Oral candidiasis

References

Key articles

Ship JA, Vissink A, Challacombe SJ. Use of prophylactic antifungals in the immunocompromised host. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007 Mar;103(suppl 6):e1-14. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. August 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Khalid T, et al. Interventions for treating oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Apr 18;(7):CD001972.Full text  Abstract

Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Khalid T, et al. Interventions for treating oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD001972.Full text  Abstract

Pienaar ED, Young T, Holmes H. Interventions for the prevention and management of oropharyngeal candidiasis associated with HIV infection in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2010 Nov 10;(11):CD003940.Full text  Abstract

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

Muzyka BC, Dehler KR, Epifanio RN, et al, eds. Clinician's guide to treatment of patients with HIV & other communicable diseases. 5th ed. Baltimore: American Academy of Oral Medicine; 2018:1-58.

Pons V, Greenspan D, Debruin M. Therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, prospective multicenter study of oral fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches. The Multicenter Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993 Dec;6(12):1311-6. Abstract

Pons V, Greenspan D, Debruin M. Therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, prospective multicenter study of oral fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches. The Multicenter Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993;6:1317-1318. Abstract

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:e1-e50.Full text  Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. April 2015. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/ (last accessed 26 March 2017).Full text

Reference articles

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2. Neville BA, Damm DD, Allen CM, et al. Fungal and protozoal Diseases. In: Oral & maxillofacial pathology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2002.

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8. Robinson PG, Sheiham A, Challacombe SJ, et al. The periodontal health of homosexual men with HIV infection: a controlled study. Oral Dis. 1996 Mar;2(1):45-52. Abstract

9. Robinson PG, Sheiham A, Challacombe SJ, et al. Periodontal health and HIV infection. Oral Dis. 1997 May;3(suppl 1):S149-52. Abstract

10. Lamster IB, Grbic JT, Mitchell-Lewis DA, et al. New concepts regarding pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV infection. Ann Periodontol. 1998 Jul;3(1):62-75. Abstract

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21. Soysa NS, Samaranayake LP, Ellepola AN. Cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy and oral candidiasis. Oral Oncol. 2004 Nov;40(10):971-8. Abstract

22. Ship JA, Vissink A, Challacombe SJ. Use of prophylactic antifungals in the immunocompromised host. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007 Mar;103(suppl 6):e1-14. Abstract

23. Patton LL, McKaig R, Stauss R, et al. Changing prevalence of oral manifestations of human immuno-deficiency virus in the era of protease inhibitor therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000 Mar;89(3):299-304. Abstract

24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. August 2019 [internet publication].Full text

25. Gottfredsson M, Cox GM, Indridason OS, et al. Association of plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and oropharyngeal Candida colonization. J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):534-7.Full text  Abstract

26. Korting, HC, Schaller M, Eder G, et al. Effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinase inhibitors saquinavir and indinavir on in vitro activities of secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans isolates from HIV-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Aug;43(8):2038-42.Full text  Abstract

27. de Repentigny L, Lewandowski D, Jolicoeur. Immunopathogenesis of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):729-59.Full text  Abstract

28. Sweet SP. Selection and pathogenicity of Candida albicans in HIV infection. Oral Dis. 1997 May;3(suppl 1):S88-95. Abstract

29. Redding SW, Kirkpatrick WR, Dib O, et al. The epidemiology of non-albicans Candida in oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV patients. Spec Care Dentist. 2000 Sep-Oct;20(5):178-81. Abstract

30. Meiller TF, Jabra-Rizk MA, Baqui A, et al. Oral Candida dubliniensis as a clinically important species in HIV-seropositive patients in the United States. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999 Nov;88(5):573-80. Abstract

31. Redding SW, Dahiya MC, Kirkpatrick WR, et al. Candida glabrata is an emerging cause of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004 Jan;97(1):47-52. Abstract

32. Fichtenbaum CJ, Powderly WG. Refractory mucosal candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Mar;26(3):556-65.Full text  Abstract

33. Osei Sekyere J. Candida auris: a systematic review and meta-analysis of current updates on an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen. Microbiologyopen. 2018 Aug 7;7(4):e00578. [Erratum in: Microbiologyopen. 2019 August 13; 8(8): e00901.]Full text  Abstract

34. Sangeorzan JA, Bradley SF, He X, et al. Epidemiology of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: colonization, infection, treatment, and emergence of fluconazole resistance. Am J Med. 1994 Oct;97(4):339-46. Abstract

35. Reichart PA, Philipsen HP, Schmidt-Westhausen A, et al. Pseudomembranous candidiasis in HIV infection: ultrastructural findings. J Oral Pathol Med. 1995 Jul;24(6):276-81. Abstract

36. Sherwood J, Gow NA, Gooday GW, et al. Contact sensing in Candida albicans: a possible aid to epithelial penetration. J Med Vet Mycol. 1992;30(6):461-9. Abstract

37. Spellberg B, Edwards JE Jr. Type 1/type 2 immunity in infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jan;32(1):76-102.Full text  Abstract

38. Wozniak KL, Leigh JE, Hager S,et al. A comprehensive study of Candida-specific antibodies in the saliva of human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with oropharyngeal candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 1;185(9):1269-76.Full text  Abstract

39. Schaller M, Mailhammer R, Korting HC. Cytokine expression induced by Candida albicans in a model of cutaneous candidosis based on reconstituted human epidermis. J Med Microbiol. 2002 Aug;51(8):672-6.Full text  Abstract

40. Grone A. Keratinocytes and cytokines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002 Sep 6;88(1-2):1-12. Abstract

41. Farah CS, Elahi S, Pang G, et al. T cells augment monocyte and neutrophil function in host resistance against oropharyngeal candidiasis. Infect Immun. 2001 Oct;69(10):6110-8.Full text  Abstract

42. Fanello S, Bouchara JP, Sauteron M, et al. Predictive value of oral colonization by Candida yeasts for the onset of a nosocomial infection in elderly hospitalized patients. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Feb;55(Pt 2):223-8.Full text  Abstract

43. Emami, E, Taraf, H, de, Grandmont P, et al. The association of denture stomatitis and partial removable dental prostheses: a systematic review. Int J Prosthodont. 2012 Mar-Apr;25(2):113-9. Abstract

44. Matee MI, Simon E, Christensen MF, et al. Association between carriage of oral yeasts and malnutrition among Tanzanian infants aged 6-24 months. Oral Dis. 1995 Mar;1(1):37-42. Abstract

45. Jabra-Rizk MA, Falkler WA Jr, Enwonwu CO, et al. Prevalence of yeast among children in Nigeria and the United States. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2001 Dec;16(6):383-5. Abstract

46. Paillaud E, Merlier I, Dupeyron C, et al. Oral candidiasis and nutritional deficiencies in elderly hospitalised patients. Br J Nutr. 2004 Nov;92(5):861-7. Abstract

47. Davies AN, Brailsford SR, Beighton D. Oral candidosis in patients with advanced cancer. Oral Oncol. 2006 Aug;42(7):698-702. Abstract

48. Phelan JA, Begg MD, Lamster IB, et al. Oral candidiasis in HIV infection: predictive value and comparison of findings in injecting drug users and homosexual men. J Oral Pathol Med. 1997 May;26(5):237-43. Abstract

49. Takasawa H, Takahashi Y, Abe M, et al. An elderly case of type 2 diabetes which developed in association with oral and esophageal candidiasis. Intern Med. 2007;46(7):387-90.Full text  Abstract

50. Gulec AT, Demirbilek M, Seçkin D, et al. Superficial fungal infections in 102 renal transplant recipients: a case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Aug;49(2):187-92. Abstract

51. Sarifakioglu E, Gunduz C, Gorpelioglu C. Oral mucosa manifestations in 100 pregnant versus non-pregnant patients: an epidemiological observational study. Eur J Dermatol. 2006 Nov-Dec;16(6):674-6. Abstract

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53. Walls AW, Soames JV. Dental manifestations of autoimmune hypoparathyroidism. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993 Apr;75(4):452-4. Abstract

54. Meunier F, Paesmans M, Autier P. Value of antifungal prophylaxis with antifungal drugs against oropharyngeal candidiasis in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol. 1994 May;30B(3):196-9. Abstract

55. Clarkson JE, Worthington HV, Eden OB. Interventions for preventing oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD003807.Full text  Abstract

56. Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Khalid T, et al. Interventions for treating oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Apr 18;(7):CD001972.Full text  Abstract

57. Lalla RV, Latortue MC, Hong CH, et al; Fungal Infections Section, Oral Care Study Group, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society of Oral Oncology (ISOO). A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy. Support Care Cancer. 2010 Aug;18(8):985-92.Full text  Abstract

58. Meunier F, Paesmans M, Autier P. Value of antifungal prophylaxis with antifungal drugs against oropharyngeal candidiasis in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol. 1994;30B:196-199. Abstract

59. Clarkson JE, Worthington HV, Eden OB. Interventions for preventing oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1):CD003807.Full text  Abstract

60. Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Khalid T, et al. Interventions for treating oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD001972.Full text  Abstract

61. Powderly WG, Finkelstein D, Feinberg J, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 16;332(11):700-5.Full text  Abstract

62. Patton LL, Bonito AJ, Shugars DA. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antifungal drugs for the prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001 Aug;92(2):170-9. Abstract

63. Havlir DV, Dube MP, McCutchan JA, et al. Prophylaxis with weekly versus daily fluconazole for fungal infections in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Dec;27(6):1369-75.Full text  Abstract

64. MacPhail LA, Hilton JF, Dodd CL, et al. Prophylaxis with nystatin pastilles for HIV-associated oral candidiasis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 Aug 15;12(5):470-6. Abstract

65. Pienaar ED, Young T, Holmes H. Interventions for the prevention and management of oropharyngeal candidiasis associated with HIV infection in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2010 Nov 10;(11):CD003940.Full text  Abstract

66. Austin N, Cleminson J, Darlow BA, et al. Prophylactic oral/topical non-absorbed antifungal agents to prevent invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 24;(10):CD003478.Full text  Abstract

67. Epstein JB, Pearsall NN, Truelove EL. Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects. J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Sep;12(3):475-6.Full text  Abstract

68. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

69. Lopez-Dupla M, Mora Sanz P, Pintado Garcia V, et al. Clinical, endoscopic, immunologic, and therapeutic aspects of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a survey of 114 cases. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992 Dec;87(12):1771-6. Abstract

70. Raufman JP. Odynophagia/dysphagia in AIDS. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1988;17:599-614. Abstract

71. Lopez-Dupla M, Mora Sanz P, Pintado Garcia V, et al. Clinical, endoscopic, immunologic, and therapeutic aspects of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a survey of 114 cases. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87:1771-1776. Abstract

72. Robinson PG, Sheiham A, Challacombe SJ, et al. The periodontal health of homosexual men with HIV infection: a controlled study. Oral Dis. 1996;2:45-52. Abstract

73. Robinson PG, Sheiham A, Challacombe SJ, et al. Periodontal health and HIV infection. Oral Dis. 1997;3(suppl 1):S149-S152. Abstract

74. Lamster IB, Grbic JT, Mitchell-Lewis DA, et al. New concepts regarding pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV infection. Ann Periodontol. 1998;3:62-75. Abstract

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76. Meiller TF, Kelley JI, Jabra-Rizk MA, et al. In vitro studies of the efficacy of antimicrobials against fungi. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001 Jun;91(6):663-70. Abstract

77. de Souza RF, de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos H, Lovato da Silva CH, et al. Interventions for cleaning dentures in adults. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD007395.Full text  Abstract

78. Brondani, MA, Samim, F, Feng, H. A conventional microwave oven for denture cleaning: a critical review. Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e6-15.Full text  Abstract

79. Muzyka BC, Dehler KR, Epifanio RN, et al, eds. Clinician's guide to treatment of patients with HIV & other communicable diseases. 5th ed. Baltimore: American Academy of Oral Medicine; 2018:1-58.

80. Vazquez JP, Conway J. Randomized, comparative, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial of miconazole buccal tablet and clotrimazole troches for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis: Study of miconazole lauriad efficacy and safety (SMiLES). HIV Clin Trials. 2010 Jul-Aug;11(4):186-96. Abstract

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82. Finlay PM, Richardson MD, Robertson AG. A comparative study of the efficacy of fluconazole and amphotericin B in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidosis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996 Feb;34(1):23-5. Abstract

83. Queiroz-Telles F, Silva N, Carvalho MM, et al. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in aids patients. Braz J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr;5(2):60-6. Abstract

84. Graybill JR, Vazquez J, Darouiche RO, et al. Randomized trial of itraconazole oral solution for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients. Am J Med. 1998 Jan;104(1):33-9. Abstract

85. Phillips P, De Beule K, Frechette G, et al. A double-blind comparison of itraconazole oral solution and fluconazole capsules for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Jun;26(6):1368-73.Full text  Abstract

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87. Sangeorzan JA, Bradley SF, He X, et al. Epidemiology of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: colonization, infection, treatment, and emergence of fluconazole resistance. Am J Med. 1994;97:339-346. Abstract

88. Patton LL, Bonito AJ, Shugars DA. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antifungal drugs for the prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;92:170-179. Abstract

89. Pons V, Greenspan D, Debruin M. Therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, prospective multicenter study of oral fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches. The Multicenter Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993;6:1317-1318. Abstract

90. Graybill JR, Vazquez J, Darouiche RO, et al. Randomized trial of itraconazole oral solution for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients. Am J Med. 1998;104:33-39. Abstract

91. Phillips P, De Beule K, Frechette G, et al. A double-blind comparison of itraconazole oral solution and fluconazole capsules for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1368-1373. Abstract

92. De Wit S, Clumeck N. Fluconazole in the treatment of fungal infections associated with AIDS. Infection. 1989 May-Jun;17(3):121-3. Abstract

93. Phillips P, Zemcov J, Mahmood W, et al. Itraconazole cyclodextrin solution for fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS: correlation of clinical response with in vitro susceptibility. AIDS. 1996 Oct;10(12):1369-76. Abstract

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98. Eichel M, Just-Nubling G, Helm EB, et al. Itraconazole suspension in the treatment of HIV-infected patients with fluconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis and esophagitis (German). Mycoses. 1996;39(suppl 1):102-106. Abstract

99. Saag MS, Fessel WJ, Kaufman CA, et al. Treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis with itraconazole oral solution in HIV-positive patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999;15:1413-1417. Abstract

100. Rachwalski EJ, Wieczorkiewicz JT, Scheetz MH. Posaconazole: an oral triazole with an extended spectrum of activity. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct;42(10):1429-38. Abstract

101. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns that prescribing of Nizoral (ketoconazole) oral tablets for unapproved uses including skin and nail infections continues; linked to patient death. May 2016 [internet publication].Full text

102. Sable CA, Nguyen BY, Chodakewitz JA, et al. Safety and tolerability of caspofungin acetate in the treatment of fungal infections. Transpl Infect Dis. 2002 Mar;4(1):25-30. Abstract

103. Arathoon EG, Gotuzzo E, Noriega LM, et al. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of caspofungin versus amphotericin B for treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Feb;46(2):451-7.Full text  Abstract

104. Villanueva A, Arathoon EG, Gotuzzo E, et al. A randomized double-blind study of caspofungin versus amphotericin for the treatment of candidal esophagitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 1;33(9):1529-35.Full text  Abstract

105. Villanueva A, Gotuzzo E, Arathoon EG, et al. A randomized double-blind study of caspofungin versus fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Am J Med. 2002 Sep;113(4):294-9. Abstract

106. Jokela JA, Kaur P. Caspofungin-resistant oral and esophageal candidiasis in a patient with AIDS. AIDS. 2007 Jan 2;21(1):118-9. Abstract

107. Hakki M, Staab JF, Marr KA. Emergence of a Candida krusei isolate with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin during therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jul;50(7):2522-4.Full text  Abstract

108. Goldman M, Cloud GA, Wade KD, et al. A randomized study of the use of fluconazole in continuous versus episodic therapy in patients with advanced HIV infection and a history of oropharyngeal candidiasis: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 323/Mycoses Study Group Study 40. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15;41(10):1473-80.Full text  Abstract

109. Hensley ML, Hagerty KL, Kewalramani T, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2008 clinical practice guideline update: use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy protectants. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 1;27(1):127-45.Full text  Abstract

110. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:e1-e50.Full text  Abstract

111. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. April 2015. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/ (last accessed 26 March 2017).Full text

112. Powderly WG, Finkelstein D, Feinberg J, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:700-705.Full text  Abstract

113. Havlir DV, Dube MP, McCutchan JA, et al. Prophylaxis with weekly versus daily fluconazole for fungal infections in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:1369-1375. Abstract

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