultze-Lutter F, et al. Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996;246(3):147-54. Abstract

27. Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Steinmeyer EM, et al. Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;58(2):158-64.Full text  Abstract

28. Yung AR, Phillips LJ, McGorry PD, et al. Prediction of psychosis: a step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1998;172(33):14-20. Abstract

29. Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP, et al. Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk ("prodromal") group. Schizophr Res. 2003 Mar 1;60(1):21-32. Abstract

30. Miller TJ, McGlashan TH, Rosen JL, et al. Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 May;159(5):863-5. Abstract

31. Kane JM, McGlashan TH. Treatment of schizophrenia. Lancet. 1995 Sep 23;346(8978):820-5. Abstract

32. Wyatt RJ. Neuroleptics and the natural course of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1991;17(2):325-51.Full text  Abstract

33. Peterson D, Olson G. First admitted schizophrenics in drug era. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1964 Aug;11:137-44. Abstract

34. Loebel AD, Lieberman JA, Alvir JM, et al. Duration of psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1992 Sep;149(9):1183-8. Abstract

35. Larsen TK, McGlashan TH, Moe LC. First-episode schizophrenia: I. Early course parameters. Schizophr Bull. 1996;22(2):241-56. Abstract

36. Malla AK, Norman RM, Manchanda R, et al. One year outcome in first episode psychosis: influence of DUP and other predictors. Schizophr Res. 2002 Apr 1;54(3):231-42. Abstract

37. Malla AK, Norman RM, Manchanda R, et al. Status of patients with first-episode psychosis after one year of phase-specific community-oriented treatment. Psychiatr Serv. 2002 Apr;53(4):458-63. Abstract

38. Norman RM, Malla AK. Duration of untreated psychosis: a critical examination of the concept and its importance. Psychol Med. 2001 Apr;31(3):381-400. Abstract

39. McGrath J, Emmerson WB. Fortnightly review. Treatment of schizophrenia. BMJ. 1999 Oct 16;319(7216):1045-8.Full text  Abstract

40. Harding CM. Course types in schizophrenia: an analysis of European and American studies. Schizophr Bull. 1988;14(4):633-43. Abstract

41. Beels CC. Social support and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1981;7(1):58-72.Full text  Abstract

42. Ciompi L. Catamnestic long-term study on the course of life and aging of schizophrenics. Schizophr Bull. 1980;6(4):606-18. Abstract

43. McGlashan TH. Duration of untreated psychosis in first-episode schizophrenia: marker or determinant of course? Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Oct 1;46(7):899-907. Abstract

44. Larsen TK, Moe LC, Vibe-Hansen L, et al. Premorbid functioning versus duration of untreated psychosis in 1 year outcome in first-episode psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2000 Sep 29;45(1-2):1-9. Abstract

45. Larsen TK, McGlashan TH, Johannessen JO, et al. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis: changes in patient characteristics at treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;158(11):1917-9. Abstract

46. Harrigan SM, McGorry PD, Krstev H. Does treatment delay in first-episode psychosis really matter? Psychol Med. 2003 Jan;33(1):97-110. Abstract

47. Craig TJ, Bromet EJ, Fennig S, et al. Is there an association between duration of untreated psychosis and 24-month clinical outcome in a first-admission series? Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jan;157(1):60-6. Abstract

48. Robinson DG, Woerner MG, Alvir JM, et al. Predictors of treatment response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Apr;156(4):544-9. Abstract

49. Robinson D, Woerner MG, Alvir JM, et al. Predictors of relapse following response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;56(3):241-7.Full text  Abstract

50. Amador XF, Flaum M, Andreasen NC, et al. Awareness of illness in schizophrenia and schizoaffective and mood disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 Oct;51(10):826-36. Abstract

51. Peuskens J. Good medical practice in antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Mar;13(suppl 3):S35-41. Abstract

52. Ereshefsky L. Pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic considerations in choosing an antipsychotic. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(suppl 10):20-30. Abstract

53. Kreyenbuhl J, Buchanan RW, Dickerson FB, et al. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009. Schizophr Bull. 2010 Jan;36(1):94-103.Full text  Abstract

54. Leucht S, Cipriani A, Spineli L, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet. 2013 Sep 14;382(9896):951-62.Full text  Abstract

55. Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Hunger H, et al. Olanzapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Mar 17;(3):CD006654.Full text  Abstract

56. Leucht S, Helfer B, Dold M, et al. Lithium for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(10):CD003834.Full text  Abstract

57. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. 23 March 2018 [internet publication].Full text

58. Gillies D, Sampson S, Beck A, et al. Benzodiazepines for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(9):CD003079.Full text  Abstract

59. Cottraux J, Note ID, Cungi C, et al. A controlled study of cognitive behaviour therapy with buspirone or placebo in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Br J Psychiatry. 1995 Nov;167(5):635-41. Abstract

60. Bouvard M, Mollard E, Guerin J, et al. Study and course of the psychological profile in 77 patients expressing panic disorder with agoraphobia after cognitive behaviour therapy with or without buspirone. Psychother Psychosom. 1997;66(1):27-32. Abstract

61. Anaya C, Martinez Aran A, Ayuso-Mateos JL, et al. A systematic review of cognitive remediation for schizo-affective and affective disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 15;142(1-3):13-21. Abstract

62. Hoffmann H, Jackel D, Glauser S, et al. Long-term effectiveness of supported employment: 5-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 1;171(11):1183-90.Full text  Abstract

63. McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Xie H, et al. Cognitive enhancement treatment for people with mental illness who do not respond to supported employment: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 1;172(9):852-61. Abstract

64. Dieterich M, Irving CB, Bergman H, et al. Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(1):CD007906.Full text  Abstract

65. Katschnig H. Rehabilitation in schizophrenia; guidelines for including psychosocial measures [in German]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1998;148(11-12):273-80. Abstract

66. Munetz MR, Benjamin S. How to examine patients using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1988 Nov;39(11):1172-7. Abstract

67. Halbreich U, Kahn LS. Hyperprolactinemia and schizophrenia: mechanisms and clinical aspects. J Psychiatr Pract. 2003 Sep;9(5):344-53. Abstract

68. Bauer-Staeb C, Jörgensen L, Lewis G, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Sep;4(9):685-93.Full text  Abstract

69. Turner DT, van der Gaag M, Karyotaki E, et al. Psychological interventions for psychosis: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 May;171(5):523-38. Abstract

70. Jauhar S, McKenna PJ, Radua J, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for the symptoms of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis with examination of potential bias. Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;204(1):20-9. Abstract

71. Zhornitsky S, Stip E. Oral versus long-acting injectable antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia and special populations at risk for treatment nonadherence: a systematic review. Schizophr Res Treatment. 2012;2012:407171.Full text  Abstract

72. Porcelli S, Balzarro B, Serretti A. Clozapine resistance: augmentation strategies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;22:165-182. Abstract

73. Choi KH, Wykes T, Kurtz MM. Adjunctive pharmacotherapy for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: meta-analytical investigation of efficacy. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;203:172-178.Full text  Abstract

74. United States Department of Veterans Affairs VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Services, Medical Advisory Panel, and VISN Pharmacist Executives. Recommendations for antipsychotic selection in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. June 2012. http://www.pbm.va.gov/ (last accessed 27 September 2017).Full text

75. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management. October 2016 [internet publication].Full text

76. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. February 2014. http://www.nice.org.uk/ (last accessed 27 September 2017).Full text

77. Harrow M, Grossman LS, Herbener ES, et al. Ten-year outcome: patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:421-426.Full text  Abstract

78. Jager M, Bottlender R, Strauss A, et al. Fifteen-year follow-up of ICD-10 schizoaffective disorders compared with schizophrenia and affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;109:30-37. Abstract

79. Torniainen M, Suvisaari J, Partonen T, et al. Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: relationship with clinical characteristics. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012;200:316-322. Abstract

80. Glassman AH. Schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs, and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(suppl 6):5-10. Abstract

81. Hawton K, Sutton L, Haw C, et al. Schizophrenia and suicide: systematic review of risk factors. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Jul;187:9-20.Full text  Abstract

82. Palmer BA, Pankratz VS, Bostwick JM. The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a reexamination. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;62(3):247-53.Full text  Abstract

83. Meltzer HY. Treatment of suicidality in schizophrenia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Apr;932:44-58. Abstract

84. Tsoi DT, Porwal M, Webster AC. Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;(2):CD007253.Full text  Abstract

85. Cubo E, Gracies JM, Benabou R, et al. Early morning off-medication dyskinesias, dystonia, and choreic subtypes. Arch Neurol. 2001 Sep;58(9):1379-82. Abstract

86. Gray R, Gournay K. What can we do about acute extrapyramidal symptoms? J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2000 Jun;7(3):205-11. Abstract

87. Velamoor VR, Swamy GN, Parmar RS, et al. Management of suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Can J Psychiatry. 1995 Nov;40(9):545-50. Abstract

88. Nasrallah H. A review of the effect of atypical antipsychotics on weight. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003 Jan;28(suppl 1):83-96. Abstract

89. Mukundan A, Faulkner G, Cohn T, et al. Antipsychotic switching for people with schizophrenia who have neuroleptic-induced weight or metabolic problems.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Dec 8;(12):CD006629.Full text  Abstract

90. Jin H, Meyer JM, Jeste DV. Atypical antipsychotics and glucose dysregulation: a systematic review. Schizophr Res. 2004 Dec 1;71(2-3):195-212. Abstract

91. Newcomer JW. Metabolic considerations in the use of antipsychotic medications: a review of recent evidence. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(suppl 1):20-7. Abstract

92. Glassman AH, Bigger JT Jr. Antipsychotic drugs: prolonged QTc interval, torsade de pointes, and sudden death. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;158(11):1774-82. Abstract

93. Collaborative Working Group on Clinical Trial Evaluations. Adverse effects of the atypical antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(suppl 12):17-22. Abstract

94. Cimo A, Stergiopoulos E, Cheng C, et al. Effective lifestyle interventions to improve type II diabetes self-management for those with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry. 2012 Mar 23;12:24.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer