Pulmonary embolism

References

Key articles

Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 21;41(4):543-603.Full text  Abstract

Stevens SM, Woller SC, Baumann Kreuziger L, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: second update of the CHEST guideline and expert panel report. 2021 Dec;160(6):e545-608.Full text  Abstract

American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®: suspected pulmonary embolism. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Lyman GH, Carrier M, Ay C, et al. American Society of Hematology 2021 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: prevention and treatment in patients with cancer. Blood Adv. 2021 Feb 23;5(4):927-74.Full text  Abstract

Bates SM, Rajasekhar A, Middeldorp S, et al. American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: venous thromboembolism in the context of pregnancy. Blood Adv. 2018 Nov 27;2(22):3317-59.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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40. Horlander KT, Mannino DM, Leeper KV. Pulmonary embolism mortality in the United States, 1979-1998: an analysis using multiple-cause mortality data. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jul 28;163(14):1711-7.Full text  Abstract

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43. Key NS, Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, et al. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer: ASCO clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 10;38(5):496-520.Full text  Abstract

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45. Ekeh AP, Dominguez KM, Markert RJ, et al. Incidence and risk factors for deep venous thrombosis after moderate and severe brain injury. J Trauma. 2010 Apr;68(4):912-5.Full text  Abstract

46. Paffrath T, Wafaisade A, Lefering R, et al. Venous thromboembolism after severe trauma: incidence, risk factors and outcome. Injury. 2010 Jan;41(1):97-101.Full text  Abstract

47. White RH, Zhou H, Romano PS. Incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism after different elective or urgent surgical procedures. Thromb Haemost. 2003 Sep;90(3):446-55.Full text  Abstract

48. Gregson J, Kaptoge S, Bolton T, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with venous thromboembolism. JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Feb 1;4(2):163-73.Full text  Abstract

49. Stein PD, Huang HI, Afzal A, et al. Incidence of acute pulmonary embolism in a general hospital: relation to age, sex, and race. Chest. 1999 Oct;116(4):909-13. Abstract

50. Martínez-Zamora MÁ, Cervera R, Balasch J. Thromboembolism risk following recurrent miscarriage. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2013 Nov;11(11):1503-13. Abstract

51. Heit JA, Kobbervig CE, James AH, et al. Trends in the incidence of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum: a 30-year population-based study. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Nov 15;143(10):697-706. Abstract

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53. Watson HG, Baglin TP. Guidelines on travel-related venous thrombosis. Br J Haematol. 2011 Jan;152(1):31-4. Abstract

54. Wu O, Robertson L, Langhorne P, et al. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, thrombophilias and risk of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review. The Thrombosis: Risk and Economic Assessment of Thrombophilia Screening (TREATS) Study. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Jul;94(1):17-25.Full text  Abstract

55. Hirmerova J, Seidlerova J, Subrt I. The association of factor V Leiden with various clinical patterns of venous thromboembolism-the factor V Leiden paradox. QJM. 2014 Sep;107(9):715-20.Full text  Abstract

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58. Garcia D, Erkan D. Diagnosis and management of the antiphospholipid syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 24;378(21):2010-21. Abstract

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60. Gavish I, Brenner B. Air travel and the risk of thromboembolism. Intern Emerg Med. 2011 Apr;6(2):113-6. Abstract

61. Brouwer JL, Bijl M, Veeger NJ, et al. The contribution of inherited and acquired thrombophilic defects, alone or combined with antiphospholipid antibodies, to venous and arterial thromboembolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Blood. 2004 Jul 1;104(1):143-8.Full text  Abstract

62. Barba R, Gonzalvez-Gasch A, Joya Seijo D, et al. Venous thromboembolism in patients with liver diseases. J Thromb Haemost. 2018 Oct;16(10):2003-7.Full text  Abstract

63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Venous thromboembolism in adult hospitalizations - United States, 2007-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Jun 8;61(22):401-4.Full text  Abstract

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65. Cook D, Attia J, Weaver B, et al. Venous thromboembolic disease: an observational study in medical-surgical intensive care unit patients. J Crit Care. 2000 Dec;15(4):127-32.Full text  Abstract

66. Mohammed K, Abu Dabrh AM, Benkhadra K, et al. Oral vs transdermal estrogen therapy and vascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Nov;100(11):4012-20.Full text  Abstract

67. Canonico M, Plu-Bureau G, Lowe GD, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 May 31;336(7655):1227-31.Full text  Abstract

68. Angelini D, Khorana AA. Risk assessment scores for cancer-associated venous thromboembolic disease. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2017 Jul;43(5):469-78.Full text  Abstract

69. Korswagen LA, Bartelds GM, Krieckaert CL, et al. Venous and arterial thromboembolic events in adalimumab-treated patients with antiadalimumab antibodies: a case series and cohort study. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Apr;63(4):877-83.Full text  Abstract

70. Guo Z, Huang Y, Gong L, et al. Association of androgen deprivation therapy with thromboembolic events in patients with prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2018 Nov;21(4):451-60.Full text  Abstract

71. Walker RF, Zakai NA, MacLehose RF, et al. Association of testosterone therapy with risk of venous thromboembolism among men with and without hypogonadism. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Feb 1;180(2):190-7.Full text  Abstract

72. Schmidt M, Christiansen CF, Horváth-Puhó E, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2011 Jul;9(7):1326-33.Full text  Abstract

73. Ungprasert P, Srivali N, Wijarnpreecha K, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Apr;54(4):736-42.Full text  Abstract

74. Turpie AG, Chin BS, Lip GY. ABC of antithrombotic therapy: Venous thromboembolism: treatment strategies. BMJ. 2002 Oct 26;325(7370):948-50.Full text  Abstract

75. Kahn SR, Lim W, Dunn AS, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e195S-226S.Full text  Abstract

76. Sindet-Pedersen C, Bruun Oestergaard L, Gundlund A, et al. Familial clustering of venous thromboembolism - a Danish nationwide cohort study. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 29;11(12):e0169055.Full text  Abstract

77. Murray J, Precious E, Alikhan R. Catheter-related thrombosis in cancer patients. Br J Haematol. 2013 Sep;162(6):748-57.Full text  Abstract

78. Debourdeau P, Espié M, Chevret S, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of central venous catheter-related thromboembolism in breast cancer patients: the CAVECCAS study. Cancer Med. 2017 Nov;6(11):2732-44.Full text  Abstract

79. White D, Woller SC, Stevens SM, et al. Comparative thrombosis risk of vascular access devices among critically ill medical patients. Thromb Res. 2018 Dec;172:54-60.Full text  Abstract

80. Gould MK, Garcia DA, Wren SM, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonorthopedic surgical patients. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e227S-77S.Full text  Abstract

81. Stuck AK, Spirk D, Schaudt J, et al. Risk assessment models for venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. A systematic review. Thromb Haemost. 2017 Apr 3;117(4):801-8.Full text  Abstract

82. Falck-Ytter Y, Francis CW, Johanson NA, et al. Prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 suppl):e278S-e325S.Full text  Abstract

83. Carrier M, Abou-Nassar K, Mallick R, et al. Apixaban to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 21;380(8):711-9.Full text  Abstract

84. Bajaj NS, Vaduganathan M, Qamar A, et al. Extended prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism after hospitalization for medical illness: A trial sequential and cumulative meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2019 Apr;16(4):e1002797.Full text  Abstract

85. Bĕlohlávek J, Dytrych V, Linhart A. Pulmonary embolism, part I: Epidemiology, risk factors and risk stratification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2013 Spring;18(2):129-38.Full text  Abstract

86. Raja AS, Greenberg JO, Qaseem A, et al. Evaluation of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism: best practice advice from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Nov 3;163(9):701-11.Full text  Abstract

87. Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G, et al; Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). 2014 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J. 2014 Nov 14;35(43):3033-69.Full text  Abstract

88. Pollack CV, Schreiber D, Goldhaber SZ, et al. Clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: initial report of EMPEROR (Multicenter Emergency Medicine Pulmonary Embolism in the Real World Registry). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Feb 8;57(6):700-6.Full text  Abstract

89. Bajaj N, Bozarth AL, Guillot J, et al. Clinical features in patients with pulmonary embolism at a community hospital: analysis of 4 years of data. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2014 Apr;37(3):287-92. Abstract

90. Stein PD, Willis PW 3rd, DeMets DL. History and physical examination in acute pulmonary embolism in patients without preexisting cardiac or pulmonary disease. Am J Cardiol. 1981 Feb;47(2):218-23. Abstract

91. Courtney DM, Kline JA, Kabrhel C, et al. Clinical features from the history and physical examination that predict the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism in symptomatic emergency department patients: results of a prospective, multicenter study. Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Apr;55(4):307-15.e1.Full text  Abstract

92. Bajaj R, Ramanakumar A, Mamidala S, et al. Successful treatment of mobile right atrial thrombus and acute pulmonary embolism with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Jul 25;2013:bcr2013010255. Abstract

93. Matthews JC, McLaughlin V. Acute right ventricular failure in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism or chronic pulmonary hypertension: a detailed review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2008 Feb;4(1):49-59.Full text  Abstract

94. Laporte S, Mismetti P, Décousus H, et al; RIETE Investigators. Clinical predictors for fatal pulmonary embolism in 15,520 patients with venous thromboembolism: findings from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica venosa (RIETE) Registry. Circulation. 2008 Apr 1;117(13):1711-6.Full text  Abstract

95. Konstantinides SV, Barco S, Lankeit M, et al. Management of pulmonary embolism: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Mar 1;67(8):976-90.Full text  Abstract

96. British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee Pulmonary Embolism Guideline Development Group. British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Thorax. 2003 Jun;58(6):470-83.Full text  Abstract

97. Lucassen W, Geersing GJ, Erkens PM, et al. Clinical decision rules for excluding pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Oct 4;155(7):448-60. Abstract

98. Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, et al. Derivation of a simple clinical model to categorize patients' probability of pulmonary embolism: increasing the model's utility with the SimpliRED D-dimer. Thromb Haemost. 2000 Mar;83(3):416-20. Abstract

99. Le Gal G, Righini M, Roy PM, et al. Prediction of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: the revised Geneva score. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Feb 7;144(3):165-71. Abstract

100. van Es N, Kraaijpoel N, Klok FA, et al. The original and simplified Wells rules and age-adjusted D-dimer testing to rule out pulmonary embolism: an individual patient data meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2017 Apr;15(4):678-84.Full text  Abstract

101. Hendriksen JM, Geersing GJ, Lucassen WA, et al. Diagnostic prediction models for suspected pulmonary embolism: systematic review and independent external validation in primary care. BMJ. 2015 Sep 8;351:h4438.Full text  Abstract

102. Klok FA, Kruisman E, Spaan J, et al. Comparison of the revised Geneva score with the Wells rule for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2008 Jan;6(1):40-4.Full text  Abstract

103. Ceriani E, Combescure C, Le Gal G, et al. Clinical prediction rules for pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 May;8(5):957-70.Full text  Abstract

104. Singh B, Mommer SK, Erwin PJ, et al. Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) in pulmonary embolism - revisited: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Emerg Med J. 2013 Sep;30(9):701-6.Full text  Abstract

105. Carrier M, Righini M, Djurabi RK, et al. VIDAS D-dimer in combination with clinical pre-test probability to rule out pulmonary embolism: a systematic review of management outcome studies. Thromb Haemost. 2009 May;101(5):886-92. Abstract

106. Agnelli G, Becattini C. Acute pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 15;363(3):266-74. Abstract

107. Kearon C, de Wit K, Parpia S, et al. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with d-Dimer adjusted to clinical probability. N Engl J Med. 2019 Nov 28;381(22):2125-34.Full text  Abstract

108. Righini M, Van Es J, Den Exter PL, et al. Age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff levels to rule out pulmonary embolism: the ADJUST-PE study. JAMA. 2014 Mar 19;311(11):1117-24.Full text  Abstract

109. Wilts IT, Le Gal G, Den Exter PL, et al. Performance of the age-adjusted cut-off for D-dimer in patients with cancer and suspected pulmonary embolism. Thromb Res. 2017 Apr;152:49-51. Abstract

110. van der Pol LM, Tromeur C, Bistervels IM, et al. Pregnancy-adapted YEARS algorithm for diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2019 Mar 21;380(12):1139-49.Full text  Abstract

111. Perrier A, Roy PM, Sanchez O, et al. Multidetector-row computed tomography in suspected pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 28;352(17):1760-8.Full text  Abstract

112. Phillips JJ, Straiton J, Staff RT. Planar and SPECT ventilation/perfusion imaging and computed tomography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, and cost and dose comparison. Eur J Radiol. 2015 Jul;84(7):1392-400. Abstract

113. Carrier M, Righini M, Wells PS, et al. Subsegmental pulmonary embolism diagnosed by computed tomography: incidence and clinical implications. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the management outcome studies. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Aug;8(8):1716-22.Full text  Abstract

114. Adams DM, Stevens SM, Woller SC, et al. Adherence to PIOPED II investigators' recommendations for computed tomography pulmonary angiography. Am J Med. 2013 Jan;126(1):36-42.Full text  Abstract

115. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®: suspected pulmonary embolism. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

116. Clemens S. Newer modalities for detection of pulmonary emboli. Am J Med. 2007 Oct;120(10 suppl 2):S2-12. Abstract

117. Barrios D, Rosa-Salazar V, Morillo R, et al. Prognostic significance of right heart thrombi in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism: systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2017 Feb;151(2):409-16. Abstract

118. Kearon C. Diagnosis of suspected venous thromboembolism. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2016 Dec 2;2016(1):397-403.Full text  Abstract

119. Stein PD, Athanasoulis C, Alavi A, et al. Complications and validity of pulmonary angiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 1992 Feb;85(2):462-8. Abstract

120. Ansell JE. Management of venous thromboembolism: clinical guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016 Jan;41(1):1-2.Full text  Abstract

121. Stevens SM, Woller SC, Bauer KA, et al. Guidance for the evaluation and treatment of hereditary and acquired thrombophilia. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016 Jan;41(1):154-64.Full text  Abstract

122. Connors JM. Thrombophilia testing and venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2017 Sep 21;377(12):1177-87.Full text  Abstract

123. Hicks LK, Bering H, Carson KR, et al. The ASH Choosing Wisely®campaign: five hematologic tests and treatments to question. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013;2013:9-14.Full text  Abstract

124. Fazili M, Stevens SM, Woller SC. Direct oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome with venous thromboembolism: impact of the European Medicines Agency guidance. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2020 Jan;4(1):9-12.Full text  Abstract

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126. Rodger MA, Carrier M, Jones GN, et al. Diagnostic value of arterial blood gas measurement in suspected pulmonary embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Dec;162(6):2105-8.Full text  Abstract

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