Periodic limb movement disorder

References

Key articles

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders. 3rd ed. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.

Garcia-Borreguero D, Ferini-Strambi L, Kohnen R, et al. European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome: report of a joint task force by the European Federation of Neurological Societies, the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1385-1396. Abstract

Zucconi M, Ferri R, Allen R, et al. The official World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) standards for recording and scoring periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) and wakefulness (PLMW) developed in collaboration with a task force from the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). Sleep Med. 2006;7:175-183.Full text  Abstract

Hornyak M, Feige B, Reimann D, et al. Periodic leg movements in sleep and periodic limb movement disorder: prevalence, clinical significance and treatment. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:169-177. Abstract

Scofield H, Roth T, Drake C. Periodic limb movements during sleep: population prevalence, clinical correlates, and racial differences. J Sleep. 2008;31:1221-1227.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders. 3rd ed. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.

2. Garcia-Borreguero D, Ferini-Strambi L, Kohnen R, et al. European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome: report of a joint task force by the European Federation of Neurological Societies, the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1385-1396. Abstract

3. Zucconi M, Ferri R, Allen R, et al. The official World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) standards for recording and scoring periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) and wakefulness (PLMW) developed in collaboration with a task force from the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). Sleep Med. 2006;7:175-183.Full text  Abstract

4. Hornyak M, Feige B, Reimann D, et al. Periodic leg movements in sleep and periodic limb movement disorder: prevalence, clinical significance and treatment. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:169-177. Abstract

5. Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, et al. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. Sleep. 2012;35:1039-1062.Full text  Abstract

6. Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, et al. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: rules, terminology and technical specification. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2007.

7. Montplaisir J, Boucher S, Poirier G, et al. Clinical, polysomnographic, and genetic characteristics of restless legs syndrome: a study of 133 patients diagnosed with new standard criteria. Mov Disord. 1997;12:61-65. Abstract

8. Rijsman RM, Stam CJ, de Weerd AW. Abnormal H-reflexes in periodic limb movement disorder: impact on understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:204-210. Abstract

9. Scofield H, Roth T, Drake C. Periodic limb movements during sleep: population prevalence, clinical correlates, and racial differences. J Sleep. 2008;31:1221-1227.Full text  Abstract

10. Picchietti DL, Walters AS. Moderate to severe periodic limb movement disorder in childhood and adolescence. Sleep. 1999;22:297-300. Abstract

11. Chervin RD, Archbold KH, Dillon JE, et al. Associations between symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, restless legs, and periodic leg movements. Sleep. 2002;25:213-218. Abstract

12. Gehrman P, Stepnowsky C, Cohen-Zion M, et al. Long-term follow-up of periodic limb movements in sleep in older adults. Sleep. 2002;25:340-343. Abstract

13. Ancoli-Israel S, Kripke DF, Klauber MR, et al. Periodic limb movements in sleep in community-dwelling elderly. Sleep. 1991;14:496-500. Abstract

14. Carrier J, Frenette S, Montplaisir J, et al. Effects of periodic leg movements during sleep in middle-aged subjects without sleep complaints. Mov Disord. 2005;20:1127-1132. Abstract

15. Hornyak M, Trenkwalder C. Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the elderly. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56:543-548. Abstract

16. Haba-Rubio J, Marti-Soler H, Marques-Vidal P, et al. Prevalence and determinants of periodic limb movements in the general population. Ann Neurol. 2016 Mar;79(3):464-74.Full text  Abstract

17. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the general population. J Psychosom Res. 2002;53:547-554. Abstract

18. Leary EB, Moore HE 4th, Schneider LD, et al. Periodic limb movements in sleep: Prevalence and associated sleepiness in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort. Clin Neurophysiol. 2018 Nov;129(11):2306-2314.Full text  Abstract

19. Vetrugno R, Provini F, Plazzi G, et al. Propriospinal myoclonus: a motor phenomenon found in restless legs syndrome different from periodic limb movements during sleep. Mov Disord. 2005; 20:1323-1329. Abstract

20. Lee MS, Choi YC, Lee SH, et al. Sleep-related periodic leg movements associated with spinal cord lesions. Mov Disord. 1996;11:719-722. Abstract

21. Lee MS, Lyoo CH, Kim WC, et al. Periodic bursts of rhythmic dyskinesia associated with spinal anesthesia. Mov Disord. 1997;12:816-817. Abstract

22. Bucher SF, Seeleos KC, Oertel WH, et al. Cerebral generators involved in the pathogenesis of the restless legs syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1997;41:639-645. Abstract

23. Bara-Jimenez W, Aksu M, Graham B, et al. Periodic limb movements in sleep: state-dependent excitability of the spinal flexor reflex. Neurology. 2000;54:1609-1616. Abstract

24. Allen R. Dopamine and iron in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Sleep Med. 2004;5:385-391. Abstract

25. Clemens S, Rye D, Hochman S. Restless legs syndrome: revisiting the dopamine hypothesis from the spinal cord perspective. Neurology. 2006;67:125-130. Abstract

26. Cervenka S, Palhagen SE, Comley RA, et al. Support for dopaminergic hypoactivity in restless legs syndrome: a PET study on D2-receptor binding. Brain. 2006;129:2017-2028.Full text  Abstract

27. Szentkirályi A, Stefani A, Hackner H, et al. Prevalence and associated risk factors of periodic limb movement in sleep in two German population-based studies. Sleep. 2019 Mar 1;42(3):.Full text  Abstract

28. Exar EN, Collop NA. The association of upper airway resistance with periodic limb movements. Sleep. 2001;24:188-192. Abstract

29. Wang J, O'Reilly B, Venkataraman R, et al. Efficacy of oral iron in patients with restless legs syndrome and a low-normal ferritin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sleep Med. 2009;10:973-975. Abstract

30. Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, et al. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep. 1998;21:501-505. Abstract

31. Sforza E, Johannes M, Claudio B. The PAM-RL ambulatory device for detection of periodic leg movements: a validation study. Sleep Med. 2005;6:407-413. Abstract

32. Mendelson W. Are periodic leg movements associated with clinical sleep disturbance? Sleep. 1996;19:219-223. Abstract

33. Nicolas A, Lesperance P, Montplaisir J. Is excessive daytime sleepiness with periodic leg movements during sleep a specific diagnostic category? Eur Neurol. 1998;40:22-26. Abstract

34. Benes H, Kurella B, Kummer J, et al. Rapid onset of action of levodopa in restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, crossover trial. Sleep. 1999;22:1073-1081. Abstract

35. Collado-Seidel V, Kazenwadel J, Wetter TC, et al. A controlled study of additional sr-L-dopa in L-dopa-responsive restless legs syndrome with late-night symptoms. Neurology. 1999;52:285-290. Abstract

36. De Mello MT, Esteves AM, Tufik S. Comparison between dopaminergic agents and physical exercise as treatment for periodic limb movements in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2004;42:218-221.Full text  Abstract

37. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu B, et al. Sleep laboratory studies in periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2001;16:177-187. Abstract

38. Saletu B, Gruber G, Saletu M, et al. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 1. Findings on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Neuropsychobiology. 2000;41:181-189. Abstract

39. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu B, et al. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 2. Findings on periodic leg movements, arousals and respiratory variables. Neuropsychobiology. 2000;41:190-199. Abstract

40. Montplaisir J, Nicolas A, Denesle R, et al. Restless legs syndrome improved by pramipexole: a double-blind randomized trial. Neurology. 1999;52:938-943. Abstract

41. Ohanna N, Peled R, Rubin AH, et al. Periodic leg movements in sleep; effect of clonazepam treatment. Neurology. 1985;35:408-411. Abstract

42. Edinger JD, Fins AI, Sullivan RJ, et al. Comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and clonazepam for treating periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep. 1996;19:442-444. Abstract

43. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu-Zyhlarz G, et al. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD): acute placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies with clonazepam. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11:153-161. Abstract

44. Kavey N, Walters AS, Hening W, et al. Opioid treatment of periodic movements in sleep in patients without restless legs. Neuropeptides. 1988;11:181-184. Abstract

45. Kunz D, Bes F. Exogenous melatonin in periodic limb movement disorder: an open clinical trial and a hypothesis. Sleep. 2001;24:183-187. Abstract

46. Nofzinger E, Fasiczka A, Berman S, et al. Bupropion SR reduces periodic limb movements associated with arousals from sleep in depressed patients with periodic limb movement disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61:858-862. Abstract

47. Wu MN, Tseng PT, Chen TY, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of rotigotine on patients with periodic limb movement in sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0195473.Full text  Abstract

48. Grewal M, Hawa R, Shapiro C. Treatment of periodic limb movements in sleep with selegiline HCl. Mov Disord. 2002;17:398-401. Abstract

49. Ehrenberg BL, Eisensehr I, Corbett KE, et al. Valproate for sleep consolidation in periodic limb movement disorder. J Clin Psychoparmacol. 2000;20:574-578. Abstract

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