If a patient is brought to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (polyuria, polydipsia, and abdominal pain), volume depletion, acidotic breath, and changes in mental status (even without a history of diabetes), then plasma glucose and urine ketones should be checked. In the presence of high plasma glucose and/or positive urine ketones, full diagnostic laboratory evaluations for diabetic ketoacidosis and HHS should be performed.[1]

In hospitalized patients with diabetes who are eating, glucose monitoring should be performed before meals. In those who are not eating, glucose monitoring is advised every 4 to 6 hours.[45]

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