Dermatophyte infections

References

Key articles

Ameen M, Lear JT, Madan V, et al. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of onychomycosis 2014. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov;171(5):937-58.Full text  Abstract

Fuller LC, Barton RC, Mohd Mustapa MF, et al. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of tinea capitis 2014. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Sep;171(3):454-63.Full text  Abstract

Kakourou T, Uksal U; European Society for Pediatric Dermatology. Guidelines for the management of tinea capitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010 May-Jun;27(3):226-8.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Coloe JR, Diab M, Moennich J, et al. Tinea capitis among children in the Columbus area, Ohio, USA. Mycoses. 2010 Mar 1;53(2):158-62. Abstract

3. Abdel-Rahman SM, Farrand N, Schuenemann E, et al. The prevalence of infections with Trichophyton tonsurans in schoolchildren: the CAPITIS study. Pediatrics. 2010 May;125(5):966-73. Abstract

4. Drake LA, Dinehart SM, Farmer ER, et al. Guidelines of care for superficial mycotic infections of the skin: tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea faciei, tinea manuum, and tinea pedis. Guidelines/Outcomes Committee. American Academy of Dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Feb;34(2 Pt 1):282-6. Abstract

5. Faergemann J, Baran R. Epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Sep;149(suppl 65):1-4. Abstract

6. Gupta AK, Jain HC, Lynde CW, et al. Prevalence and epidemiology of unsuspected onychomycosis in patients visiting dermatologists' offices in Ontario, Canada - a multicenter survey of 2001 patients. Int J Dermatol. 1997 Oct;36(10):783-7. Abstract

7. Gupta AK, Versteeg SG, Shear NH. Onychomycosis in the 21st century: an update on diagnosis, epidemiology, and treatment. J Cutan Med Surg. 2017 Nov/Dec;21(6):525-39. Abstract

8. Gupta AK, Daigle D, Foley KA. The prevalence of culture-confirmed toenail onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jun;29(6):1039-44. Abstract

9. Daggett C, Brodell RT, Daniel CR, et al. Onychomycosis in athletes. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2019 Oct;20(5):691-8. Abstract

10. Shemer A, Gupta AK, Amichai B, et al. Increased risk of tinea pedis and onychomycosis among swimming pool employees in Netanya Area, Israel. Mycopathologia. 2016 Dec;181(11-12):851-6. Abstract

11. Macura AB. Dermatophyte infections. Int J Dermatol. 1993 May;32(5):313-23. Abstract

12. Daly RF, House J, Stanek D, et al; National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Animal Contact Compendium Committee. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2017. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2017 Dec 1;251(11):1268-92.Full text  Abstract

13. Ameen M, Lear JT, Madan V, et al. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of onychomycosis 2014. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov;171(5):937-58.Full text  Abstract

14. Bassiri-Jahromi S, Sadeghi G, Paskiaee FA. Evaluation of the association of superficial dermatophytosis and athletic activities with special reference to its prevention and control. Int J Dermatol. 2010 Oct;49(10):1159-64. Abstract

15. Bang CH, Yoon JW, Lee HJ, et al. Evaluation of relationships between onychomycosis and vascular diseases using sequential pattern mining. Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17840. Abstract

16. Lipner SR, Scher RK. Onychomycosis: clinical overview and diagnosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Apr;80(4):835-51. Abstract

17. Ankad BS, Mukherjee SS, Nikam BP, et al. Dermoscopic characterization of dermatophytosis: a preliminary observation. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2020 Mar-Apr;11(2):202-7.Full text  Abstract

18. Leung AKC, Hon KL, Leong KF, et al. Tinea capitis: an updated review. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2020;14(1):58-68. Abstract

19. Mochizuki T, Tsuboi R, Iozumi K, et al. Guidelines for the management of dermatomycosis (2019). J Dermatol. 2020 Dec;47(12):1343-73. Abstract

20. Gupta AK, Drummond-Main C, Cooper EA, et al. Systematic review of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis: diagnosis, clinical types, epidemiology, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Mar;66(3):494-502. Abstract

21. Rajagopalan M, Inamadar A, Mittal A, et al. Expert consensus on the management of dermatophytosis in India (ECTODERM India). BMC Dermatol. 2018 Jul 24;18(1):6.Full text  Abstract

22. Elewski BE. Onychomycosis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998 Jul;11(3):415-29.Full text  Abstract

23. Fuller LC, Barton RC, Mohd Mustapa MF, et al. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of tinea capitis 2014. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Sep;171(3):454-63.Full text  Abstract

24. Motamedi M, Mirhendi H, Zomorodian K, et al. Clinical evaluation of beta-tubulin real-time PCR for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis, a comparison with mycological methods. Mycoses. 2017 Oct;60(10):692-6. Abstract

25. Jeelani S, Ahmed QM, Lanker AM, et al. Histopathological examination of nail clippings using PAS staining (HPE-PAS): gold standard in diagnosis of onychomycosis. Mycoses. 2015 Jan;58(1):27-32. Abstract

26. Spiliopoulou A, Bartzavali C, Jelastopulu E, et al. Evaluation of a commercial PCR test for the diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections. J Med Microbiol. 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):25-31. Abstract

27. Miteva M, Tosti A. Hair and scalp dermatoscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Nov;67(5):1040-8. Abstract

28. Cinotti E, Perrot JL, Labeille B, et al. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 May;30(5):754-63. Abstract

29. Public Health England. Fungal skin and nail infections: diagnosis and laboratory investigation guide for primary care. June 2017 [internet publication].Full text

30. Chang CH, Young-Xu Y, Kurth T, et al. The safety of oral antifungal treatments for superficial dermatophytosis and onychomycosis: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2007 Sep;120(9):791-8. Abstract

31. Gupta AK, Cooper EA, Bowen JE, et al. Meta-analysis: griseofulvin efficacy in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008 Apr;7(4):369-72. Abstract

32. Tey HL, Tan AS, Chan YC. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing griseofulvin and terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Apr;64(4):663-70. Abstract

33. Chen X, Jiang X, Yang M, et al. Systemic antifungal therapy for tinea capitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 12;(5):CD004685.Full text  Abstract

34. Chen S, Sun KY, Feng XW, et al. Efficacy and safety of itraconazole use in infants. World J Pediatr. 2016 Nov;12(4):399-407. Abstract

35. US Food & Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns that prescribing of Nizoral (ketoconazole) oral tablets for unapproved uses including skin and nail infections continues; linked to patient death. June 2016 [internet publication].Full text

36. Crawford F, Hollis S. Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD001434.Full text  Abstract

37. Rotta I, Ziegelmann PK, Otuki MF, et al. Efficacy of topical antifungals in the treatment of dermatophytosis: a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis involving 14 treatments. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Mar;149(3):341-9. Abstract

38. Parish LC, Parish JL, Routh HB, et al. A double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of naftifine 2% cream in tinea cruris. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Oct;10(10):1142-7. Abstract

39. Parish LC, Parish JL, Routh HB, et al. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled efficacy and safety study of naftifine 2% cream in the treatment of tinea pedis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Nov;10(11):1282-8. Abstract

40. El-Gohary M, van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, et al. Topical antifungal treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 4;(8):CD009992.Full text  Abstract

41. Gold M, Dhawan S, Verma A, et al. Efficacy and safety of naftifine HCl cream 2% in the treatment of pediatric subjects with tinea corporis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Jun 1;15(6):743-8. Abstract

42. de Sá DC, Lamas AP, Tosti A. Oral therapy for onychomycosis: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014 Feb;15(1):17-36. Abstract

43. Yin Z, Xu J, Luo D. A meta-analysis comparing long-term recurrences of toenail onychomycosis after successful treatment with terbinafine versus itraconazole. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012 Dec;23(6):449-52. Abstract

44. Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Hawke K, Guo L, et al. Oral antifungal medication for toenail onychomycosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 14;(7):CD010031.Full text  Abstract

45. Gupta AK, Stec N, Bamimore MA, et al. The efficacy and safety of pulse vs. continuous therapy for dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020 Mar;34(3):580-8. Abstract

46. Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Hawke KL, van Driel ML. Oral medications to treat toenail fungal infection. JAMA. 2018 Jan 23;319(4):397-8. Abstract

47. Piraccini BM, Tosti A. White superficial onychomycosis: epidemiological, clinical, and pathological study of 79 patients. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Jun;140(6):696-701.Full text  Abstract

48. Foley K, Gupta AK, Versteeg S, et al. Topical and device-based treatments for fungal infections of the toenails. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 16;(1):CD012093.Full text  Abstract

49. Elewski BE, Rich P, Pollak R, et al. Efinaconazole 10% solution in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis: two phase III multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Apr;68(4):600-8. Abstract

50. Elewski BE, Aly R, Baldwin SL, et al. Efficacy and safety of tavaborole topical solution, 5%, a novel boron-based antifungal agent, for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis: results from 2 randomized phase-III studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015 Jul;73(1):62-9.Full text  Abstract

51. Gupta AK, Hall S, Zane LT, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of tavaborole topical solution, 5%, in the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenail in adults: a pooled analysis of an 8-week, post-study follow-up from two randomized phase 3 studies. J Dermatolog Treat. 2018 Feb;29(1):44-8. Abstract

52. Baran R, Tosti A, Hartmane I, et al. An innovative water-soluble biopolymer improves efficacy of ciclopirox nail lacquer in the management of onychomycosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Jul;23(7):773-81. Abstract

53. Gupta AK, Fleckman P, Baran R. Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Oct;43(4 Suppl):S70-80. Abstract

54. Friedlander SF. The optimal therapy for tinea capitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug;17(4):325-6. Abstract

55. Elewski BE. Treatment of tinea capitis: beyond griseofulvin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Jun;40(6 Pt 2):S27-30. Abstract

56. Hart R, Bell-Syer SE, Crawford F, et al. Systematic review of topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet. BMJ. 1999 Jul 10;319(7202):79-82. Abstract

57. Bell-Syer SE, Hart R, Crawford F, et al. A systematic review of oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the feet. J Dermatolog Treat. 2001 Jun;12(2):69-74. Abstract

58. Ma W, Si C, Kasyanju Carrero LM, et al. Laser treatment for onychomycosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Nov;98(48):e17948.Full text  Abstract

59. Elewski B, Pollak R, Ashton S, et al. A randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, investigator-blinded study of four treatment regimens of posaconazole in adults with toenail onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Feb;166(2):389-98. Abstract

60. Sigurgeirsson B, van Rossem K, Malahias S, et al. A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, dose-ranging study to investigate the efficacy and safety of 4 dose regimens of oral albaconazole in patients with distal subungual onychomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Sep;69(3):416-25. Abstract

61. Watanabe S, Tsubouchi I, Okubo A. Efficacy and safety of fosravuconazole L-lysine ethanolate, a novel oral triazole antifungal agent, for the treatment of onychomycosis: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase III study. J Dermatol. 2018 Oct;45(10):1151-9.Full text  Abstract

62. Noguchi H, Matsumoto T, Kimura U, et al. Fosravuconazole to treat severe onychomycosis in the elderly. J Dermatol. 2021 Feb;48(2):228-31. Abstract

63. Canadian Paediatric Society. Antifungal agents for common outpatient paediatric infections. June 2019 [internet publication].Full text

64. Ely JW, Rosenfeld S, Seabury Stone M. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Nov 15;90(10):702-10.Full text  Abstract

65. Kakourou T, Uksal U; European Society for Pediatric Dermatology. Guidelines for the management of tinea capitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010 May-Jun;27(3):226-8.Full text  Abstract

66. Scher RK, Baran R. Onychomycosis in clinical practice: factors contributing to recurrence. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Sep;149(suppl 65):5-9. Abstract

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