Systemic candidiasis


Key articles

Tsay SV, Mu Y, Williams S, et al. Burden of candidemia in the United States, 2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 3;71(9):e449-53.Full text  Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ​Candida auris: information for laboratorians and health professionals. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Zhang AY, Shrum S, Williams S, et al. The changing epidemiology of candidemia in the United States: injection drug use as an increasingly common risk factor-active surveillance in selected sites, United States, 2014-2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 23;71(7):1732-7.Full text  Abstract

2. Pappas PG. Invasive candidiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):485-506. Abstract

3. Tsay SV, Mu Y, Williams S, et al. Burden of candidemia in the United States, 2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 3;71(9):e449-53.Full text  Abstract

4. Lamoth F, Lockhart SR, Berkow EL, et al. Changes in the epidemiological landscape of invasive candidiasis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Jan 1;73(suppl_1):i4-13.Full text  Abstract

5. Bongomin F, Gago S, Oladele RO, et al. Global and multi-national prevalence of fungal diseases-estimate precision. J Fungi (Basel). 2017 Oct 18;3(4):57.Full text  Abstract

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention​. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2019. Dec 2019 [internet publication].Full text

7. World Health Organization. WHO fungal priority pathogens list to guide research, development and public health action. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

8. Horn DL, Neofytos D, Anaissie EJ, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 2019 patients: data from the prospective antifungal therapy alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15;48(12):1695-703. Abstract

9. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Turnidge JD, et al. Twenty years of the SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program: results for candida species from 1997-2016. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;6(suppl 1):S79-94.Full text  Abstract

10. Colombo AL, Nucci M, Park BJ, et al. Epidemiology of candidemia in Brazil: a nationwide sentinel surveillance of candidemia in eleven medical centers. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Aug;44(8):2816-23. Abstract

11. Chai YA, Wang Y, Khoo AL, et al. Predominance of Candida tropicalis bloodstream infections in a Singapore teaching hospital. Med Mycol. 2007 Aug;45(5):435-9. Abstract

12. Almirante B, Rodriguez D, Cuenca-Estrella M, et al. Epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections: case-control population-based surveillance study of patients in Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 May;44(5):1681-5.Full text  Abstract

13. Diekema D, Arbefeville S, Boyken L, et al. The changing epidemiology of healthcare-associated candidemia over three decades. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 May;73(1):45-8. Abstract

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tracking Candida auris.​ Feb 2023 [internet publication].Full text

15. Kohlenberg A, Monnet DL, Plachouras D, et al. Increasing number of cases and outbreaks caused by Candida auris in the EU/EEA, 2020 to 2021. Euro Surveill. 2022 Nov;27(46):2200846.Full text  Abstract

16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ​Candida auris: information for laboratorians and health professionals. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

17. Venditti M. Clinical aspects of invasive candidiasis: endocarditis and other localized infections. Drugs. 2009;69(suppl 1):39-43. Abstract

18. Ziakas PD, Kourbeti IS, Voulgarelis M, et al. Effectiveness of systemic antifungal prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Ther. 2010 Dec;32(14):2316-36. Abstract

19. Wang J, Zhan P, Zhou R, et al. Prophylaxis with itraconazole is more effective than prophylaxis with fluconazole in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Med Oncol. 2010 Dec;27(4):1082-8. Abstract

20. Tamura K, Drew R. Antifungal prophylaxis in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Drugs Today (Barc). 2008 Jul;44(7):515-30. Abstract

21. Wingard JR, Carter SL, Walsh TJ, et al; Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network. Randomized, double-blind trial of fluconazole versus voriconazole for prevention of invasive fungal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2010 Dec 9;116(24):5111-8. Abstract

22. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

23. Buetti N, Marschall J, Drees M, et al. Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute-care hospitals: 2022 Update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 May;43(5):553-69.Full text  Abstract

24. Pacilli M, Kerins JL, Clegg WJ, et al. Regional emergence of Candida auris in Chicago and lessons learned from intensive follow-up at 1 ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 31;71(11):e718-25.Full text  Abstract

25. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

26. Kollef M, Micek S, Hampton N, et al. Septic shock attributed to Candida infection: importance of empiric therapy and source control. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(12):1739-46. Abstract

27. Karageorgopoulos DE, Vouloumanou EK, Ntziora F, et al. β-D-glucan assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 15;52(6):750-70. Abstract

28. Persat F, Ranque S, Derouin F, et al. Contribution of the (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan assay for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1009-13.Full text  Abstract

29. Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Alexander BD, Kett DH, et al. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1-->3) beta-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;41(5):654-9. Abstract

30. Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kogata Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-D-glucan for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jan;50(1):7-15.Full text  Abstract

31. Mylonakis E, Clancy CJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, et al. T2 magnetic resonance assay for the rapid diagnosis of candidemia in whole blood: a clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15;60(6):892-9. Abstract

32. Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH. T2 magnetic resonance for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections: charting a path forward. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Mar 1;73(suppl_4):iv2-iv5.Full text  Abstract

33. Nguyen MH, Wissel MC, Shields RK, et al. Performance of Candida real-time polymerase chain reaction, β-D-glucan assay, and blood cultures in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54(9):1240-8. Abstract

34. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA authorizes new use of test, first to identify the emerging pathogen Candida auris. April 2018 [internet publication].Full text

35. Kedzierska A, Kochan P, Pietrzyk A, et al. Current status of fungal cell wall components in the immunodiagnostics of invasive fungal infections in humans: galactomannan, mannan and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan antigens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Nov;26(11):755-66. Abstract

36. Marty FM, Lowry CM, Lempitski SJ, et al. Reactivity of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan assay with commonly used intravenous antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Oct;50(10):3450-3.Full text  Abstract

37. Donnelly JP, Chen SC, Kauffman CA, et al. Revision and update of the consensus definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12;71(6):1367-76.Full text  Abstract

38. Garey KW, Rege M, Pai MP, et al. Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy impacts mortality in patients with candidemia: a multi-institutional study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 1;43(1):25-31. Abstract

39. Morrell M, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH. Delaying the empiric treatment of Candida bloodstream infection until positive blood culture results are obtained: a potential risk factor for hospital mortality. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Sep;49(9):3640-5.Full text  Abstract

40. Patel GP, Simon D, Scheetz M, et al. The effect of time to antifungal therapy on mortality in Candidemia associated septic shock. Am J Ther. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):508-11. Abstract

41. Denning DW. Echinocandin antifungal drugs. Lancet. 2003 Oct 4;362(9390):1142-51. Abstract

42. Betts RF, Nucci M, Talwar D, et al; Caspofungin High-Dose Study Group. A Multicenter, double-blind trial of a high-dose caspofungin treatment regimen versus a standard caspofungin treatment regimen for adult patients with invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15;48(12):1676-84. Abstract

43. Gafter-Gvili A, Vidal L, Goldberg E, et al. Treatment of invasive candidal infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Sep;83(9):1011-21. Abstract

44. Andes DR, Safdar N, Baddley JW, et al. Impact of treatment strategy on outcomes in patients with candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis: a patient-level quantitative review of randomized trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54(8):1110-22.Full text  Abstract

45. Kale-Pradhan PB, Morgan G, Wilhelm SM, et al. Comparative efficacy of echinocandins and nonechinocandins for the treatment of Candida parapsilosis Infections: a meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Dec;30(12):1207-13. Abstract

46. Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, et al. Changes in incidence and antifungal drug resistance in candidemia: results from population-based laboratory surveillance in Atlanta and Baltimore, 2008-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):1352-61.Full text  Abstract

47. Alexander BD, Johnson MD, Pfeiffer CD, et al. Increasing echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata: clinical failure correlates with presence of FKS mutations and elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jun;56(12):1724-32.Full text  Abstract

48. Pappas PG, Rotstein CM, Betts RF, et al. Micafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct 1;45(7):883-93. Abstract

49. Rex JH, Pappas PG, Karchmer AW, et al. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. A randomized and blinded multicenter trial of high-dose fluconazole plus placebo versus fluconazole plus amphotericin B as therapy for candidemia and its consequences in nonneutropenic subjects. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 May 15;36(10):1221-8. Abstract

50. Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. Candidemia Study Group and the National Institute. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 17;331(20):1325-30.Full text  Abstract

51. Reboli AC, Rotstein C, Pappas PG, et al. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 14;356(24):2472-82.Full text  Abstract

52. Kullberg BJ, Sobel JD, Ruhnke M, et al. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2005 Oct 22-28;366(9495):1435-42. Abstract

53. Tissot F, Agrawal S, Pagano L, et al. ECIL-6 guidelines for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis in leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Haematologica. 2017 Mar;102(3):433-4.Full text  Abstract

54. Kullberg BJ, Arendrup MC. Invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 8;373(15):1445-56. Abstract

55. Riddell J 4th, Comer GM, Kauffman CA. Treatment of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis: focus on new antifungal agents. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):648-53. Abstract

56. Pachl J, Svoboda P, Jacobs F, et al. A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial of lipid-associated amphotericin B alone versus in combination with an antibody-based inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 in patients with invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1404-1413. Abstract

57. Oliveira LVN, Wang R, Specht CA, et al. Vaccines for human fungal diseases: close but still a long way to go. NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Mar 3;6(1):33.Full text  Abstract

58. Thompson GR 3rd, Soriano A, Cornely OA, et al. Rezafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (ReSTORE): a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2023 Jan 7;401(10370):49-59. Abstract

59. Falagas ME, Apostolou KE, Pappas VD. Attributable mortality of candidemia: a systematic review of matched cohort and case-control studies. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;25(7):419-25. Abstract

60. Chow JK, Golan Y, Ruthazer R, et al. Risk factors for albicans and non-albicans candidemia in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul;36(7):1993-8. Abstract

61. Playford EG, Marriott D, Nguyen Q, et al. Candidemia in nonneutropenic critically ill patients: risk factors for non-albicans Candida spp. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul;36(7):2034-9. Abstract

62. Fraser VJ, Jones M, Dunkel J, et al. Candidemia in a tertiary care hospital: epidemiology, risk factors, and predictors of mortality. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Sep;15(3):414-21. Abstract

63. Labelle AJ, Micek ST, Roubinian N, et al. Treatment-related risk factors for hospital mortality in Candida bloodstream infections. Crit Care Med. 2008 Nov;36(11):2967-72. Abstract

64. Khan FA, Slain D, Khakoo RA. Candida endophthalmitis: focus on current and future antifungal treatment options. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Dec;27(12):1711-21. Abstract

65. Brod RD, Flynn HW Jnr, Miller D. Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. In: Duane's opthalmology on CD-ROM, 2006 edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006.

66. ​Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH. Finding the "missing 50%" of invasive candidiasis: how nonculture diagnostics will improve understanding of disease spectrum and transform patient care. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(9):1284-92.Full text  Abstract

67. Trevijano-Contador N, Torres-Cano A, Carballo-González C, et al. Global emergence of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole in Candida parapsilosis in tertiary hospitals in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Nov;9(11):ofac605.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer