Chagas disease


Key articles

Nunes MCP, Beaton A, Acquatella H, et al. Chagas cardiomyopathy: an update of current clinical knowledge and management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018 Sep 18;138(12):e169-209.Full text  Abstract

Rassi A Jr, Rassi A, Marcondes de Rezende J. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012 Jun;26(2):275-91. Abstract

Brazilian Ministry of Health. Brazilian consensus on Chagas disease [in Portuguese]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2005;38(suppl 3):7-29. Abstract

Andrade JP, Marin Neto JA, Paola AA, et al. I Latin American guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Chagas' heart disease: executive summary. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011 Jun;96(6):434-42.Full text  Abstract

Bern C, Montgomery SP, Herwaldt BL, et al. Evaluation and treatment of Chagas disease in the United States: a systematic review. JAMA. 2007 Nov 14;298(18):2171-81.Full text  Abstract

Meymandi S, Hernandez S, Park S, et al. Treatment of Chagas disease in the United States. Curr Treat Options Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 26;10(3):373-88.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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15. Andrade JP, Marin Neto JA, Paola AA, et al. I Latin American guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Chagas' heart disease: executive summary. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011 Jun;96(6):434-42.Full text  Abstract

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24. Pereira KS, Schmidt FL, Guaraldo AM, et al. Chagas' disease as a foodborne illness. J Food Prot. 2009 Feb;72(2):441-6. Abstract

25. Nóbrega AA, Garcia MH, Tatto E, et al. Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Apr;15(4):653-5.Full text  Abstract

26. Pinto AY, Ferreira AG Jr, Valente Vda C, et al. Urban outbreak of acute Chagas disease in Amazon region of Brazil: four-year follow-up after treatment with benznidazole. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2009 Jan;25(1):77-83. Abstract

27. Pan American Health Organization. Guía para vigilancia, prevención, controle y manejo clínico da doença de Chagas aguda transmitida por alimentos [in Portuguese]. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: PANAFTOSA-VP/OPAS/OMS: PAHO/HSD/CD/539.09; 2009:92.Full text

28. Alarcón de Noya B, Díaz-Bello Z, Colmenares C, et al. Large urban outbreak of orally acquired acute Chagas disease at a school in Caracas, Venezuela. J Infect Dis. 2010 May 1;201(9):1308-15.Full text  Abstract

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32. Moncayo A, Silveira AC. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104(suppl 1):17-30.Full text  Abstract

33. Pinto Dias JC. Human Chagas disease and migration in the context of globalization: some particular aspects. J Trop Med. 2013;2013:789758.Full text  Abstract

34. Coura JR, Viñas PA, Junqueira AC. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2014 Nov;109(7):856-62.Full text  Abstract

35. Bern C, Montgomery SP, Herwaldt BL, et al. Evaluation and treatment of Chagas disease in the United States: a systematic review. JAMA. 2007 Nov 14;298(18):2171-81.Full text  Abstract

36. Kirchhoff LV. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) - a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993 Aug 26;329(9):639-44. Abstract

37. Strasen J, Williams T, Ertl G, et al. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Europe: many calculations, little knowledge. Clin Res Cardiol. 2014 Jan;103(1):1-10. Abstract

38. Beard CB, Pye G, Steurer FJ, et al. Chagas disease in a domestic transmission cycle in southern Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Jan;9(1):103-5.Full text  Abstract

39. Kjos SA, Snowden KF, Craig TM, et al. Distribution and characterization of canine Chagas disease in Texas. Vet Parasitol. 2008 Apr 15;152(3-4):249-56. Abstract

40. Yabsley MJ, Noblet GP. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in raccoons from South Carolina and Georgia. J Wildl Dis. 2002 Jan;38(1):75-83.Full text  Abstract

41. Klotz SA, Dorn PL, Klotz JH, et al. Feeding behavior of triatomines from the southwestern United States: an update on potential risk for transmission of Chagas disease. Acta Trop. 2009 Aug;111(2):114-8. Abstract

42. Hall CA, Polizzi C, Yabsley MJ, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence and epidemiologic trends in lemurs on St. Catherines Island, Georgia. J Parasitol. 2007 Feb;93(1):93-6. Abstract

43. Coura JR, Borges-Pereira J. Chagas disease. What is known and what should be improved: a systemic review. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012 Jun;45(3):286-96.Full text  Abstract

44. Buekens P, Almendares O, Carlier Y, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of Chagas' disease in North America: why don't we do more? Matern Child Health J. 2008 May;12(3):283-6. Abstract

45. Coura JR. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission: the vectors, blood and oral transmissions - a comprehensive review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 May;110(3):277-82.Full text  Abstract

46. Prata A. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2001 Sep;1(2):92-100. Abstract

47. Roque AL, Xavier SC, da Rocha MG, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle among wild and domestic mammals in three areas of orally transmitted Chagas disease outbreaks. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Nov;79(5):742-9. Abstract

48. Roque AL, Xavier SC, Gerhardt M, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi among wild and domestic mammals in different areas of the Abaetetuba municipality (Pará State, Brazil), an endemic Chagas disease transmission area. Vet Parasitol. 2013 Mar 31;193(1-3):71-7.Full text  Abstract

49. Roux E, de Fátima Venâncio A, Girres JF, et al. Spatial patterns and eco-epidemiological systems--part II: characterising spatial patterns of the occurrence of the insect vectors of Chagas disease based on remote sensing and field data. Geospat Health. 2011 Nov;6(1):53-64. Abstract

50. Roux E, de Fátima Venâncio A, Girres JF, et al. Spatial patterns and eco-epidemiological systems--part I: multi-scale spatial modelling of the occurrence of Chagas disease insect vectors. Geospat Health. 2011 Nov;6(1):41-51. Abstract

51. Costa J, Lorenzo M. Biology, diversity and strategies for the monitoring and control of triatomines - Chagas disease vectors. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:46-51.Full text  Abstract

52. Justi SA, Russo CA, Mallet JR, et al. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 31;7:149.Full text  Abstract

53. Justi SA, Galvão C. The evolutionary origin of diversity in Chagas disease vectors. Trends Parasitol. 2017 Jan;33(1):42-52.Full text  Abstract

54. Herrera CP, Licon MH, Nation CS, et al. Genotype diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi in small rodents and Triatoma sanguisuga from a rural area in New Orleans, Louisiana. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Feb 24;8:123.Full text  Abstract

55. Waleckx E, Suarez J, Richards B, et al. Triatoma sanguisuga blood meals and potential for Chagas disease, Louisiana, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;20(12):2141-3.Full text  Abstract

56. Bern C, Montgomery SP. An estimate of the burden of Chagas disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 1;49(5):e52-4.Full text  Abstract

57. Herwaldt BL. Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Oct;14(4):659-88.Full text  Abstract

58. Messenger LA, Bern C. Congenital Chagas disease: current diagnostics, limitations and future perspectives. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct;31(5):415-21. Abstract

59. Luquetti AO, Tavares SBN, Siriano LR, et al. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in central Brazil: a study of 1,211 individuals born to infected mothers. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 May;110(3):369-76.Full text  Abstract

60. Howard EJ, Xiong X, Carlier Y, et al. Frequency of the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2014 Jan;121(1):22-33.Full text  Abstract

61. Bern C, Verastegui M, Gilman RH, et al. Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 1;49(11):1667-74.Full text  Abstract

62. Rassi A Jr, Rassi A, Marin-Neto JA. Chagas heart disease: pathophysiologic mechanisms, prognostic factors and risk stratification. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:152-8.Full text  Abstract

63. Marin-Neto JA, Cunha-Neto E, Maciel BC, et al. Pathogenesis of chronic Chagas heart disease. Circulation. 2007 Mar 6;115(9):1109-23.Full text  Abstract

64. Esper L, Talvani A, Pimentel P, et al. Molecular mechanisms of myocarditis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;28(3):246-52. Abstract

65. Cunha-Neto E, Chevillard C. Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: immunopathology and genetics. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:683230.Full text  Abstract

66. da Rocha JR, Ribeiro U, Cecconello I, et al. Gastric secretory and hormonal patterns in end-stage Chagasic achalasia. Dis Esophagus. 2009;22(7):606-10. Abstract

67. Dutra WO, Gollob KJ. Current concepts in immunoregulation and pathology of human Chagas disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008 Jun;21(3):287-92. Abstract

68. Meneghelli UG. Chagas' disease: a model of denervation in the study of digestive tract motility. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1985;18(3):255-64. Abstract

69. Jabari S, de Oliveira EC, Brehmer A, et al. Chagasic megacolon: enteric neurons and related structures. Histochem Cell Biol. 2014 Sep;142(3):235-44.Full text  Abstract

70. Jiménez P, Jaimes J, Poveda C, et al. A systematic review of the Trypanosoma cruzi genetic heterogeneity, host immune response and genetic factors as plausible drivers of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Parasitology. 2019 Mar;146(3):269-83. Abstract

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72. Dorn PL, Perniciaro L, Yabsley MJ, et al. Autochthonous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Apr;13(4):605-7.Full text  Abstract

73. Diaz JH. Chagas disease in the United States: a cause for concern in Louisiana? J La State Med Soc. 2007 Jan-Feb;159(1):21-3, 25-9. Abstract

74. Barrett VJ, Leiby DA, Odom JL, et al. Negligible prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi among blood donors in the southeastern United States. Am J Clin Pathol. 1997 Nov;108(5):499-503. Abstract

75. Herwaldt BL, Grijalva MJ, Newsome AL, et al. Use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose the fifth reported US case of autochthonous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in Tennessee, 1998. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;181(1):395-9.Full text  Abstract

76. Schiffler RJ, Mansur GP, Navin TR, et al. Indigenous Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) in California. JAMA. 1984 Jun 8;251(22):2983-4. Abstract

77. Ochs DE, Hnilica VS, Moser DR, et al. Postmortem diagnosis of autochthonous acute Chagasic myocarditis by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a species-specific DNA sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 May;54(5):526-9. Abstract

78. Garcia MN, Aguilar D, Gorchakov R, et al. Evidence of autochthonous Chagas disease in southeastern Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Feb;92(2):325-30. Abstract

79. Klotz SA, Dorn PL, Mosbacher M, et al. Kissing bugs in the United States: risk for vector-borne disease in humans. Environ Health Insights. 2014 Dec 10;8(Suppl 2):49-59.Full text  Abstract

80. Dias JC. Chagas disease control in Brazil: which strategy after the attack phase? Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1991;71(suppl 1):75-86. Abstract

81. Briceño-León R. Chagas disease in the Americas: an ecohealth perspective [in Spanish]. Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25(suppl 1):S71-82. Abstract

82. Gorla DE, Porcasi X, Hrellac H, et al. Spatial stratification of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in La Rioja, Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Mar;80(3):405-9. Abstract

83. Briceño-León R, Mendez Galván J. The social determinants of Chagas disease and the transformations of Latin America. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007 Oct 30;102 Suppl 1:109-12.Full text  Abstract

84. Araujo CA, Waniek PJ, Jansen AM. An overview of Chagas disease and the role of triatomines on its distribution in Brazil. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Jun;9(3):227-34. Abstract

85. Ventura-Garcia L, Roura M, Pell C, et al. Socio-cultural aspects of Chagas disease: a systematic review of qualitative research. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Sep 12;7(9):e2410.Full text  Abstract

86. Castro E. Chagas' disease: lessons from routine donation testing. Transfus Med. 2009 Feb;19(1):16-23.Full text  Abstract

87. Schmunis GA. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries: the role of international migration. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007 Oct 30;102 Suppl 1:75-85.Full text  Abstract

88. Agapova M, Busch MP, Custer B. Cost-effectiveness of screening the US blood supply for Trypanosoma cruzi. Transfusion. 2010 Oct;50(10):2220-32. Abstract

89. Diaz JH. Recognizing and reducing the risks of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in travelers. J Travel Med. 2008 May-Jun;15(3):184-95.Full text  Abstract

90. Kirchhoff LV, Paredes P, Lomeli-Guerrero A, et al. Transfusion-associated Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in Mexico: implications for transfusion medicine in the United States. Transfusion. 2006 Feb;46(2):298-304. Abstract

91. Wendel S. Transfusion-transmitted Chagas' disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 1998 Nov;5(6):406-11. Abstract

92. Sabino EC, Salles NA, Sarr M, et al; NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), International Component. Enhanced classification of Chagas serologic results and epidemiologic characteristics of seropositive donors at three large blood centers in Brazil. Transfusion. 2010 Dec;50(12):2628-37. Abstract

93. Altclas JD, Barcan L, Nagel C, et al. Organ transplantation and Chagas disease. JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1134; author reply 1134-5. Abstract

94. Ferraz AS, Figueiredo JF. Transmission of Chagas' disease through transplanted kidney: occurrence of the acute form of the disease in two recipients from the same donor. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1993 Sep-Oct;35(5):461-3. Abstract

95. Kun H, Moore A, Mascola L, et al. Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by heart transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 1;48(11):1534-40. Abstract

96. Barcán L, Lunaó C, Clara L, et al. Transmission of T. cruzi infection via liver transplantation to a nonreactive recipient for Chagas' disease. Liver Transpl. 2005 Sep;11(9):1112-6.Full text  Abstract

97. Souza FF, Castro-E-Silva O, Marin Neto JA, et al. Acute Chagasic myocardiopathy after orthotopic liver transplantation with donor and recipient serologically negative for Trypanosoma cruzi: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2008 Apr;40(3):875-8. Abstract

98. Kransdorf EP, Zakowski PC, Kobashigawa JA. Chagas disease in solid organ and heart transplantation. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;27(5):418-24. Abstract

99. Wallace JA, Miller L, Beavis A, et al. Chagas disease: a proposal for testing policy for solid-organ transplant in the United States. Prog Transplant. 2013 Sep;23(3):272-7. Abstract

100. Villalba R, Fornes G, Alvarez MA, et al. Acute Chagas' disease in a recipient of a bone marrow transplant in Spain: case report. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Feb;14(2):594-5. Abstract

101. Altclas J, Sinagra A, Dictar M, et al. Chagas disease in bone marrow transplantation: an approach to preemptive therapy. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005 Jul;36(2):123-9.Full text  Abstract

102. Altclas J, Sinagra A, Jaimovich G, et al. Reactivation of chronic Chagas' disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and successful pre-emptive therapy with benznidazole. Transpl Infect Dis. 1999 Jun;1(2):135-7. Abstract

103. Altclas J, Jaimovich G, Milovic V, et al. Chagas' disease after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996 Aug;18(2):447-8. Abstract

104. Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Ceballos LA, Cecere MC, et al. Seasonal variations of microclimatic conditions in domestic and peridomestic habitats of Triatoma infestans in rural northwest Argentina. Acta Trop. 2002 Dec;84(3):229-38. Abstract

105. Medone P, Ceccarelli S, Parham PE, et al. The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease: implications for the force of infection. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Apr 5;370(1665). pii: 20130560. Abstract

106. Garza M, Feria Arroyo TP, Casillas EA, et al. Projected future distributions of vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under climate change scenarios. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May 15;8(5):e2818.Full text  Abstract

107. Abad-Franch F, Monteiro FA. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007 Oct 30;102 Suppl 1:57-70.Full text  Abstract

108. Walsh JF, Molyneux DH, Birley MH. Deforestation: effects on vector-borne disease. Parasitology. 1993;106 Suppl:S55-75. Abstract

109. Hofflin JM, Sadler RH, Araujo FG, et al. Laboratory-acquired Chagas disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81(3):437-40. Abstract

110. Bern C, Montgomery SP. Recognizing and reducing the risks of Chagas disease in travelers. J Travel Med. 2008 Sep-Oct;15(5):385; author reply 386.Full text  Abstract

111. Jackson Y. International migration: global issue, local impact: the example of two parasites [in French]. Rev Med Suisse. 2009 May 6;5(202):1022-5. Abstract

112. Gonzalez-Granado LI, Rojo-Conejo P, Ruiz-Contreras J, et al. Chagas disease travels to Europe. Lancet. 2009 Jun 13;373(9680):2025. Abstract

113. Manzardo C, Trevino B, Gomez i Prat J, et al. Communicable diseases in the immigrant population attended to in a tropical medicine unit: epidemiological aspects and public health issues. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2008 Jan-Mar;6(1-2):4-11. Abstract

114. Takeno M, Seto S, Kawahara F, et al. Chronic Chagas' heart disease in a Japanese-Brazilian traveler: a case report. Jpn Heart J. 1999 May;40(3):375-82.Full text  Abstract

115. Blanco SB, Segura EL, Cura EN, et al. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: an operational outline for detecting and treating infected infants in north-western Argentina. Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Apr;5(4):293-301.Full text  Abstract

116. Bittencourt AL. Possible risk factors for vertical transmission of Chagas' disease. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1992 Sep-Oct;34(5):403-8. Abstract

117. Brutus L, Schneider D, Postigo J, et al. Evidence of congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in a vector-free area of Bolivia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Nov;101(11):1159-60. Abstract

118. Gürtler RE, Segura EL, Cohen JE. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Jan;9(1):29-32.Full text  Abstract

119. Olivera Mar A, Guillen Ortega F, Cruz Vidal S, et al. Serological and parasitological screening of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mothers and newborns living in two Chagasic areas of Mexico. Arch Med Res. 2006 Aug;37(6):774-7. Abstract

120. Salas NA, Cot M, Schneider D, et al. Risk factors and consequences of congenital Chagas disease in Yacuiba, south Bolivia. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Dec;12(12):1498-505.Full text  Abstract

121. Di Pentima MC, Hwang LY, Skeeter CM, et al. Prevalence of antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi in pregnant Hispanic women in Houston. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jun;28(6):1281-5. Abstract

122. Dias JC. Elimination of Chagas disease transmission: perspectives. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:41-5.Full text  Abstract

123. Guhl F, Pinto N, Aguilera G. Sylvatic triatominae: a new challenge in vector control transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:71-5.Full text  Abstract

124. Noireau F. Wild Triatoma infestans, a potential threat that needs to be monitored. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:60-4.Full text  Abstract

125. Meymandi S, Hernandez S, Park S, et al. Treatment of Chagas disease in the United States. Curr Treat Options Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 26;10(3):373-88.Full text  Abstract

126. Milei J, Guerri-Guttenberg RA, Grana DR, et al. Prognostic impact of Chagas disease in the United States. Am Heart J. 2009 Jan;157(1):22-9. Abstract

127. Dias JP, Bastos C, Araujo E, et al. Acute Chagas disease outbreak associated with oral transmission. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008 May-Jun;41(3):296-300.Full text  Abstract

128. Sosa-Estani S, Viotti R, Segura EL. Therapy, diagnosis and prognosis of chronic Chagas disease: insight gained in Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:167-80.Full text  Abstract

129. Gomes YM, Lorena VM, Luquetti AO. Diagnosis of Chagas disease: what has been achieved? What remains to be done with regard to diagnosis and follow up studies? Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:115-21.Full text  Abstract

130. Dubner S, Schapachnik E, Riera AR, et al. Chagas disease: state-of-the-art of diagnosis and management. Cardiol J. 2008;15(6):493-504. Abstract

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