Systemic candidiasis

References

Key articles

Pappas PG. Invasive candidiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):485-506. Abstract

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:e1-e50.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Pappas PG. Invasive candidiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):485-506. Abstract

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Invasive candidiasis statistics. January 2017 [internet publication].Full text

3. Trick WE, Fridkin SK, Edwards JR, et al. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Sep 1;35(5):627-30. Abstract

4. Hachem R, Hanna H, Kontoyiannis D, et al. The changing epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: Candida glabrata and Candida krusei as the leading causes of candidemia in hematologic malignancy. Cancer. 2008 Jun;112(11):2493-9.Full text  Abstract

5. Abi-Said D, Anaissie E, Uzun O, et al. The epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Jun;24(6):1122-8. Abstract

6. Horn DL, Neofytos D, Anaissie EJ, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 2019 patients: data from the prospective antifungal therapy alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15;48(12):1695-703. Abstract

7. Pfaller MA, Moet GJ, Messer SA, et al. Geographic variations in species distribution and echinocandin and azole antifungal resistance rates among Candida bloodstream infection isolates: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2008 to 2009). J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jan;49(1):396-9.Full text  Abstract

8. Colombo AL, Nucci M, Park BJ, et al. Epidemiology of candidemia in Brazil: a nationwide sentinel surveillance of candidemia in eleven medical centers. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Aug;44(8):2816-23. Abstract

9. Chai YA, Wang Y, Khoo AL, et al. Predominance of Candida tropicalis bloodstream infections in a Singapore teaching hospital. Med Mycol. 2007 Aug;45(5):435-9. Abstract

10. Almirante B, Rodriguez D, Cuenca-Estrella M, et al. Epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections: case-control population-based surveillance study of patients in Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 May;44(5):1681-5.Full text  Abstract

11. Diekema D, Arbefeville S, Boyken L, et al. The changing epidemiology of healthcare-associated candidemia over three decades. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 May;73(1):45-8. Abstract

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Candida auris. August 2018 [internet publication].Full text

13. Venditti M. Clinical aspects of invasive candidiasis: endocarditis and other localized infections. Drugs. 2009;69(suppl 1):39-43. Abstract

14. Ziakas PD, Kourbeti IS, Voulgarelis M, et al. Effectiveness of systemic antifungal prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Ther. 2010 Dec;32(14):2316-36. Abstract

15. Wang J, Zhan P, Zhou R, et al. Prophylaxis with itraconazole is more effective than prophylaxis with fluconazole in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Med Oncol. 2010 Dec;27(4):1082-8. Abstract

16. Tamura K, Drew R. Antifungal prophylaxis in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Drugs Today (Barc). 2008 Jul;44(7):515-30. Abstract

17. Wingard JR, Carter SL, Walsh TJ, et al; Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network. Randomized, double-blind trial of fluconazole versus voriconazole for prevention of invasive fungal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2010 Dec 9;116(24):5111-8. Abstract

18. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

19. BMJ Point of Care. Sepsis in adults. July 2018 [internet publication].Full text

20. Kollef M, Micek S, Hampton N, et al. Septic shock attributed to Candida infection: importance of empiric therapy and source control. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(12):1739-46. Abstract

21. Karageorgopoulos DE, Vouloumanou EK, Ntziora F, et al. β-D-glucan assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 15;52(6):750-70. Abstract

22. Persat F, Ranque S, Derouin F, et al. Contribution of the (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan assay for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1009-13.Full text  Abstract

23. Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Alexander BD, Kett DH, et al. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1-->3) beta-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;41(5):654-9. Abstract

24. Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kogata Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-D-glucan for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jan;50(1):7-15.Full text  Abstract

25. Mylonakis E, Clancy CJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, et al. T2 magnetic resonance assay for the rapid diagnosis of candidemia in whole blood: a clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15;60(6):892-9. Abstract

26. Nguyen MH, Wissel MC, Shields RK, et al. Performance of Candida real-time polymerase chain reaction, β-D-glucan assay, and blood cultures in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54(9):1240-8. Abstract

27. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA authorizes new use of test, first to identify the emerging pathogen Candida auris. April 2018 [internet publication].Full text

28. Kedzierska A, Kochan P, Pietrzyk A, et al. Current status of fungal cell wall components in the immunodiagnostics of invasive fungal infections in humans: galactomannan, mannan and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan antigens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Nov;26(11):755-66. Abstract

29. Marty FM, Lowry CM, Lempitski SJ, et al. Reactivity of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan assay with commonly used intravenous antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Oct;50(10):3450-3.Full text  Abstract

30. De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jun 15;46(12):1813-21.Full text  Abstract

31. Garey KW, Rege M, Pai MP, et al. Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy impacts mortality in patients with candidemia: a multi-institutional study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 1;43(1):25-31. Abstract

32. Morrell M, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH. Delaying the empiric treatment of Candida bloodstream infection until positive blood culture results are obtained: a potential risk factor for hospital mortality. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Sep;49(9):3640-5.Full text  Abstract

33. Patel GP, Simon D, Scheetz M, et al. The effect of time to antifungal therapy on mortality in Candidemia associated septic shock. Am J Ther. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):508-11. Abstract

34. Rex JH, Pappas PG, Karchmer AW, et al. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. A randomized and blinded multicenter trial of high-dose fluconazole plus placebo versus fluconazole plus amphotericin B as therapy for candidemia and its consequences in nonneutropenic subjects. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 May 15;36(10):1221-8. Abstract

35. Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. Candidemia Study Group and the National Institute. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 17;331(20):1325-30.Full text  Abstract

36. Reboli AC, Rotstein C, Pappas PG, et al. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 14;356(24):2472-82.Full text  Abstract

37. Kullberg BJ, Sobel JD, Ruhnke M, et al. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2005 Oct 22-28;366(9495):1435-42. Abstract

38. Denning DW. Echinocandin antifungal drugs. Lancet. 2003 Oct 4;362(9390):1142-51. Abstract

39. Betts RF, Nucci M, Talwar D, et al; Caspofungin High-Dose Study Group. A Multicenter, double-blind trial of a high-dose caspofungin treatment regimen versus a standard caspofungin treatment regimen for adult patients with invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15;48(12):1676-84. Abstract

40. VandenBussche HL, Van Loo DA. A clinical review of echinocandins in pediatric patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;44(1):166-77. Abstract

41. Caudle KE, Inger AG, Butler DR, et al. Echinocandin use in the neonatal intensive care unit. Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Jan;46(1):108-16. Abstract

42. Gafter-Gvili A, Vidal L, Goldberg E, et al. Treatment of invasive candidal infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Sep;83(9):1011-21. Abstract

43. Andes DR, Safdar N, Baddley JW, et al. Impact of treatment strategy on outcomes in patients with candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis: a patient-level quantitative review of randomized trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54(8):1110-22.Full text  Abstract

44. Kett DH, Shorr AF, Reboli AC, et al. Anidulafungin compared with fluconazole in severely ill patients with candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis: support for the 2009 IDSA treatment guidelines for candidiasis. Crit Care. 2011;15(5):R253.Full text  Abstract

45. Kale-Pradhan PB, Morgan G, Wilhelm SM, et al. Comparative efficacy of echinocandins and nonechinocandins for the treatment of Candida parapsilosis Infections: a meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Dec;30(12):1207-13. Abstract

46. Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, et al. Changes in incidence and antifungal drug resistance in candidemia: results from population-based laboratory surveillance in Atlanta and Baltimore, 2008-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):1352-61.Full text  Abstract

47. Alexander BD, Johnson MD, Pfeiffer CD, et al. Increasing echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata: clinical failure correlates with presence of FKS mutations and elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jun;56(12):1724-32.Full text  Abstract

48. Pappas PG, Rotstein CM, Betts RF, et al. Micafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct 1;45(7):883-93. Abstract

49. Tissot F, Agrawal S, Pagano L, et al. ECIL-6 guidelines for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis in leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Haematologica. 2017 Mar;102(3):433-4.Full text  Abstract

50. Kullberg BJ, Arendrup MC. Invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 8;373(15):1445-56. Abstract

51. Riddell J 4th, Comer GM, Kauffman CA. Treatment of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis: focus on new antifungal agents. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):648-53. Abstract

52. Pachl J, Svoboda P, Jacobs F, et al. A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial of lipid-associated amphotericin B alone versus in combination with an antibody-based inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 in patients with invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1404-1413. Abstract

53. Wey SB, Mori M, Pfaller MA, et al. Hospital-acquired candidemia: the attributable mortality and excess length of stay. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Dec;148(12):2642-5. Abstract

54. Chow JK, Golan Y, Ruthazer R, et al. Risk factors for albicans and non-albicans candidemia in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul;36(7):1993-8. Abstract

55. Playford EG, Marriott D, Nguyen Q, et al. Candidemia in nonneutropenic critically ill patients: risk factors for non-albicans Candida spp. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul;36(7):2034-9. Abstract

56. Fraser VJ, Jones M, Dunkel J, et al. Candidemia in a tertiary care hospital: epidemiology, risk factors, and predictors of mortality. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Sep;15(3):414-21. Abstract

57. Labelle AJ, Micek ST, Roubinian N, et al. Treatment-related risk factors for hospital mortality in Candida bloodstream infections. Crit Care Med. 2008 Nov;36(11):2967-72. Abstract

58. Khan FA, Slain D, Khakoo RA. Candida endophthalmitis: focus on current and future antifungal treatment options. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Dec;27(12):1711-21. Abstract

59. Brod RD, Flynn HW Jnr, Miller D. Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. In: Duane's opthalmology on CD-ROM, 2006 edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006.

60. Spellberg BJ, Filler SG, Edwards JE Jr. Current treatment strategies for disseminated candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 15;42(2):244-51.Full text  Abstract

61. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:e1-e50.Full text  Abstract

62. Alexander BD, Johnson MD, Pfeiffer CD, et al. Increasing echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata: clinical failure correlates with presence of FKS mutations and elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1724-1732.Full text  Abstract

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