Secondary hyperparathyroidism

References

Key articles

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline. Diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). 2009; selective update 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Holick MF. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Jun;18(2):153-65. Abstract

Portillo MR, Rodríguez-Ortiz ME. Secondary hyperparthyroidism: pathogenesis, diagnosis, preventive and therapeutic strategies. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Mar;18(1):79-95. Abstract

Sun Y, Tian B, Sheng Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of cinacalcet compared with other treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease: a meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol. 2020 Jul 31;21(1):316.Full text  Abstract

Steinl GK, Kuo JH. Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Feb;6(2):254-64.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline. Diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). 2009; selective update 2017 [internet publication].Full text

2. Holick MF. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Jun;18(2):153-65. Abstract

3. Giustina A, Bouillon R, Binkley N, et al. Controversies in vitamin D: a statement from the Third International Conference. JBMR Plus. 2020 Dec;4(12):e10417.Full text  Abstract

4. Schleicher RL, Sternberg MR, Lacher DA, et al. The vitamin D status of the US population from 1988 to 2010 using standardized serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D shows recent modest increases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;104(2):454-61.Full text  Abstract

5. GBD Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration. Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2020 Feb 29;395(10225):709-33.Full text  Abstract

6. Franca Gois PH, Wolley M, Ranganathan D, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease: recent evidence and controversies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Aug 17;15(8):1773.Full text  Abstract

7. Levin A, Bakris GL, Molitch M, et al. Prevalence of abnormal serum vitamin D, PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease: results of the study to evaluate early kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2007 Jan;71(1):31-8.Full text  Abstract

8. Hedgeman E, Lipworth L, Lowe K, et al. International burden of chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism: a systematic review of the literature and available data. Int J Nephrol. 2015;2015:184321.Full text  Abstract

9. Fraser WD. Hyperparathyroidism. Lancet. 2009 Jul 11;374(9684):145-58. Abstract

10. Baggerly CA, Cuomo RE, French CB, et al. Sunlight and vitamin D: necessary for public health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(4):359-65.Full text  Abstract

11. Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev. 2001 Aug;22(4):477-501.Full text  Abstract

12. Neville JJ, Palmieri T, Young AR. Physical determinants of vitamin D photosynthesis: a review. JBMR Plus. 2021 Jan;5(1):e10460.Full text  Abstract

13. Dominguez LJ, Farruggia M, Veronese N, et al. Vitamin D sources, metabolism, and deficiency: available compounds and guidelines for its treatment. Metabolites. 2021 Apr 20;11(4):255.Full text  Abstract

14. Yamazaki Y, Okazaki R, Shibata M, et al. Increased circulatory level of biologically active full-length FGF-23 in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Nov;87(11):4957-60.Full text  Abstract

15. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;96(7):1911-30.Full text  Abstract

16. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency: what a pain it is. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec;78(12):1457-9. Abstract

17. Martin KJ, González EA. Prevention and control of phosphate retention/hyperphosphatemia in CKD-MBD: what is normal, when to start, and how to treat? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Feb;6(2):440-6.Full text  Abstract

18. Dhingra R, Sullivan LM, Fox CS, et al. Relations of serum phosphorus and calcium levels to the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the community. Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):879-85.Full text  Abstract

19. de Boer IH, Rue TC, Kestenbaum B. Serum phosphorus concentrations in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Mar;53(3):399-407.Full text  Abstract

20. Malluche HH, Porter DS, Pienkowski D. Evaluating bone quality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013 Nov;9(11):671-80.Full text  Abstract

21. Felsenfeld AJ, Rodríguez M, Aguilera-Tejero E. Dynamics of parathyroid hormone secretion in health and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Nov;2(6):1283-305.Full text  Abstract

22. McKane WR, Khosla S, Egan KS, et al. Role of calcium intake in modulating age-related increases in parathyroid function and bone resorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 May;81(5):1699-703. Abstract

23. Bruyere O, Decock C, Delhez M, et al. Highest prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in institutionalized women compared with noninstitutionalized women: a case-control study. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2009 Jan;5(1):49-54. Abstract

24. Trunzo JA, McHenry CR, Schulak JA, et al. Effect of parathyroidectomy on anemia and erythropoietin dosing in end-stage renal disease patients with hyperparathyroidism. Surgery. 2008 Dec;144(6):915-8. Abstract

25. Silverberg SJ. Vitamin D deficiency and primary hyperparathyroidism. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 suppl 2:V100-4.Full text  Abstract

26. Goldner WS, Stoner JA, Thompson J, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in morbidly obese patients: a comparison with non-obese controls. Obes Surg. 2008 Feb;18(2):145-50. Abstract

27. Walsh JS, Bowles S, Evans AL. Vitamin D in obesity. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2017 Dec;24(6):389-94.Full text  Abstract

28. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, et al. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;72(3):690-3. [Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 May;77(5):1342.]Full text  Abstract

29. Manns B, Stevens L, Miskulin D, et al. A systematic review of sevelamer in ESRD and an analysis of its potential economic impact in Canada and the United States. Kidney Int. 2004 Sep;66(3):1239-47.Full text  Abstract

30. Teng M, Wolf M, Lowrie E, et al. Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 31;349(5):446-56.Full text  Abstract

31. Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF. Vitamin D for health: a global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jul;88(7):720-55.Full text  Abstract

32. Cooper MS, Gittoes NJ. Diagnosis and management of hypocalcaemia. BMJ. 2008 Jun 7;336(7656):1298-302. [Erratum in: BMJ. 2008 Jun 28;336(7659).]Full text  Abstract

33. Webster AC, Nagler EV, Morton RL, et al. Chronic kidney disease. Lancet. 2017 Mar 25;389(10075):1238-52. Abstract

34. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for hemodialysis adequacy: 2015 update. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Nov;66(5):884-930.Full text  Abstract

35. Stracke S, Keller F, Steinbach G, et al. Long-term outcome after total parathyroidectomy for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;111(2):c102-9. Abstract

36. Redman C, Bodenner D, Stack B Jr. Role of vitamin D deficiency in continued hyperparathyroidism following parathyroidectomy. Head Neck. 2009 Sep;31(9):1164-7. Abstract

37. Christodoulou M, Aspray TJ, Schoenmakers I. Vitamin D supplementation for patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses of trials investigating the response to supplementation and an overview of guidelines. Calcif Tissue Int. 2021 Aug;109(2):157-178.Full text  Abstract

38. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Greene T, et al. Assessing kidney function - measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 8;354(23):2473-83. Abstract

39. Fiorentini D, Cappadone C, Farruggia G, et al. Magnesium: biochemistry, nutrition, detection, and social impact of diseases linked to its deficiency. Nutrients. 2021 Mar 30;13(4):1136.Full text  Abstract

40. Rodelo-Haad C, Pendón-Ruiz de Mier MV, Díaz-Tocados JM, et al. The role of disturbed Mg homeostasis in chronic kidney disease comorbidities. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 Nov 12;8:543099.Full text  Abstract

41. Petranović Ovčariček P, Giovanella L, Carrió Gasset I, et al. The EANM practice guidelines for parathyroid imaging. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021 Apr 10 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

42. Caldarella C, Treglia G, Pontecorvi A, et al. Diagnostic performance of planar scintigraphy using 99mTc-MIBI in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a meta-analysis. Ann Nucl Med. 2012 Dec;26(10):794-803. Abstract

43. Holick MF. The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences. J Nutr. 2005 Nov;135(11):2739S-48S.Full text  Abstract

44. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline. Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. 2012 [internet publication].Full text

45. Martin KJ, González EA. Prevention and control of phosphate retention/hyperphosphatemia in CKD-MBD: what is normal, when to start, and how to treat? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:440-446.Full text  Abstract

46. Martin KJ, González EA. Parathyroid hormone assay: problems and opportunities. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Oct;22(10):1651-4.Full text  Abstract

47. Yuen NK, Ananthakrishnan S, Campbell MJ. Hyperparathyroidism of renal disease. Perm J. 2016 Summer;20(3):15-127.Full text  Abstract

48. Isakova T, Gutiérrez OM, Wolf M. A blueprint for randomized trials targeting phosphorus metabolism in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2009 Oct;76(7):705-16.Full text  Abstract

49. Russo D, Miranda I, Ruocco C, et al. The progression of coronary artery calcification in predialysis patients on calcium carbonate or sevelamer. Kidney Int. 2007 Nov;72(10):1255-61.Full text  Abstract

50. Lafage MH, Combe C, Fournier A, et al. Ketodiet, physiological calcium intake and native vitamin D improve renal osteodystrophy. Kidney Int. 1992 Nov;42(5):1217-25. Abstract

51. Lafage-Proust MH, Combe C, Barthe N, et al. Bone mass and dynamic parathyroid function according to bone histology in nondialyzed uremic patients after long-term protein and phosphorus restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Feb;84(2):512-9.Full text  Abstract

52. Shinaberger CS, Greenland S, Kopple JD, et al. Is controlling phosphorus by decreasing dietary protein intake beneficial or harmful in persons with chronic kidney disease? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1511-8.Full text  Abstract

53. Sherman RA, Mehta O. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Jul;54(1):18-23. Abstract

54. Sherman RA, Mehta O. Phosphorus and potassium content of enhanced meat and poultry products: implications for patients who receive dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Aug;4(8):1370-3.Full text  Abstract

55. Sullivan C, Sayre SS, Leon JB, et al. Effect of food additives on hyperphosphatemia among patients with end-stage renal disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009 Feb 11;301(6):629-35.Full text  Abstract

56. Barreto FC, Barreto DV, Massy ZA, et al. Strategies for phosphate control in patients with CKD. Kidney Int Rep. 2019 Aug;4(8):1043-56.Full text  Abstract

57. Palit S, Kendrick J. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease: role of disordered mineral metabolism. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(37):5829-33.Full text  Abstract

58. Mudge DW, Johnson DW, Hawley CM, et al. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice? BMC Nephrol. 2011 May 13;12:20.Full text  Abstract

59. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic kidney disease: assessment and management. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

60. Ruospo M, Palmer SC, Natale P, et al. Phosphate binders for preventing and treating chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 22;(8):CD006023.Full text  Abstract

61. Frazão JM, Braun J, Messa P, et al. Is serum phosphorus control related to parathyroid hormone control in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism? BMC Nephrol. 2012;13:76. Abstract

62. Portillo MR, Rodríguez-Ortiz ME. Secondary hyperparthyroidism: pathogenesis, diagnosis, preventive and therapeutic strategies. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Mar;18(1):79-95. Abstract

63. Coyne DW, Goldberg S, Faber M, et al. A randomized multicenter trial of paricalcitol versus calcitriol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in stages 3-4 CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Sep 5;9(9):1620-6.Full text  Abstract

64. Sun Y, Tian B, Sheng Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of cinacalcet compared with other treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease: a meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol. 2020 Jul 31;21(1):316.Full text  Abstract

65. Dong BJ. Cinacalcet: an oral calcimimetic agent for the management of hyperparathyroidism. Clin Ther. 2005 Nov;27(11):1725-51. Abstract

66. Lewis R. Mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease: new insights into mechanism and management. Ann Clin Biochem. 2012 Sep;49(Pt 5):432-40.Full text  Abstract

67. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). Cinacalcet for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis therapy. January 2007 [internet publication].Full text

68. Moe SM, Abdalla S, Chertow GM, et al. Effects of cinacalcet on fracture events in patients receiving hemodialysis: the EVOLVE trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jun;26(6):1466-75.Full text  Abstract

69. Chertow GM, Block GA, Correa-Rotter R, et al; EVOLVE Trial Investigators. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Dec 27;367(26):2482-94.Full text  Abstract

70. Ballinger AE, Palmer SC, Nistor I, et al. Calcimimetics for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD006254.Full text  Abstract

71. Elder GJ. Parathyroidectomy in the calcimimetic era. Nephrology (Carlton). 2005 Oct;10(5):511-5.Full text  Abstract

72. Raggi P, Chertow GM, Torres PU, et al. The ADVANCE study: a randomized study to evaluate the effects of cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D on vascular calcification in patients on hemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 Apr;26(4):1327-39. Abstract

73. Henschkowski J, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Wüthrich RP, et al. Renal function in patients treated with cinacalcet for persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2011;34(2):97-103. Abstract

74. Floege J, Raggi P, Block GA, et al. Study design and subject baseline characteristics in the ADVANCE study: effects of cinacalcet on vascular calcification in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Jun;25(6):1916-23.Full text  Abstract

75. Frazão JM, Messa P, Mellotte GJ, et al. Cinacalcet reduces plasma intact parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism irrespective of its severity. Clin Nephrol. 2011 Sep;76(3):233-43. Abstract

76. Cohen JB, Gordon CE, Balk EM, et al. Cinacalcet for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transplantation. 2012 Nov 27;94(10):1041-8. Abstract

77. Zhang Q, Li M, You L, et al. Effects and safety of calcimimetics in end stage renal disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48070.Full text  Abstract

78. Verheyen N, Pilz S, Eller K, et al. Cinacalcet hydrochloride for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Apr;14(6):793-806. Abstract

79. Rodriguez M, Ureña-Torres P, Pétavy F, et al. Calcium-mediated parathyroid hormone suppression to assess progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism during treatment among incident dialysis patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb;98(2):618-25. Abstract

80. Floege J, Kubo Y, Floege A, et al. The effect of cinacalcet on calcific uremic arteriolopathy events in patients receiving hemodialysis: the EVOLVE trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 May 7;10(5):800-7.Full text  Abstract

81. Hamano N, Komaba H, Fukagawa M. Etelcalcetide for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017 Apr;18(5):529-34. Abstract

82. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). Etelcalcetide for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism. June 2017 [internet publication].Full text

83. Bell G, Huang S, Martin KJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind, phase 2 study evaluating the safety and efficacy of AMG 416 for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2015 May;31(5):943-52. Abstract

84. Block GA, Bushinsky DA, Cunningham J, et al. Effect of etelcalcetide vs placebo on serum parathyroid hormone in patients receiving hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism: two randomized clinical trials. JAMA. 2017 Jan 10;317(2):146-55.Full text  Abstract

85. Block GA, Bushinsky DA, Cheng S, et al. Effect of etelcalcetide vs cinacalet on serum parathyroid hormone in patients receiving hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Jan 10;317(2):156-64.Full text  Abstract

86. Lau WL, Obi Y, Kalantar-Zadeh K. Parathyroidectomy in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Jun 7;13(6):952-61.Full text  Abstract

87. Steinl GK, Kuo JH. Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Feb;6(2):254-64.Full text  Abstract

88. Dulfer RR, Koh EY, van der Plas WY, et al; Dutch Hyperparathyroid Study Group. Parathyroidectomy versus cinacalcet for tertiary hyperparathyroidism; a retrospective analysis Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2019 Feb;404(1):71-9.Full text  Abstract

89. Cruzado JM, Moreno P, Torregrosa JV, et al. A randomized study comparing parathyroidectomy with cinacalcet for treating hypercalcemia in kidney allograft recipients with hyperparathyroidism. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;27:2487-2494.Full text  Abstract

90. Tentori F, Wang M, Bieber BA, et al. Recent changes in therapeutic approaches and association with outcomes among patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on chronic hemodialysis: the DOPPS study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jan 7;10(1):98-109.Full text  Abstract

91. Kim SM, Long J, Montez-Rath ME, et al. Rates and outcomes of parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in the United States. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Jul 7;11(7):1260-7.Full text  Abstract

92. Alsafran S, Sherman SK, Dahdaleh FS, et al. Preoperative calcitriol reduces postoperative intravenous calcium requirements and length of stay in parathyroidectomy for renal-origin hyperparathyroidism. Surgery. 2019 Jan;165(1):151-7. Abstract

93. Patel HP, Chadwick DR, Harrison BJ, et al. Systematic review of intravenous methylene blue in parathyroid surgery. Br J Surg. 2012 Oct;99(10):1345-51. Abstract

94. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al, eds. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.Full text  Abstract

95. Danese MD, Kim J, Doan QV, et al. PTH and the risks for hip, vertebral, and pelvic fractures among patients on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Jan;47(1):149-56. Abstract

96. Salam S, Gallagher O, Gossiel F, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers and imaging for bone turnover in renal osteodystrophy J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 May;29(5):1557-65.Full text  Abstract

97. Goodman WG, Goldin J, Kuizon BD, et al. Coronary-artery calcification in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1478-83.Full text  Abstract

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