Pituitary adenoma

References

Key articles

Chanson P, Salenave S. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas. Minerva Endocrinol. 2004 Dec;29(4):241-75. Abstract

Sibal L, Ball SG, Connolly V, et al. Pituitary apoplexy: a review of clinical presentation, management and outcome in 45 cases. Pituitary. 2004;7(3):157-63. Abstract

Dekkers OM, Pereira AM, Romijn JA, et al. Treatment and follow-up of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3717-26. Abstract

Shomali ME, Katznelson L. Medical therapy of gonadotropin-producing and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2002;5(2):89-98. Abstract

Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hoffman AR, et al. Endocrine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):273-88.Full text  Abstract

Dekkers OM, Hammer S, de Keizer RJ, et al. The natural course of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Feb;156(2):217-24. Abstract

Karavitaki N, Collison K, Halliday J, et al. What is the natural history of nonoperated nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Dec;67(6):938-43. Abstract

Molitch ME. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors and pituitary incidentalomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):151-71. Abstract

Dekkers OM, Pereira AM, Roelfsema F, et al. Observation alone after transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May;91(5):1796-1801. Abstract

Mortini P, Losa M, Barzaghi R, et al. Results of transsphenoidal surgery in a large series of patients with pituitary adenoma. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jun;56(6):1222-33. Abstract

Brada M, Jankowska P. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):263-75. Abstract

Pivonello R, Matrone C, Filippella M, et al. Dopamine receptor expression and function in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: comparison with the effectiveness of cabergoline treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1674-83. Abstract

Reference articles

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8. Chanson P, Salenave S. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas. Minerva Endocrinol. 2004 Dec;29(4):241-75. Abstract

9. Verrees M, Arafah BM, Selman WR. Pituitary tumor apoplexy: characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2004 Apr 15;16(4):E6. Abstract

10. Sibal L, Ball SG, Connolly V, et al. Pituitary apoplexy: a review of clinical presentation, management and outcome in 45 cases. Pituitary. 2004;7(3):157-63. Abstract

11. Heseltine D, White MC, Kendall-Taylor P, et al. Testicular enlargement and elevated serum inhibin concentrations occur in patients with pituitary macroadenomas secreting follicle stimulating hormone. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1989 Oct;31(4):411-23. Abstract

12. Cooper O, Geller JL, Melmed S. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome caused by an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;4(4):234-8. Abstract

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19. Dekkers OM, Pereira AM, Romijn JA, et al. Treatment and follow-up of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3717-26. Abstract

20. Ntali G, Wass JA. Epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2018 Apr;21(2):111-8. Abstract

21. Nielsen EH, Lindholm J, Laurberg P, et al. Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: incidence, causes of death and quality of life in relation to pituitary function. Pituitary. 2007;10(1):67-73. Abstract

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23. Herman V, Fagin J, Gonsky R, et al. Clonal origin of pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Dec;71(6):1427-33. Abstract

24. Alexander JM, Biller BM, Bikkal H, et al. Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors are monoclonal in origin. J Clin Invest. 1990 Jul;86(1):336-40.Full text  Abstract

25. Shimon I, Melmed S. Genetic basis of endocrine disease: pituitary tumor pathogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jun;82(6):1675-81.Full text  Abstract

26. Melmed S. Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Mar;28(1):1-12. Abstract

27. Simpson DJ, Bicknell JE, McNicol AM, et al. Hypermethylation of the p16/CDKN2A/MTSI gene and loss of protein expression is associated with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas but not somatotrophinomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999 Apr;24(4):328-36. Abstract

28. Ruebel KH, Jin L, Zhang S, et al. Inactivation of the p16 gene in human pituitary nonfunctioning tumors by hypermethylation is more common in null cell adenomas. Endocr Pathol. 2001 Fall;12(3):281-9. Abstract

29. Occhi G, Albiger N, Berlucchi S, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007 Jul;19(7):552-9. Abstract

30. Emery MN, Leontiou C, Bonner SE, et al. PPAR-gamma expression in pituitary tumours and the functional activity of the glitazones: evidence that any anti-proliferative effect of the glitazones is independent of the PPAR-gamma receptor. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Sep;65(3):389-95. Abstract

31. Heaney AP, Fernando M, Melmed S. PPAR-gamma receptor ligands: novel therapy for pituitary adenomas. J Clin Invest. 2003 May;111(9):1381-8.Full text  Abstract

32. US Food and Drug Administration. Avandia (rosiglitazone): REMS - risk of cardiovascular events. May 2011 [internet publication].Full text

33. Zhang X, Horwitz GA, Heaney AP, et al. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression in pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Feb;84(2):761-7. Abstract

34. McCabe CJ, Khaira JS, Boelaert K, et al. Expression of pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in human pituitary adenomas: relationships to clinical tumour behaviour. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Feb;58(2):141-50. Abstract

35. Levy A. Molecular and trophic mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):23-50. Abstract

36. Daly AF, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Ciccarelli A, et al. Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;91(9):3316-23. Abstract

37. Beckers A, Daly AF. The clinical, pathological, and genetic features of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;157(4):371-82.Full text  Abstract

38. Katznelson L, Alexander JM, Klibanski A. Clinical review 45: Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 May;76(5):1089-94. Abstract

39. Shomali ME, Katznelson L. Medical therapy of gonadotropin-producing and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2002;5(2):89-98. Abstract

40. Young WF Jr, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs KT, et al. Gonadotroph adenoma of the pituitary gland: a clinicopathologic analysis of 100 cases. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996 Jul;71(7):649-56. Abstract

41. Randeva HS, Schoebel J, Byrne J, et al. Classical pituitary apoplexy: clinical features, management and outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Aug;51(2):181-8. Abstract

42. Nielsen EH, Lindholm J, Bjerre P, et al. Frequent occurrence of pituitary apoplexy in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Mar;64(3):319-22. Abstract

43. Fernández-Balsells MM, Murad MH, Barwise A, et al. Natural history of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and incidentalomas: a systematic review and metaanalysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr;96(4):905-12. Abstract

44. Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hoffman AR, et al. Endocrine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):273-88.Full text  Abstract

45. Biller BM, Samuels MH, Zagar A, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of six tests for the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2067-79. Abstract

46. Yuen KC, Biller BM, Molitch ME, et al. Clinical review: Is lack of recombinant growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone in the United States a setback or time to consider glucagon testing for adult GH deficiency? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug;94(8):2702-7. Abstract

47. Garcia JM, Biller BMK, Korbonits M, et al. Macimorelin as a diagnostic test for adult GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):3083-3093.Full text  Abstract

48. Gordon DL, Emanuele MA. Hot flashes in patients with hypogonadism and low serum gonadotropin levels. Endocr Pract. 2003 Mar-Apr;9(2):119-23. Abstract

49. Bleicken B, Hahner S, Ventz M, et al. Delayed diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency is common: a cross-sectional study in 216 patients. Am J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;339(6):525-31. Abstract

50. Pineyro MM, Makdissi A, Faiman C, et al. Poor correlation of serum alpha-subunit concentration and magnetic resonance imaging following pituitary surgery in patients with nonfunctional pituitary macroadenomas. Endocr Pract. 2008 May-Jun;14(4):452-7. Abstract

51. Fleseriu M, Lee M, Pineyro MM, et al. Giant invasive pituitary prolactinoma with falsely low serum prolactin: the significance of 'hook effect'. J Neurooncol. 2006 Aug;79(1):41-3. Abstract

52. Gopan T, Toms SA, Prayson RA, et al. Symptomatic pituitary metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Pituitary. 2007;10(3):251-9. Abstract

53. Brandi ML, Gagel RF, Angeli A, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;86(12):5658-71. Abstract

54. Freda PU, Beckers AM, Katznelson L, et al. Pituitary incidentaloma: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr;96(4):894-904.Full text  Abstract

55. Dekkers OM, Hammer S, de Keizer RJ, et al. The natural course of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Feb;156(2):217-24. Abstract

56. Feldkamp J, Santen R, Harms E, et al. Incidentally discovered pituitary lesions: high frequency of macroadenomas and hormone-secreting adenomas - results of a prospective study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Jul;51(1):109-13. Abstract

57. Reincke M, Allolio B, Saeger W, et al. The 'incidentaloma' of the pituitary gland. Is neurosurgery required? JAMA. 1990 May 23-30;263(20):2772-6. Abstract

58. Donovan LE, Corenblum B. The natural history of the pituitary incidentaloma. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Jan 23;155(2):181-3. Abstract

59. Nishizawa S, Ohta S, Yokoyama T, et al. Therapeutic strategy for incidentally found pituitary tumors ("pituitary incidentalomas"). Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec;43(6):1344-8. Abstract

60. Karavitaki N, Collison K, Halliday J, et al. What is the natural history of nonoperated nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Dec;67(6):938-43. Abstract

61. Orija IB, Weil RJ, Hamrahian AH. Pituitary incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Feb;26(1):47-68. Abstract

62. Gittoes NJ, Sheppard MC, Johnson AP, et al. Outcome of surgery for acromegaly - the experience of a dedicated pituitary surgeon. QJM. 1999 Dec;92(12):741-5.Full text  Abstract

63. Tabaee A, Anand VK, Barron Y, et al. Endoscopic pituitary surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2009 Sep;111(3):545-54. Abstract

64. Pereira AM, Biermasz NR. Treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: what were the contributions of the last 10 years? A critical view. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2012 Apr;73(2):111-16. Abstract

65. DeKlotz TR, Chia SH, Lu W, et al. Meta-analysis of endoscopic versus sublabial pituitary surgery. Laryngoscope. 2012 Mar;122(3):511-18. Abstract

66. Dorward NL. Endocrine outcomes in endoscopic pituitary surgery: a literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010 Aug;152(8):1275-9. Abstract

67. Molitch ME. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors and pituitary incidentalomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):151-71. Abstract

68. Dekkers OM, Pereira AM, Roelfsema F, et al. Observation alone after transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May;91(5):1796-1801. Abstract

69. Arita K, Tominaga A, Sugiyama K, et al. Natural course of incidentally found nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, with special reference to pituitary apoplexy during follow-up examination. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jun;104(6):884-91. Abstract

70. Mortini P, Losa M, Barzaghi R, et al. Results of transsphenoidal surgery in a large series of patients with pituitary adenoma. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jun;56(6):1222-33. Abstract

71. Marazuela M, Astigarraga B, Vicente A, et al. Recovery of visual and endocrine function following transsphenoidal surgery of large nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest. 1994 Oct;17(9):703-7. Abstract

72. Arafah BM. Reversible hypopituitarism in patients with large nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Jun;62(6):1173-9. Abstract

73. Losa M, Donofrio CA, Barzaghi R, et al. Presentation and surgical results of incidentally discovered non-functioning pituitary adenomas: evidence for a better outcome independently of other patients' characteristics. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Oct 21;169(6):735-42. Abstract

74. Park P, Chandler WF, Barkan AL, et al. The role of radiation therapy after surgical resection of nonfunctional pituitary macroadenomas. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jul;55(1):100-06. Abstract

75. Tanaka Y, Hongo K, Tada T, et al. Growth pattern and rate in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: correlations among tumor volume doubling time, patient age, and MIB-1 index. J Neurosurg. 2003 Feb;98(2):359-65. Abstract

76. Brada M, Jankowska P. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):263-75. Abstract

77. Loeffler JS, Shih HA. Radiation therapy in the management of pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;96(7):1992-2003. Abstract

78. Sheehan JP, Starke RM, Mathieu D, et al. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the management of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a multicenter study. J Neurosurg. 2013 Aug;119(2):446-56.Full text  Abstract

79. Chen Y, Li ZF, Zhang FX, et al. Gamma knife surgery for patients with volumetric classification of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Sep 14;169(4):487-95.Full text  Abstract

80. Taussky P, Kalra R, Coppens J, et al. Endocrinological outcome after pituitary transposition (hypophysopexy) and adjuvant radiotherapy for tumors involving the cavernous sinus. J Neurosurg. 2011 Jul;115(1):55-62. Abstract

81. Zueger T, Kirchner P, Herren C, et al. Glucocorticoid replacement and mortality in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Oct;97(10):E1938-42. Abstract

82. Pivonello R, Matrone C, Filippella M, et al. Dopamine receptor expression and function in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: comparison with the effectiveness of cabergoline treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1674-83. Abstract

83. Bevan JS, Burke CW. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas do not regress during bromocriptine therapy but possess membrane-bound dopamine receptors which bind bromocriptine. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1986 Nov;25(5):561-72. Abstract

84. Kwekkeboom DJ, Hofland LJ, van Koetsveld PM, et al. Bromocriptine increasingly suppresses the in vitro gonadotropin and alpha-subunit release from pituitary adenomas during long term culture. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Sep;71(3):718-24. Abstract

85. Colao A, Di Somma C, Pivonello R, et al. Medical therapy for clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008 Dec;15(4):905-15.Full text  Abstract

86. Lohmann T, Trantakis C, Biesold M, et al. Minor tumour shrinkage in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas by long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. Pituitary. 2001 Aug;4(3):173-8. Abstract

87. Andersen M, Bjerre P, Schrøder HD, et al. In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Jan;54(1):23-30. Abstract

88. Greenman Y, Tordjman K, Osher E, et. al. Postoperative treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists decreases tumour remnant growth. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Jul;63(1):39-44. Abstract

89. Garcia EC, Naves LA, Silva AO, et al. Short-term treatment with cabergoline can lead to tumor shrinkage in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2013 Jun;16(2):189-94. Abstract

90. Schade R, Andersohn F, Suissa S, et al. Dopamine agonists and the risk of cardiac-valve regurgitation. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):29-38.Full text  Abstract

91. Zanettini R, Antonini A, Gatto G, et al. Valvular heart disease and the use of dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):39-46.Full text  Abstract

92. Antonini A, Poewe W. Fibrotic heart-valve reactions to dopamine-agonist treatment in Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Sep;6(9):826-9. Abstract

93. McCormack AI, Wass JA, Grossman AB. Aggressive pituitary tumours: the role of temozolomide and the assessment of MGMT status. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Oct;41(10):1133-48. Abstract

94. Fleseriu M, Hashim IA, Karavitaki N, et al. Hormonal Replacement in Hypopituitarism in Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Oct 13;101(11):3888-3921.Full text  Abstract

95. Robenshtok E, Benbassat CA, Hirsch D, et al. Clinical course and outcome of non-functioning pituitary adenomas in the elderly compared with younger age groups. Endocr Pract. 2014 Feb;20(2):159-64. Abstract

96. Caputo C, Sutherland T, Farish S, et al. Gender differences in presentation and outcome of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Apr;78(4):564-70. Abstract

97. Joustra SD, Claessen KM, Dekkers OM, et al. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome features in patients previously treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 7;9(3):e90602.Full text  Abstract

98. Johnson MD, Woodburn CJ, Vance ML. Quality of life in patients with a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary. 2003 Sep;6(2):81-7. Abstract

99. Dekkers OM, van der Klaauw AA, Pereira AM, et al. Quality of life is decreased after treatment for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;91(9):3364-9. Abstract

100. Soto-Ares G, Cortet-Rudelli C, Assaker R, et al. MRI protocol technique in the optimal therapeutic strategy of non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Feb;146(2):179-86. Abstract

101. Capatina C, Christodoulides C, Fernandez A, et al. Current treatment protocols can offer a normal or near-normal quality of life in the majority of patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Jan;78(1):86-93. Abstract

102. Laws ER Jr, Thapar K. Pituitary surgery. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Mar;28(1):119-31. Abstract

103. Jackson IM, Noren G. Role of gamma knife therapy in the management of pituitary tumors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Mar;28(1):133-42. Abstract

104. Chen Y, Wang CD, Su ZP, et al. Natural history of postoperative nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroendocrinology. 2012;96(4):333-42. Abstract

105. Huang W, Molitch ME. Management of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs): observation. Pituitary. 2018 Apr;21(2):162-167. Abstract

106. Šteňo A, Bocko J, Rychlý B, et al. Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: association of Ki-67 and HMGA-1 labeling indices with residual tumor growth. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2014 Mar;156(3):451-61. Abstract

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