Chronic spinal cord injury


Key articles

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine; Paralyzed Veterans of America. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for spinal cord injury. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Obstetric management of patients with spinal cord injuries: ACOG Committee opinion summary, number 808. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;135(5):1247-49.Full text  Abstract

Royal College of Physicians. Chronic spinal cord injury: management of patients in acute hospital settings. Feb 2008 [internet publication].Full text

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30. Hamid R, Averbeck MA, Chiang H, et al. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury. World J Urol. 2018 Oct;36(10):1517-27. Abstract

31. Rabadi MH, Aston C. Complications and urologic risks of neurogenic bladder in veterans with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015 Mar;53(3):200-3.Full text  Abstract

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33. Savic G, DeVivo MJ, Frankel HL, et al. Causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury-a 70-year British study. Spinal Cord. 2017 Oct;55(10):891-7.Full text  Abstract

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35. Shams R, Drasites KP, Zaman V, et al. The pathophysiology of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 17;22(6):3057.Full text  Abstract

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40. Bombardier CH, Azuero CB, Fann JR, et al. Management of mental health disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide in adults with spinal cord injury: clinical practice guideline for healthcare providers. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. Spring 2021;27(2):152-224.Full text  Abstract

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43. Cameron AP, Rodriguez GM, Schomer KG. Systematic review of urological followup after spinal cord injury. J Urol. 2012 Feb;187(2):391-7. Abstract

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46. Morse LR, Biering-Soerensen F, Carbone LD, et al. Bone mineral density testing in spinal cord injury: 2019 ISCD official position. J Clin Densitom. 2019 Oct-Dec;22(4):554-66. Abstract

47. Sadowsky CL, Mingioni N, Zinski J. A primary care provider's guide to bone health in spinal cord-related paralysis. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2020 Spring;26(2):128-33.Full text  Abstract

48. Ong B, Wilson JR, Henzel MK. Management of the patient with chronic spinal cord injury. Med Clin North Am. 2020 Mar;104(2):263-78. Abstract

49. Hamid S, Hayek R. Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview. Eur Spine J. 2008 Sep;17(9):1256-69. Abstract

50. Dolbow DR, Gorgey AS, Recio AC, et al. Activity-based restorative therapies after spinal cord injury: inter-institutional conceptions and perceptions. Aging Dis. 2015 Aug;6(4):254-61.Full text  Abstract

51. Harvey L. Management of spinal cord injuries: a guide for physiotherapists. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

52. Devillard X, Rimaud D, Roche F, et al. Effects of training programs for spinal cord injury. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Jul;50(6):490-8, 480-9. Abstract

53. Lam T, Eng JJ, Wolfe DL, et al; SCIRE Research Team. A systematic review of the efficacy of gait rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2007 Summer;13(1):32-57.Full text  Abstract

54. Charmetant C, Phaner V, Condemine A, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients: a literature review. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Dec;53(10):655-68. Abstract

55. Jones ML, Evans N, Tefertiller C, et al. Activity-based therapy for recovery of walking in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: results from a randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Dec;95(12):2239-46.e2. Abstract

56. Sadowsky CL, Hammond ER, Strohl AB, et al. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013 Nov;36(6):623-31. Abstract

57. Behrman AL, Ardolino EM, Harkema SJ. Activity-based therapy: from basic science to clinical application for recovery after spinal cord injury. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2017 Jul;41(3 suppl):S39-45. Abstract

58. Quel de Oliveira C, Refshauge K, Middleton J, et al. Effects of activity-based therapy interventions on mobility, independence, and quality of life for people with spinal cord injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurotrauma. 2017 May 1;34(9):1726-43. Abstract

59. Duan R, Qu M, Yuan Y, et al. Clinical benefit of rehabilitation training in spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Mar 15;46(6):E398-410. Abstract

60. Boswell-Ruys CL, Harvey LA, Barker JJ, et al. Training unsupported sitting in people with chronic spinal cord injuries: a randomized controlled trial. Spinal Cord. 2010 Feb;48(2):138-43. Abstract

61. Flockhart EW, Miller WC, Campbell JA, et al. Evaluation of two power assist systems for manual wheelchairs for usability, performance and mobility: a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2021 Nov 22:1-13. Abstract

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63. Mehrholz J, Harvey LA, Thomas S, et al. Is body-weight-supported treadmill training or robotic-assisted gait training superior to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy in people with spinal cord injury? A systematic review. Spinal Cord. 2017 Aug;55(8):722-9.Full text  Abstract

64. Holanda LJ, Silva PMM, Amorim TC, et al. Robotic assisted gait as a tool for rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2017 Dec 4;14(1):126.Full text  Abstract

65. Musselman KE, Fouad K, Misiaszek JE, et al. Training of walking skills overground and on the treadmill: case series on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. Phys Ther. 2010 Feb;48(2):138-43. Abstract

66. Inanici F, Brighton LN, Samejima S, et al. Transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation restores hand and arm function after spinal cord injury. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2021;29:310-9.Full text  Abstract

67. Lu X, Battistuzzo CR, Zoghi M, et al. Effects of training on upper limb function after cervical spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2015 Jan;29(1):3-13. Abstract

68. Zoghi M, Galea M. Brain motor control assessment post early intensive hand rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2018 Spring;24(2):157-66.Full text  Abstract

69. Beekhuizen KS, Field-Fote EC. Massed practice versus massed practice with stimulation: effects on upper extremity function and cortical plasticity in individuals with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2005 Mar;19(1):33-45.Full text  Abstract

70. Phillips AA, Cote AT, Warburton DE. A systematic review of exercise as a therapeutic intervention to improve arterial function in persons living with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011 Jun;49(6):702-14. Abstract

71. Martin Ginis KA, van der Scheer JW, Latimer-Cheung AE, et al. Evidence-based scientific exercise guidelines for adults with spinal cord injury: an update and a new guideline. Spinal Cord. 2018 Apr;56(4):308-21. Abstract

72. Sandrow-Feinberg HR, Houlé JD. Exercise after spinal cord injury as an agent for neuroprotection, regeneration and rehabilitation. Brain Res. 2015 Sep 4;1619:12-21. Abstract

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75. Postma K, Haisma JA, Hopman MT, et al. Resistive inspiratory muscle training in people with spinal cord injury during inpatient rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2014 Dec;94(12):1709-19.Full text  Abstract

76. Srivastava A, Gupta A, Taly AB, et al. Surgical management of pressure ulcers during inpatient neurologic rehabilitation: outcomes for patients with spinal cord disease. J Spinal Cord Med. 2009 Apr;32(2):125-31.Full text  Abstract

77. Kahn SR, Lim W, Dunn AS, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 suppl):e195S-226S.Full text  Abstract

78. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Bladder management for adults with spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care providers. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):527-73.Full text  Abstract

79. de Groat WC, Griffiths D, Yoshimura N. Neural control of the lower urinary tract. Compr Physiol. 2015 Jan;5(1):327-96. Abstract

80. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine; Paralyzed Veterans of America. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for spinal cord injury. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

81. Li L, Ye W, Ruan H, et al. Impact of hydrophilic catheters on urinary tract infections in people with spinal cord injury: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):782-7. Abstract

82. Holston D, Stroope J, Cater M, et al. Implementing policy, systems, and environmental change through community coalitions and extension partnerships to address obesity in rural Louisiana. Prev Chronic Dis. 2020 Feb 27;17:E18.Full text  Abstract

83. del Popolo G, Mencarini M, Nelli F, et al. Controversy over the pharmacological treatments of storage symptoms in spinal cord injury patients: a literature overview. Spinal Cord. 2012 Jan;50(1):8-13.Full text  Abstract

84. Krassioukov A, Eng JJ, Claxton G, et al. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the evidence. Spinal Cord. 2010 Oct;48(10):718-33.Full text  Abstract

85. Emmanuel A. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction. 2019 Oct 28;8:F1000 Faculty Rev-1800.Full text  Abstract

86. Johns J, Krogh K, Rodriguez GM, et al. Management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in adults after spinal cord injury: clinical practice guideline for health care providers. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. Spring 2021;27(2):75-151. Abstract

87. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of chronic pain: a national clinical guideline. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

88. Wyndaele JJ. Pain in individuals who suffered a spinal cord injury. How does pain interfere? Hope for improved management. Spinal Cord. 2009 May;47(5):351. Abstract

89. Mehta S, McIntyre A, Janzen S, et al; Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence Team. Systematic review of pharmacologic treatments of pain after spinal cord injury: an update. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Aug;97(8):1381-91. Abstract

90. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

91. Mehta S, McIntyre A, Dijkers M, et al. Gabapentinoids are effective in decreasing neuropathic pain and other secondary outcomes after spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Nov;95(11):2180-6. Abstract

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94. Mehta S, Janzen, S, Loh E, et al. Poster 96 Opioid treatment for chronic pain following spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2012 Oct 1;93(10):e42.Full text

95. Rekand T, Hagen EM, Grønning M. Chronic pain following spinal cord injury [in Norwegian]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Apr 30;132(8):974-9.Full text  Abstract

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97. O'Connell NE, Marston L, Spencer S, et al. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 16;3:CD008208.Full text  Abstract

98. Knotkova H, Hamani C, Sivanesan E, et al. Neuromodulation for chronic pain. Lancet. 2021 May 29;397(10289):2111-24. Abstract

99. Khan F, Amatya B, Bensmail D, et al. Non-pharmacological interventions for spasticity in adults: an overview of systematic reviews. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2019 Jul;62(4):265-73.Full text  Abstract

100. Bauman WA, Cardozo CP. Osteoporosis in individuals with spinal cord injury. PM R. 2015 Feb;7(2):188-201; quiz 201. Abstract

101. Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco J, et al. Incidence of skeletal fractures after traumatic spinal cord injury: a 10-year follow-up study. Clin Rehabil. 2014 Apr;28(4):361-9. Abstract

102. Morse LR, Battaglino RA, Stolzmann KL, et al. Osteoporotic fractures and hospitalization risk in chronic spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Mar;20(3):385-92. Abstract

103. Kokorelis C, Gonzalez-Fernandez M, Morgan M, et al. Effects of drugs on bone metabolism in a cohort of individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019;5:3.Full text  Abstract

104. Krassioukov A, Warburton DE, Teasell R, et al. A systematic review of the management of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Apr;90(4):682-95. Abstract

105. Prévinaire JG, Mathias CJ, El Masri W, et al. The isolated sympathetic spinal cord: cardiovascular and sudomotor assessment in spinal cord injury patients: a literature survey. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Oct;53(8):520-32. Abstract

106. Courtois F, Rodrigue X, Côté I, et al. Sexual function and autonomic dysreflexia in men with spinal cord injuries: how should we treat? Spinal Cord. 2012 Dec;50(12):869-77. Abstract

107. Eldahan KC, Rabchevsky AG. Autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury: systemic pathophysiology and methods of management. Auton Neurosci. 2018 Jan;209:59-70. Abstract

108. Squair JW, Phillips AA, Harmon M, et al. Emergency management of autonomic dysreflexia with neurologic complications. CMAJ. 2016 Oct 18;188(15):1100-3.Full text  Abstract

109. Braddom RL, Rocco JF. Autonomic dysreflexia. A survey of current treatment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Oct;70(5):234-41. Abstract

110. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Acute management of autonomic dysreflexia: individuals with spinal cord injury presenting to health-care facilities. J Spinal Cord Med. 2002 Spring;25(1 suppl):S67-88.Full text  Abstract

111. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Sexuality and reproductive health in adults with spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care professionals. J Spinal Cord Med. 2010;33(3):281-336. Abstract

112. Obstetric management of patients with spinal cord injuries: ACOG Committee opinion summary, number 808. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;135(5):1247-49.Full text  Abstract

113. Coggrave M, Norton C, Cody JD. Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jan 13;(1):CD002115.Full text  Abstract

114. Rossini PM, Burke D, Chen R, et al. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee. Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 Jun;126(6):1071-107.Full text  Abstract

115. Wagner FB, Mignardot JB, Le Goff-Mignardot CG, et al. Targeted neurotechnology restores walking in humans with spinal cord injury. Nature. 2018 Nov;563(7729):65-71. Abstract

116. Martin R. Utility and feasibility of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation for patients with incomplete SCI in therapeutic settings: a review of topic. Front. Rehabilit. Sci. 2021;2:724003.Full text

117. Hayes HB, Jayaraman A, Herrmann M, et al. Daily intermittent hypoxia enhances walking after chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2014 Jan 14;82(2):104-13.Full text  Abstract

118. Assinck P, Duncan GJ, Hilton BJ, et al. Cell transplantation therapy for spinal cord injury. Nat Neurosci. 2017 Apr 25;20(5):637-47. Abstract

119. Hu XC, Lu YB, Yang YN, et al. Progress in clinical trials of cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury: how many questions remain unanswered? Neural Regen Res. 2021 Mar;16(3):405-13.Full text  Abstract

120. Garcia-Alias G, Barkhuysen S, Buckle M, et al. Chondroitinase ABC treatment opens a window of opportunity for task-specific rehabilitation. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Sep;12(9):1145-51. Abstract

121. Zhao RR, Fawcett JW. Combination treatment with chondroitinase ABC in spinal cord injury--breaking the barrier. Neurosci Bull. 2013 Aug;29(4):477-83. Abstract

122. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Functional electrical stimulation for children with spinal cord injuries or cerebral palsy: Update of review of clinical effectiveness. August 2015 [internet publication].Full text

123. Sadowsky CL, Sayenko DG. Editorial: harnessing neuroplasticity in the injured central nervous system using spinal neuromodulation. Front. Rehabilit. Sci. 2022;3:841014.Full text

124. Angeli CA, Boakye M, Morton RA, et al. Recovery of over-ground walking after chronic motor complete spinal cord injury. N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 27;379(13):1244-50. Abstract

125. van der Scheer JW, Goosey-Tolfrey VL, Valentino SE, et al. Functional electrical stimulation cycling exercise after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of health and fitness-related outcomes. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2021 Jun 12;18(1):99.Full text  Abstract

126. Tan G, Rintala DH, Jensen MP, et al. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. J Spinal Cord Med. 2011;34(3):285-96.Full text  Abstract

127. Han ZA, Song DH, Oh HM, et al. Botulinum toxin type A for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol. 2016 Apr;79(4):569-78.Full text  Abstract

128. Chun A, Levy I, Yang A, et al. Treatment of at-level spinal cord injury pain with botulinum toxin A. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019;5:77.Full text  Abstract

129. Ling HQ, Chen ZH, He L, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of 11 drugs as therapies for adults with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a Bayesian network analysis based on 20 randomized controlled trials. Front Neurol. 2022;13:818522.Full text  Abstract

130. American College of Surgeons. Best practice guidelines: spine injury. Mar 2022 [internet publication].Full text

131. Spinal Cord Injury Research Evidence (SCIRE). Rehabilitation practices. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

132. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Spinal cord injury: evidence-based nutrition practice guideline. Jul 2009 [internet publication].Full text

133. Multidisciplinary Association of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals. Guidelines for management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in individuals with spinal cord injury and other central neurological conditions. Feb 2021 [internet publication].Full text

134. Royal College of Physicians. Chronic spinal cord injury: management of patients in acute hospital settings. Feb 2008 [internet publication].Full text

135. Multidisciplinary Association of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals. Guidelines for the management of neuropathic pain in adults following spinal cord injury. Second edition. Nov 2008 [internet publication].Full text

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137. Müller R, Peter C, Cieza A, et al. The role of social support and social skills in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the literature. Spinal Cord. 2012 Feb;50(2):94-106. Abstract

138. Lidal IB, Huynh TK, Biering-Sørensen F. Return to work following spinal cord injury: a review. Disabil Rehabil. 2007 Sep 15;29(17):1341-75. Abstract

139. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Centre. The 2013 annual statistical report for the spinal cord injury model systems. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

140. Wilson JR, Cadotte DW, Fehlings MG. Clinical predictors of neurological outcome, functional status, and survival after traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sep;17(1 Suppl):11-26. Abstract

141. Merli GJ, Herbison GJ, Ditunno JF, et al. Deep vein thrombosis: prophylaxis in acute spinal cord injured patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1988 Sep;69(9):661-4. Abstract

142. Kamen L, Henney HR III, Runyan JD. A practical overview of tizanidine use for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):425-39. Abstract

143. Gelis A, Dupeyron A, Legros P, et al. Pressure ulcer risk factors in persons with spinal cord injury. Part 2: the chronic stage. Spinal Cord. 2009 Sep;47(9):651-61. Abstract

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