Overview of acid-base and electrolyte disorders

References

Key articles

Berend K, de Vries AP, Gans RO. Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 9;371(15):1434-45. Abstract

Seifter JL. Integration of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 6;371(19):1821-31. Abstract

Foster GT, Varizi ND, Sassoon CS. Respiratory alkalosis. Respir Care. 2001 Apr;46(4):384-91. Abstract

Spasovski G, Vanholder R, Allolio B, et al. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Feb 25;170(3):G1-47.Full text  Abstract

Wakil A, Ng JM, Atkin SL. Investigating hyponatraemia. BMJ. 2011 Mar 7;342:d1118. Abstract

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.Full text  Abstract

Batlle D, Moorthi KM, Schluter W, et al. Distal renal tubular acidosis and the potassium enigma. Semin Nephrol. 2006 Nov;26(6):471-8. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Berend K, de Vries AP, Gans RO. Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 9;371(15):1434-45. Abstract

2. Seifter JL. Integration of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 6;371(19):1821-31. Abstract

3. Foster GT, Varizi ND, Sassoon CS. Respiratory alkalosis. Respir Care. 2001 Apr;46(4):384-91. Abstract

4. Batlle DC, Hizon M, Cohen E, et al. The use of urinary anion gap in the diagnosis of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. N Engl J Med. 1988 Mar 10;318(10):594-9. Abstract

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6. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis: a pathophysiologic approach. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012 Oct;8(10):589-601. Abstract

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8. Morrison RS. Management of emergencies: metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. N Engl J Med. 1966 May 26;274(21):1195-7. Abstract

9. Spasovski G, Vanholder R, Allolio B, et al. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Feb 25;170(3):G1-47.Full text  Abstract

10. Mohan S, Gu S, Parikh A, et al. Prevalence of hyponatremia and association with mortality: results from NHANES. Am J Med. 2013 Dec;126(12):1127-37.e1.Full text  Abstract

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12. Wakil A, Ng JM, Atkin SL. Investigating hyponatraemia. BMJ. 2011 Mar 7;342:d1118. Abstract

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15. Godek SF, Godek JJ, Bartolozzi AR. Hydration status in college football players during consecutive days of twice-a-day preseason practices. Am J Sports Med. 2005 Jun;33(6):843-51. Abstract

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22. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.Full text  Abstract

23. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, et al. Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 Jan;24(1):131-53.Full text  Abstract

24. Trence DL, Hirsch IB. Hyperglycemic crises in diabetes mellitus type 2. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Dec;30(4):817-31. Abstract

25. Rodriguez Soriano J. Renal tubular acidosis: the clinical entity. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Aug;13(8):2160-70.Full text  Abstract

26. Batlle D, Moorthi KM, Schluter W, et al. Distal renal tubular acidosis and the potassium enigma. Semin Nephrol. 2006 Nov;26(6):471-8. Abstract

27. Conn JW. Primary aldosteronism, a new clinical syndrome. J Lab Clin Med. 1955;45:6-17.

28. Conn JW. Plasma renin activity in primary aldosteronism. Importance in differential diagnosis and in research of essential hypertension. JAMA. 1964 Oct 19;190:222-5. Abstract

29. Morillas P, Castillo J, Quiles J, et al. Prevalence of primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients and its effect on the heart [in Spanish]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2008 Apr;61(4):418-21. Abstract

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