Dystonias

References

Key articles

Albanese A, Bhatia K, Bressman SB, et al. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update. Mov Disord. 2013 Jun 15;28(7):863-73.Full text  Abstract

Tarsy D, Simon DK. Dystonia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24;355(8):818-29. Abstract

Breakefield XO, Blood AJ, Li Y, et al. The pathophysiological basis of dystonias. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008 Mar;9(3):222-34. Abstract

Ozelius LJ, Lubarr N, Bressman SB. Milestones in dystonia. Mov Disord. 2011 May;26(6):1106-26. Abstract

Schrag A, Trimble M, Quinn N, et al. The syndrome of fixed dystonia: an evaluation of 103 patients. Brain. 2004 Oct;127(Pt 10):2360-72.Full text  Abstract

Nygaard TG, Marsden CD, Fahn S. Dopa-responsive dystonia: long-term treatment response and prognosis. Neurology. 1991 Feb;41(2 ( Pt 1)):174-81. Abstract

Nygaard TG, Marsden CD, Fahn S. Dopa-responsive dystonia: long-term treatment response and prognosis. Neurology. 1991;41:174-181. Abstract

Bhidayasiri R, Tarsy D. Treatment of dystonia. Exp Rev Neurotherap. 2006 Jun;6(6):863-86. Abstract

Kupsch A, Benecke R, Müller J, et al. Pallidal deep-brain stimulation in primary generalized or segmental dystonia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1978-90.Full text  Abstract

Jankovic J. Treatment of dystonia. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Oct;5(10):864-72. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Albanese A, Bhatia K, Bressman SB, et al. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update. Mov Disord. 2013 Jun 15;28(7):863-73.Full text  Abstract

2. Tarsy D, Simon DK. Dystonia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24;355(8):818-29. Abstract

3. Defazio G, Abbruzzese G, Livrea P, et al. Epidemiology of primary dystonia. Lancet Neurol. 2004 Nov;3(11):673-8. Abstract

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9. Breakefield XO, Blood AJ, Li Y, et al. The pathophysiological basis of dystonias. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008 Mar;9(3):222-34. Abstract

10. Jankovic J. Dystonia: medical therapy and botulinum toxin. Adv Neurol. 2004;94:275-86. Abstract

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12. Hallett M. Dystonia: abnormal movements result from loss of inhibition. Adv Neurol. 2004;94:1-9. Abstract

13. Ozelius LJ, Lubarr N, Bressman SB. Milestones in dystonia. Mov Disord. 2011 May;26(6):1106-26. Abstract

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15. Schrag A, Trimble M, Quinn N, et al. The syndrome of fixed dystonia: an evaluation of 103 patients. Brain. 2004 Oct;127(Pt 10):2360-72.Full text  Abstract

16. Jankovic J. Can peripheral trauma induce dystonia and other movement disorders? Yes! Mov Disord. 2001 Jan;16(1):7-12. Abstract

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21. Jinnah HA, Factor SA. Diagnosis and treatment of dystonia. Neurol Clin. 2015 Feb;33(1):77-100.Full text  Abstract

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30. Bragg DC, Sharma N. Update on treatments for dystonia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014 Jun;14(6):454.Full text  Abstract

31. Segawa M. Autosomal dominant GTP cyclohydrolase I (AD GCH 1) deficiency (Segawa disease, dystonia 5; DYT 5). Chang Gung Med J. 2009 Jan-Feb;32(1):1-11.Full text  Abstract

32. Greene PE, Frucht SJ. Tardive and neuroleptic-induced emergencies. In: Frucht SJ, Fahn S, eds. Movement disorder emergencies. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005:117-22.

33. Albanese A, Asmus F, Bhatia KP, et al. EFNS guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of primary dystonias. Eur J Neurol. 2011 Jan;18(1):5-18.Full text  Abstract

34. Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD, et al. Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias. Neurology. 1985 Jan;35(1):73-7. Abstract

35. Consky ES, Lang AE. Clinical assessments of patients with cervical dystonia. In: Jankovic J, Hallett M, eds. Therapy with botulinum toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1994:211-37.

36. Saunders-Pullman R, Soto-Valencia J, Costan-Toth C, et al. A new screening tool for cervical dystonia. Neurology. 2005 Jun 28;64(12):2046-9. Abstract

37. Queensland Ambulance Service. Medical/acute dystonic reaction. Apr 2016 [internet publication].Full text

38. Nygaard TG, Marsden CD, Fahn S. Dopa-responsive dystonia: long-term treatment response and prognosis. Neurology. 1991 Feb;41(2 ( Pt 1)):174-81. Abstract

39. Nygaard TG, Marsden CD, Duvoisin RC. Dopa-responsive dystonia. Adv Neurol. 1988;50:377-84. Abstract

40. Bandmann O, Nygaard TG, Surtees R, et al. Dopa-responsive dystonia in British patients: new mutations of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene and evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Mar;5(3):403-6.Full text  Abstract

41. Nygaard TG, Marsden CD, Fahn S. Dopa-responsive dystonia: long-term treatment response and prognosis. Neurology. 1991;41:174-181. Abstract

42. Bandmann O, Nygaard TG, Surtees R, et al. Dopa-responsive dystonia in British patients: new mutations of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene and evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:403-406.Full text  Abstract

43. Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD. Torsion dystonia: a double-blind, prospective trial of high-dosage trihexyphenidyl. Neurology. 1986 Feb;36(2):160-4. Abstract

44. Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD. Torsion dystonia: a double-blind, prospective trial of high-dosage trihexyphenidyl. Neurology. 1986;36:160-164. Abstract

45. Bhidayasiri R, Tarsy D. Treatment of dystonia. Exp Rev Neurotherap. 2006 Jun;6(6):863-86. Abstract

46. Greene P. Baclofen in the treatment of dystonia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992 Aug;15(4):276-88. Abstract

47. Greene P. Baclofen in the treatment of dystonia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15:276-288. Abstract

48. Roubertie A, Mariani LL, Fernandez-Alvarez E, et al. Treatment for dystonia in childhood. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Oct;19(10):1292-9. Abstract

49. Butler C, Campbell S. Evidence of the effects of intrathecal baclofen for spastic and dystonic cerebral palsy. AACPDM Treatment Outcomes Committee Review Panel. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000 Sep;42(9):634-45.Full text  Abstract

50. Butler C, Campbell S. Evidence of the effects of intrathecal baclofen for spastic and dystonic cerebral palsy. AACPDM Treatment Outcomes Committee Review Panel. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000;42:634-645.Full text  Abstract

51. Hainque E, Vidailhet M, Cozic N, et al. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of zonisamide in myoclonus-dystonia. Neurology. 2016 May 3;86(18):1729-35. Abstract

52. Zoons E, Dijkgraaf MG, Dijk JM, et al. Botulinum toxin as treatment for focal dystonia: a systematic review of the pharmaco-therapeutic and pharmaco-economic value. J Neurol. 2012 Dec;259(12):2519-26.Full text  Abstract

53. Charles D, Brashear A, Hauser RA, et al. Efficacy, tolerability, and immunogenicity of onabotulinumtoxina in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for cervical dystonia. Clinic Neuropharmacol. 2012 Sep-Oct;35(5):208-14. Abstract

54. Colosimo C, Tiple D, Berardelli A. Efficacy and safety of long-term botulinum toxin treatment in craniocervical dystonia: a systematic review. Neurotox Res. 2012 Nov;22(4):265-73. Abstract

55. Marques RE, Duarte GS, Rodrigues FB, et al. Botulinum toxin type B for cervical dystonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 13;(5):CD004315.Full text  Abstract

56. Simpson DM, Blitzer A, Brashear A, et al. Assessment: botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review). Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2008 May 6;70(19):1699-706.Full text  Abstract

57. Simpson DM, Hallett M, Ashman EJ, et al. Practice guideline update summary: botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache. Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2016 Apr 18;86(19):1818-26.Full text  Abstract

58. Kruisdijk JJ, Koelman JH, Ongerboer de Visser BW, et al. Botulinum toxin for writer's cramp: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;78(3):264-70.Full text  Abstract

59. Jankovic J. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of Xeomin in the treatment of blepharospasm. Eur J Neurol. 2009 Dec;16 Suppl 2:14-8. Abstract

60. Pappert EJ, Germanson T; Myobloc/Neurobloc European Cervical Dystonia Study Group. Botulinum toxin type B vs. type A in toxin-naïve patients with cervical dystonia: randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial. Mov Disord. 2008 Mar 15;23(4):510-7. Abstract

61. Delnooz CC, Horstink MW, Tijssen MA, et al. Paramedical treatment in primary dystonia: a systematic review. Mov Disord. 2009 Nov 15;24(15):2187-98. Abstract

62. Vidailhet M, Vercueil L, Houeto JL, et al. Bilateral deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus in primary generalized dystonia. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 3;352(5):459-67.Full text  Abstract

63. Kupsch A, Benecke R, Müller J, et al. Pallidal deep-brain stimulation in primary generalized or segmental dystonia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1978-90.Full text  Abstract

64. Kiss ZH, Doig-Beyaert K, Eliasziw M, et al. The Canadian multicentre study of deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia. Brain. 2007 Nov;130(Pt 11):2879-86.Full text  Abstract

65. Mueller J, Skogseid IM, Benecke R, et al. Pallidal deep brain stimulation improves quality of life in segmental and generalized dystonia: results from a prospective, randomized sham-controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2008 Jan;23(1):131-4. Abstract

66. Volkmann J, Mueller J, Deuschl G, et al. Pallidal neurostimulation in patients with medication-refractory cervical dystonia: a randomised, sham-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2014 Sep;13(9):875-84. Abstract

67. DiFrancesco MF, Halpern CH, Hurtig HH, et al. Pediatric indications for deep brain stimulation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012 Oct;28(10):1701-14. Abstract

68. Isaias IU, Alterman RL, Tagliati M. Outcome predictors of pallidal stimulation in patients with primary dystonia: the role of disease duration. Brain. 2008 Jul;131(Pt 7):1895-902.Full text  Abstract

69. Krauss JK, Loher TJ, Weigel R, et al. Chronic stimulation of the globus pallidus internus for treatment of non-dYT1 generalized dystonia and choreoathetosis: 2-year follow up. J Neurosurg. 2003 Apr;98(4):785-92. Abstract

70. Starr PA, Turner RS, Rau G, et al. Microelectrode-guided implantation of deep brain stimulators into the globus pallidus internus for dystonia: techniques, electrode locations, and outcomes. J Neurosurg. 2006 Apr;104(4):488-501. Abstract

71. Andrews C, Aviles-Olmos I, Hariz M, et al. Which patients with dystonia benefit from deep brain stimulation? A metaregression of individual patient outcomes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;81(12):1383-9. Abstract

72. Bronte-Stewart H, Taira T, Valldeoriola F, et al. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for DBS in dystonia. Mov Disord. 2011 Jun;26 Suppl 1:S5-16. Abstract

73. Yoshor D, Hamilton WJ, Ondo W, et al. Comparison of thalamotomy and pallidotomy for the treatment of dystonia. Neurosurgery. 2001 Apr;48(4):818-24. Abstract

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76. Paleacu D, Giladi N, Moore O, et al. Tetrabenazine treatment in movement disorders. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2004 Sep-Oct;27(5):230-3. Abstract

77. Fernandez HH, Factor SA, Hauser RA, et al. Randomized controlled trial of deutetrabenazine for tardive dyskinesia: The ARM-TD study. Neurology. 2017 Apr 26;88(21):2003-10.Full text  Abstract

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85. Jankovic J. Treatment of dystonia. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Oct;5(10):864-72. Abstract

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