Obesity in children

References

Key articles

Barlow SE. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(suppl 4):S164-92. Abstract

Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, et al. Pediatric obesity - assessment, treatment, and prevention: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. JCEM. 2017 Mar 1;102(3):709-57.Full text  Abstract

Barlow SE. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(suppl 4):S164-92.Full text  Abstract

Spear BA, Barlow SE, Ervin C, et al. Recommendations for treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(suppl 4):S254-88.Full text  Abstract

US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2020-2025. 9th ed. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

Wasserman H, Inge TH. Bariatric surgery in obese adolescents: opportunities and challenges. Pediatr Ann. 2014 Sep;43(9):e230-6. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Pietrobelli A, et al. Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jun;75(6):978-85.Full text  Abstract

2. Ogden CL, Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):45-60. Abstract

3. Barlow SE. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(suppl 4):S164-92. Abstract

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About child & teen BMI. Mar 2021 [internet publication].Full text

5. Skinner AC, Ravanbakht SN, Skelton JA, et al. Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in US children, 1999-2016. Pediatrics. 2018 Mar;141(3):e20173459.Full text  Abstract

6. Kelly AS, Barlow SE, Rao G, et al. Severe obesity in children and adolescents: identification, associated health risks, and treatment approaches: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013 Oct 8;128(15):1689-712.Full text  Abstract

7. Roy SM, Spivack JG, Faith MS, et al. Infant BMI or weight-for-length and obesity risk in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2016 May;137(5):e20153492.Full text  Abstract

8. Jebeile H, Kelly AS, O'Malley G, et al. Obesity in children and adolescents: epidemiology, causes, assessment, and management. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2022 May;10(5):351-65. Abstract

9. World Obesity Federation. Lobstein T, Brinsden H: Atlas of childhood obesity. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for Health Statistics. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years: United States, 1963–1965 through 2017–2018. Feb 2021 [internet publication].Full text

11. Bell S, Deen JF, Fuentes M, et al; Committee on Native American Child Health. Caring for American Indian and Alaska Native children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2021 Apr;147(4):e2021050498.Full text  Abstract

12. National Health Service Digital. Significant increase in obesity rates among primary-aged children, latest statistics show. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

13. Ong KK, Loos RJ. Rapid infancy weight gain and subsequent obesity: systematic reviews and hopeful suggestions. Acta Paediatr. 2006 Aug;95(8):904-8. Abstract

14. Chomtho S, Wells JC, Williams JE, et al. Infant growth and later body composition: evidence from the 4-component model. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1776-84.Full text  Abstract

15. Geserick M, Vogel M, Gausche R, et al. Acceleration of BMI in early childhood and risk of sustained obesity. N Engl J Med. 2018 Oct 4;379(14):1303-12.Full text  Abstract

16. Nader PR, O'Brien M, Houts R, et al. Identifying risk for obesity in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep;118(3):e594-601. Abstract

17. Freedman DS, Khan LK, Dietz WH, et al. Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):712-8. Abstract

18. Must A, Strauss RS. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Mar;23(suppl 2):S2-11. Abstract

19. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, et al. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 25;337(13):869-73.Full text  Abstract

20. Haworth CM, Plomin R, Carnell S, et al. Childhood obesity: genetic and environmental overlap with normal-range BMI. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1585-90.Full text  Abstract

21. Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Popkin BM. Ethnic differences in physical activity and inactivity patterns and overweight status. Obes Res. 2002 Mar;10(3):141-9.Full text  Abstract

22. Trandafir LM, Temneanu OR. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity. J Med Life. 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):386-91.Full text  Abstract

23. Heslehurst N, Vieira R, Akhter Z, et al. The association between maternal body mass index and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2019 Jun;16(6):e1002817.Full text  Abstract

24. Pathirana MM, Lassi ZS, Roberts CT, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus in utero: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2020 Dec;11(6):599-616. Abstract

25. Dubois L, Girard M. Early determinants of overweight at 4.5 years in a population-based longitudinal study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr;30(4):610-7. Abstract

26. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;84(2):274-88.Full text  Abstract

27. Moore LL, Gao D, Bradlee ML, et al. Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood? Prev Med. 2003 Jul;37(1):10-7. Abstract

28. Epstein LH, Roemmich JN, Robinson JL, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Mar;162(3):239-45.Full text  Abstract

29. Felső R, Lohner S, Hollódy K, et al. Relationship between sleep duration and childhood obesity: systematic review including the potential underlying mechanisms. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Sep;27(9):751-61. Abstract

30. Bondi BC, Banh TM, Vasilevska-Ristovska J, et al. Incidence and risk factors of obesity in childhood solid-organ transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2020 Aug;104(8):1644-53. Abstract

31. Stark CM, Susi A, Emerick J, et al. Antibiotic and acid-suppression medications during early childhood are associated with obesity. Gut. 2019 Jan;68(1):62-9. Abstract

32. Morton GJ, Cummings DE, Baskin DG, et al. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature. 2006 Sep 21;443(7109):289-95. Abstract

33. Coles N, Birken C, Hamilton J. Emerging treatments for severe obesity in children and adolescents. BMJ. 2016 Sep 29;354:i4116. Abstract

34. de Git KC, Adan RA. Leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity: the role of hypothalamic inflammation. Obes Rev. 2015 Mar;16(3):207-24. Abstract

35. Mathis D. Immunological goings-on in visceral adipose tissue. Cell Metab. 2013 Jun 4;17(6):851-9.Full text  Abstract

36. Sonnenburg JL, Bäckhed F. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism. Nature. 2016 Jul 7;535(7610):56-64.Full text  Abstract

37. Yu YH, Vasselli JR, Zhang Y, et al. Metabolic vs. hedonic obesity: a conceptual distinction and its clinical implications. Obes Rev. 2015 Mar;16(3):234-47.Full text  Abstract

38. Oken E, Taveras EM, Kleinman KP, et al. Gestational weight gain and child adiposity at age 3 years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;196(4):322.e1-8.Full text  Abstract

39. Mihrshahi S, Baur LA. What exposures in early life are risk factors for childhood obesity? J Paediatr Child Health. 2018 Dec;54(12):1294-98. Abstract

40. Hills AP, Andersen LB, Byrne NM. Physical activity and obesity in children. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Sep;45(11):866-70. Abstract

41. Mahumud RA, Sahle BW, Owusu-Addo E, et al. Association of dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours with overweight and obesity among 282,213 adolescents in 89 low and middle income to high-income countries. Int J Obes (Lond). 2021 Nov;45(11):2404-18. Abstract

42. Robinson TN, Banda JA, Hale L, et al. Screen media exposure and obesity in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017 Nov;140(suppl 2):S97-S101.Full text  Abstract

43. Fang K, Mu M, Liu K, et al. Screen time and childhood overweight/obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Care Health Dev. 2019 Sep;45(5):744-53. Abstract

44. de Bont J, Márquez S, Fernández-Barrés S, et al. Urban environment and obesity and weight-related behaviours in primary school children. Environ Int. 2021 Oct;155:106700.Full text  Abstract

45. Rayfield S, Plugge E. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and childhood overweight and obesity. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb;71(2):162-73. Abstract

46. Golden NH, Schneider M, Wood C, et al; Committee on Nutrition, Committee on Adolescence, Section on Obesity. Preventing obesity and eating disorders in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2016 Sep;138(3):e20161649.Full text  Abstract

47. Griffiths LJ, Smeeth L, Hawkins SS, et al. Effects of infant feeding practice on weight gain from birth to 3 years. Arch Dis Child. 2009 Aug;94(8):577-82. Abstract

48. Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, et al. A randomized breast-feeding promotion intervention did not reduce child obesity in Belarus. J Nutr. 2009 Feb;139(2):417-21S. Abstract

49. Heyman MB, Abrams SA; Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, and Committee on Nutrition. Fruit juice in infants, children, and adolescents: current recommendations. Pediatrics. 2017 Jun;139(6):e20170967.Full text  Abstract

50. Brown T, Moore TH, Hooper L, et al. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 23;(7):CD001871.Full text  Abstract

51. Daley AJ, McGee E, Bayliss S, et al. Effects of physical activity calorie equivalent food labelling to reduce food selection and consumption: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2020 Mar;74(3):269-75. Abstract

52. Dhana K, Haines J, Liu G, et al. Association between maternal adherence to healthy lifestyle practices and risk of obesity in offspring: results from two prospective cohort studies of mother-child pairs in the United States. BMJ. 2018 Jul 4;362:k2486.Full text  Abstract

53. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. Nov 2014 [internet publication].Full text

54. Lobelo F, Muth ND, Hanson S, et al; Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, Section on Obesity. Physical activity assessment and counseling in pediatric clinical settings. Pediatrics. 2020 Mar;145(3):e20193992.Full text  Abstract

55. Speiser PW, Rudolf MC, Anhalt H, et al. Childhood obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;90(3):1871-87.Full text  Abstract

56. Boutelle K, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, et al. Weight control behaviors among obese, overweight, and nonoverweight adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol. 2002 Sep;27(6):531-40.Full text  Abstract

57. Fiechtner L, Fonte ML, Castro I, et al. Determinants of binge eating symptoms in children with overweight/obesity. Child Obes. 2018 Nov/Dec;14(8):510-7.Full text  Abstract

58. Sutaria S, Devakumar D, Yasuda SS, et al. Is obesity associated with depression in children? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2019 Jan;104(1):64-74.Full text  Abstract

59. Lindberg L, Hagman E, Danielsson P, et al. Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with obesity: a nationwide study in Sweden. BMC Med. 2020 Feb 21;18(1):30.Full text  Abstract

60. Flegal KM, Wei R, Ogden CL, et al. Characterizing extreme values of body mass index-for-age by using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1314-20.Full text  Abstract

61. Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, et al. Inter-relationships among childhood BMI, childhood height, and adult obesity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jan;28(1):10-6. Abstract

62. Taksali SE, Caprio S, Dziura J, et al. High visceral and low abdominal subcutaneous fat stores in the obese adolescent: a determinant of an adverse metabolic phenotype. Diabetes. 2008 Feb;57(2):367-71.Full text  Abstract

63. Maffeis C, Pietrobelli A, Grezzani A, et al. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. Obes Res. 2001 Mar;9(3):179-87.Full text  Abstract

64. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome: a new world-wide definition. Diabet Med. 2006 May;23(5):469-80. Abstract

65. US Department of Health and Human Services: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: full report. Oct 2012 [internet publication].Full text

66. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan;45:S1-S255.Full text  Abstract

67. Thompson DL, Thompson WR, Prestridge TJ, et al. Effects of hydration and dehydration on body composition analysis: a comparative study of bioelectric impedance analysis and hydrodensitometry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1991 Dec;31(4):565-70. Abstract

68. Stanforth PR, Jackson AS, Green JS, et al. Generalized abdominal visceral fat prediction models for black and white adults aged 17-65 y: the HERITAGE Family Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jul;28(7):925-32. Abstract

69. Barness LA, Opitz JM, Gilbert-Barness E. Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Dec 15;143A(24):3016-34. Abstract

70. Farooqi S, O'Rahilly S. Genetics of obesity in humans. Endocr Rev. 2006 Dec;27(7):710-18.Full text  Abstract

71. Farooqi IS. Monogenic human obesity. Front Horm Res. 2008;36:1-11. Abstract

72. Vaisse C, Clement K, Durand E, et al. Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and heterogeneous cause of morbid obesity. J Clin Invest. 2000 Jul;106(2):253-62.Full text  Abstract

73. Warren Peled A, Kappos EA. Lipedema: diagnostic and management challenges. Int J Womens Health. 2016;8:389-95.Full text  Abstract

74. Herbst KL, Kahn LA, Iker E, et al. Standard of care for lipedema in the United States. Phlebology. 2021 Dec;36(10):779-96.Full text  Abstract

75. Crescenzi R, Donahue PMC, Petersen KJ, et al. Upper and lower extremity measurement of tissue sodium and fat content in patients with lipedema. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2020 May;28(5):907-15.Full text  Abstract

76. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in children and adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017 Jun 20;317(23):2417-26.Full text  Abstract

77. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. UK NSC recommendation on obesity screening in children - a consultation response. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

78. Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, et al. Pediatric obesity - assessment, treatment, and prevention: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. JCEM. 2017 Mar 1;102(3):709-57.Full text  Abstract

79. Barlow SE. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(suppl 4):S164-92.Full text  Abstract

80. Spear BA, Barlow SE, Ervin C, et al. Recommendations for treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(suppl 4):S254-88.Full text  Abstract

81. Ho M, Garnett SP, Baur L, et al. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in child obesity: systematic review with meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2012 Dec;130(6):e1647-71.Full text  Abstract

82. O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Burda BU, et al. Screening for obesity and intervention for weight management in children and adolescents: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2017 Jun 20;317(23):2427-44.Full text  Abstract

83. Ells LJ, Rees K, Brown T, et al. Interventions for treating children and adolescents with overweight and obesity: an overview of Cochrane reviews. Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 Nov;42(11):1823-33.Full text  Abstract

84. Heitkamp M, Siegrist M, Molnos S, et al. Obesity genes and weight loss during lifestyle intervention in children with obesity. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jan 1;175(1):e205142. Abstract

85. Golan M. Parents as agents of change in childhood obesity - from research to practice. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(2):66-76. Abstract

86. James J, Thomas P, Cavan D, et al. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2004 May 22;328(7450):1237.Full text  Abstract

87. Chen L, Appel LJ, Loria C, et al. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1299-306. Abstract

88. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2020-2025. 9th ed. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

89. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Full text  Abstract

90. Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Vadiveloo M, et al. 2021 Dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Dec 7;144(23):e472-87.Full text  Abstract

91. Walton K, Horton NJ, Rifas-Shiman SL, et al. Exploring the role of family functioning in the association btween frequency of family dinners and dietary intake among adolescents and young adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2018 Nov 2;1(7):e185217.Full text  Abstract

92. Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005 Jun;146(6):732-7. Abstract

93. Barnett TA, Kelly AS, Young DR, et al. Sedentary behaviors in today's youth: approaches to the prevention and management of childhood obesity: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018 Sep 11;138(11):e142-59.Full text  Abstract

94. Al-Khudairy L, Loveman E, Colquitt JL, et al. Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 22;(6):CD012691.Full text  Abstract

95. Boutelle KN, Rhee KE, Liang J, et al. Effect of attendance of the child on body weight, energy intake, and physical activity in childhood obesity treatment: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(7):622–28. Abstract

96. Chanoine JP, Hampl S, Jensen C, et al. Effect of orlistat on weight and body composition in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Jun 15;293(23):2873-83.Full text  Abstract

97. Dunican KC, Desilets AR, Montalbano JK. Pharmacotherapeutic options for overweight adolescents. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Sep;41(9):1445-55. Abstract

98. Kelly AS, Auerbach P, Barrientos-Perez M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of liraglutide for adolescents with obesity. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 28;382(22):2117-28.Full text  Abstract

99. O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Burda BU, et al. Screening for obesity and intervention for weight management in children and adolescents: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2017 Jun 20;317(23):2427-44.Full text  Abstract

100. Cha DS, Vahtra M, Ahmed J, et al. Repurposing of anti-diabetic agents for the treatment of cognitive impairment and mood disorders. Curr Mol Med. 2016;16(5):465-73. Abstract

101. McDonagh MS, Selph S, Ozpinar A, et al. Systematic review of the benefits and risks of metformin in treating obesity in children aged 18 years and younger. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Feb;168(2):178-84. Abstract

102. Pastor-Villaescusa B, Cañete MD, Caballero-Villarraso J, et al. Metformin for obesity in prepubertal and pubertal children: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2017 Jul;140(1):e20164285.Full text  Abstract

103. Hsia DS, Gosselin NH, Williams J, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of a fixed-dose combination of phentermine/topiramate in adolescents with obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Apr;22(4):480-91. Abstract

104. U.S. National Library of Medicine. A phase IV safety and efficacy study of VI-0521 in adolescents with obesity. Sep 2022 [internet publication].Full text

105. Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, et al. Use of topiramate in pregnancy and risk of oral clefts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Nov;207(5):405.e1-7.Full text  Abstract

106. Armstrong SC, Bolling CF, Michalsky MP, et al; Section on Obesity, Section on Surgery. Pediatric metabolic and bariatric surgery: evidence, barriers, and best practices. Pediatrics. 2019 Dec;144(6):e20193223.Full text  Abstract

107. Fullmer MA, Abrams SH, Hrovat K, et al; National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions; North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Nutritional strategy for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery: report of a working group of the Nutrition Committee of NASPGHAN/NACHRI. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Jan;54(1):125-35.Full text  Abstract

108. Michalsky MP, Inge TH, Jenkins TM, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors after adolescent bariatric surgery. Pediatrics. 2018 Feb;141(2):e20172485.Full text  Abstract

109. Mackey ER, Wang J, Harrington C, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses and weight loss among adolescents receiving sleeve gastrectomy. Pediatrics. 2018 Jul;142(1):e20173432.Full text  Abstract

110. White B, Doyle J, Colville S, et al. Systematic review of psychological and social outcomes of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery, and predictors of success. Clin Obes. 2015 Dec;5(6):312-24. Abstract

111. Alqahtani AR, Elahmedi M, Abdurabu HY, et al. Ten-year outcomes of children and adolescents who underwent sleeve gastrectomy: weight loss, Comorbidity Resolution, Adverse Events, and Growth Velocity. J Am Coll Surg. 2021 Dec;233(6):657-64. Abstract

112. Ells LJ, Mead E, Atkinson G, et al. Surgery for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 24;(6):CD011740.Full text  Abstract

113. Inge TH, Courcoulas AP, Jenkins TM, et al; Teen-LABS Consortium. Weight loss and health status 3 years after bariatric surgery in adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jan 14;374(2):113-23.Full text  Abstract

114. Mead E, Atkinson G, Richter B, et al. Drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 29;(11):CD012436.Full text  Abstract

115. Clément K, van den Akker E, Argente J, et al. Efficacy and safety of setmelanotide, an MC4R agonist, in individuals with severe obesity due to LEPR or POMC deficiency: single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Dec;8(12):960-70. Abstract

116. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Setmelanotide for treating obesity caused by LEPR or POMC deficiency. Highly specialised technologies guidance. HST21. Jul 2022 [internet publication].Full text

117. Smith SR, Aronne LJ, Burns CM, et al. Sustained weight loss following 12-month pramlintide treatment as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention in obesity. Diabetes Care. 2008 Sep;31(9):1816-23.Full text  Abstract

118. Boyle CN, Lutz TA, Le Foll C. Amylin - its role in the homeostatic and hedonic control of eating and recent developments of amylin analogs to treat obesity. Mol Metab. 2018 Feb;8:203-10.Full text  Abstract

119. Greenway FL, Fujioka K, Plodkowski RA, et al. Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2010 Aug 21;376(9741):595-605. Abstract

120. Kolotkin RL, Chen S, Klassen P, et al. Patient-reported quality of life in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone/bupropion for obesity. Clin Obes. 2015 Oct;5(5):237-44. Abstract

121. Nguyen ML, Pirzada MH, Shapiro MA. Zonisamide for weight loss in adolescents. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Oct;18(4):311-4.Full text  Abstract

122. Klonoff DC, Buse JB, Nielsen LL, et al. Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Jan;24(1):275-86. Abstract

123. Kelly AS, Rudser KD, Nathan BM, et al. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy on body mass index in adolescents with severe obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Apr;167(4):355-60.Full text  Abstract

124. Kelly AS, Metzig AM, Rudser KD, et al. Exenatide as a weight-loss therapy in extreme pediatric obesity: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Feb;20(2):364-70.Full text  Abstract

125. Fenske WK, Bueter M, Miras AD, et al. Exogenous peptide YY3-36 and Exendin-4 further decrease food intake, whereas octreotide increases food intake in rats after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Mar;36(3):379-84. Abstract

126. Smith SR, Prosser WA, Donahue DJ, et al. Lorcaserin (APD356), a selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, reduces body weight in obese men and women. Obesity. 2009 Mar;17(3):494-503.Full text  Abstract

127. Fidler MC, Sanchez M, Raether B, et al. A one-year randomized trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in obese and overweight adults: the BLOSSOM trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct;96(10):3067-77.Full text  Abstract

128. US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans, second edition. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

129. American Psychological Association. Clinical practice guideline for multicomponent behavioral treatment of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents: current state of the evidence and research needs. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text

130. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

131. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Pediatric weight management (PWM): evidence-based nutrition practice guideline. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

132. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for growth monitoring, and prevention and management of overweight and obesity in children and youth in primary care. CMAJ. 2015 Apr 7;187(6):411-21.Full text  Abstract

133. Yi DY, Kim SC, Lee JH, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric obesity: recommendations from the Committee on Pediatric Obesity of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2019 Jan;22(1):1-27.Full text  Abstract

134. Guo SS, Wu W, Chumlea WC, et al. Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):653-8.Full text  Abstract

135. Bjerregaard LG, Jensen BW, Ängquist L, et al. Change in overweight from childhood to early adulthood and risk of type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 5;378(14):1302-12.Full text  Abstract

136. Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 3;350(23):2362-74.Full text  Abstract

137. Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med. 2002 Mar 14;346(11):802-10.Full text  Abstract

138. Power C, Thomas C. Changes in BMI, duration of overweight and obesity, and glucose metabolism: 45 years of follow-up of a birth cohort. Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep;34(9):1986-91.Full text  Abstract

139. Giannini C, de Giorgis T, Scarinci A, et al. Obese related effects of inflammatory markers and insulin resistance on increased carotid intima media thickness in pre-pubertal children. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Mar;197(1):448-56. Abstract

140. Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Tang R, et al. The relation of obesity throughout life to carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jan;28(1):159-66. Abstract

141. Gjærde LK, Gamborg M, Ängquist L, et al. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke. JAMA Neurol. 2017 Nov 1;74(11):1312-18. Abstract

142. Nguyen TT, Keil MF, Russell DL, et al. Relation of acanthosis nigricans to hyperinsulinemia and insulin sensitivity in overweight African American and white children. J Pediatr. 2001 Apr;138(4):474-80. Abstract

143. Wasserman H, Inge TH. Bariatric surgery in obese adolescents: opportunities and challenges. Pediatr Ann. 2014 Sep;43(9):e230-6. Abstract

144. Wing YK, Hui SH, Pak WM, et al. A controlled study of sleep related disordered breathing in obese children. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Dec;88(12):1043-7.Full text  Abstract

145. Marcus CL, Brooks LJ, Draper KA, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics. Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics. 2012 Sep;130(3):576-84.Full text  Abstract

146. Kaechele V, Wabitsch M, Thiere D, et al. Prevalence of gallbladder stone disease in obese children and adolescents: influence of the degree of obesity, sex, and pubertal development. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Jan;42(1):66-70. Abstract

147. Fishman L, Lenders C, Fortunato C, et al. Increased prevalence of constipation and fecal soiling in a population of obese children. J Pediatr. 2004 Aug;145(2):253-4. Abstract

148. Mousa H, Hassan M. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2017 Jun;64(3):487-505.Full text  Abstract

149. Wills M. Orthopedic complications of childhood obesity. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2004 Winter;16(4):230-5. Abstract

150. Scott IU, Siatkowski RM, Eneyni M, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children and adolescents. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Aug;124(2):253-5. Abstract

151. Ford ES. The epidemiology of obesity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 May;115(5):897-909. Abstract

152. Peters U, Dixon AE, Forno E. Obesity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Apr;141(4):1169-79.Full text  Abstract

153. Furer A, Afek A, Sommer A, et al. Adolescent obesity and midlife cancer risk: a population-based cohort study of 2·3 million adolescents in Israel. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Mar;8(3):216-25. Abstract

154. Moustafa AF, Quigley KM, Wadden TA, et al. A systematic review of binge eating, loss of control eating, and weight loss in children and adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 Aug;29(8):1259-71. Abstract

155. Jebeile H, Gow ML, Baur LA, et al. Treatment of obesity, with a dietary component, and eating disorder risk in children and adolescents: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2019 Sep;20(9):1287-98.Full text  Abstract

156. Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009 Jul 24;58(RR-7):1-26.Full text  Abstract

157. De Bourdeaudhuij I, Van Cauwenberghe E, Spittaels H, et al. School-based interventions promoting both physical activity and healthy eating in Europe: a systematic review within the HOPE project. Obes Rev. 2011 Mar;12(3):205-16. Abstract

158. Martin A, Booth JN, Laird Y, et al. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 2;(3):CD009728.Full text  Abstract

159. Neil-Sztramko SE, Caldwell H, Dobbins M. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Sep 23;9:CD007651. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer