Acne vulgaris


Key articles

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acne vulgaris: management. May 2023 [internet publication].Full text

European Dermatology Forum. EDF guidelines and consensus statements​. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5):945-73;e33.Full text  Abstract

Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, et al. Management of acne: a report from a global alliance to improve outcomes in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jul;49(1 suppl):S1-37. Abstract

Reference articles

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30. Eichenfield DZ, Sprague J, Eichenfield LF. Management of acne vulgaris: a review. JAMA. 2021 Nov 23;326(20):2055-67. Abstract

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32. Dai R, Hua W, Chen W, et al. The effect of milk consumption on acne: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018 Dec;32(12):2244-53. Abstract

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43. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acne vulgaris: management. May 2023 [internet publication].Full text

44. European Dermatology Forum. EDF guidelines and consensus statements​. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

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53. Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5):945-73;e33.Full text  Abstract

54. Kawashima M, Harada S, Loesche C, et al. Adapalene gel 0.1% is effective and safe for Japanese patients with acne vulgaris: a randomized, multicenter, investigator-blinded, controlled study. J Dermatol Sci. 2008 Mar;49(3):241-8. Abstract

55. Tan J, Thiboutot D, Popp G, et al. Randomized phase 3 evaluation of trifarotene 50 μg/g cream treatment of moderate facial and truncal acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jun;80(6):1691-9.Full text  Abstract

56. Bell KA, Brumfiel CM, Haidari W, et al. Trifarotene for the treatment of facial and truncal acne. Ann Pharmacother. 2021 Jan;55(1):111-6.Full text  Abstract

57. Thiboutot DM, Dréno B, Abanmi A, et al. Practical management of acne for clinicians: an international consensus from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Feb;78(2 suppl 1):S1-23;e1. Abstract

58. Yang Z, Zhang Y, Lazic Mosler E, et al. Topical benzoyl peroxide for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 16;3:CD011154.Full text  Abstract

59. Shalita AR. Treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris with salicylic acid in an alcohol-detergent vehicle. Cutis. 1981 Nov;28(5):556-8;561. Abstract

60. Liu H, Yu H, Xia J, et al. Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;5:CD011368.Full text  Abstract

61. Seidler EM, Kimball AB. Meta-analysis comparing efficacy of benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide with salicylic acid, and combination benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jul;63(1):52-62. Abstract

62. Gold LS, Dhawan S, Weiss J, et al. A novel topical minocycline foam for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris: results of 2 randomized, double-blind, phase 3 studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jan;80(1):168-77. Abstract

63. Raoof TJ, Hooper D, Moore A, et al. Efficacy and safety of a novel topical minocycline foam for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris: a phase 3 study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Apr;82(4):832-7.Full text  Abstract

64. Kolli SS, Pecone D, Pona A, et al. Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2019 Jun;20(3):345-65. Abstract

65. Graupe K, Cunliffe W, Gollnick H, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical azelaic acid (20% cream): an overview of results from European clinical trials and experimental reports. Cutis. 1996 Jan;57(1 suppl):20-35. Abstract

66. Harper JC, Baldwin H, Stein Gold L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel tretinoin 0.05% lotion for the once-daily treatment of moderate or severe acne vulgaris in adult females. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Nov 1;18(11):1147-54. Abstract

67. Barbieri JS. Temporal trends in the use of systemic medications for acne from 2017 to 2020. JAMA Dermatol. 2023 Oct 1;159(10):1135-6.

68. Walsh TR, Efthimiou J, Dreno B. Systematic review of antibiotic resistance in acne: an increasing topical and oral threat. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Mar;16(3):e23-33. Abstract

69. Ochsendorf F. Systemic antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris [in German]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010 Mar;8(suppl 1):S31-46. Abstract

70. Costa CS, Bagatin E, Martimbianco ALC, et al. Oral isotretinoin for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 24;11:CD009435.Full text  Abstract

71. Huang CY, Chang IJ, Bolick N, et al. Comparative efficacy of pharmacological treatments for acne vulgaris: a network meta-analysis of 221 randomized controlled trials. Ann Fam Med. 2023 Jul-Aug;21(4):358-69.Full text  Abstract

72. Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, et al. Management of acne: a report from a global alliance to improve outcomes in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jul;49(1 suppl):S1-37. Abstract

73. Goldsmith LA, Bolognia JL, Callen JP, et al; American Academy of Dermatology. American Academy of Dermatology Consensus Conference on the safe and optimal use of isotretinoin: summary and recommendations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jun;50(6):900-6. Abstract

74. Goodfield MJ, Cox NH, Bowser A, et al. Advice on the safe introduction and continued use of isotretinoin in acne in the U.K. 2010. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Jun;162(6):1172-9.Full text  Abstract

75. Huang YC, Cheng, YC. Isotretinoin treatment for acne and risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Jun;76(6):1068-76;e9. Abstract

76. Li C, Chen J, Wang W, et al. Use of isotretinoin and risk of depression in patients with acne: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2019 Jan 21;9(1):e021549.Full text  Abstract

77. Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, et al. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;(7):CD004425.Full text  Abstract

78. Fraison E, Kostova E, Moran LJ, et al. Metformin versus the combined oral contraceptive pill for hirsutism, acne, and menstrual pattern in polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 13;8:CD005552.Full text  Abstract

79. Zouboulis CC, Rabe T. Hormonal antiandrogens in acne treatment [in German]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010 Mar;8(suppl 1):S60-74. Abstract

80. Barbieri JS, Choi JK, Mitra N, et al. Frequency of treatment switching for spironolactone compared to oral tetracycline-class antibiotics for women with acne: a retrospective cohort study 2010-2016. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018 Jun 1;17(6):632-8. Abstract

81. Santer M, Lawrence M, Renz S, et al. Effectiveness of spironolactone for women with acne vulgaris (SAFA) in England and Wales: pragmatic, multicentre, phase 3, double blind, randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2023 May 16;381:e074349.Full text  Abstract

82. Fan H, Gilbert R, O'Callaghan F, et al. Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2020 Feb 19;368:m331.Full text  Abstract

83. Cunliffe WJ, Poncet M, Loesche C, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene 0.1% gel versus tretinoin 0.025% gel in patients with acne vulgaris: a meta-analysis of five randomized trials. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:48-56. Abstract

84. Thiboutot DM, Weiss J, Bucko A, et al; Adapalene-BPO Study Group. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide, a fixed-dose combination for the treatment of acne vulgaris: results of a multicenter, randomized double-blind, controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):791-9. Abstract

85. Gollnick HP, Draelos Z, Glenn MJ. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide, a unique fixed-dose combination topical gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a transatlantic, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in 1670 patients. Br J Dermatol. 2009 Nov;161(5):1180-9. Abstract

86. Poulin YS, Sanchez NP, Bucko A, et al. A 6-month maintenance therapy with adapalene-benzoyl peroxide gel prevents relapse and continuously improves efficacy among patients with severe acne vulgaris: results of a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Jun;164(6):1376-82. Abstract

87. Friedman A, Waite K, Brandt S, et al. Accelerated onset of action and increased tolerability in treating acne with a fixed-dose combination gel. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Feb;15(2):231-6. Abstract

88. Zouboulis CC, Piquero-Martin J. Update and future of systemic acne treatment. Dermatology. 2003;206(1):37-53. Abstract

89. Simonart T, Dramaix M, De Maertelaer V. Efficacy of tetracyclines in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a review. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Feb;158(2):208-16. Abstract

90. Bellomo R, Brunner M, Tadjally E. New formulations of isotretinoin for acne treatment: expanded options and clinical implications. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2021 Dec;14(12 suppl 1):S18-23.Full text  Abstract

91. Muhlemann MF, Carter GD, Cream JJ, et al. Oral spironolactone: an effective treatment for acne vulgaris in women. Br J Dermatol. 1986 Aug;115(2):227-32. Abstract

92. Hebert A, Thiboutot D, Stein Gold L, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical clascoterone cream, 1%, for treatment in patients with facial acne: two phase 3 randomized clinical trials. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Jun 1;156(6):621-30.Full text  Abstract

93. Barbaric J, Abbott R, Posadzki P, et al. Light therapies for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 27;9(9):CD007917.Full text  Abstract

94. Boen M, Brownell J, Patel P, et al. The role of photodynamic therapy in acne: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Jun;18(3):311-21. Abstract

95. Ong MW, Bashir SJ. Fractional laser resurfacing for acne scars: a review. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Jun;166(6):1160-9. Abstract

96. Ansari F, Sadeghi-Ghyassi F, Yaaghoobian B. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser in acne scars and skin rejuvenation: a meta-analysis and economic evaluation. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2018 Aug;20(4):248-51. Abstract

97. Bhargava S, Cunha PR, Lee J, et al. Acne scarring management: systematic review and evaluation of the evidence. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2018 Aug;19(4):459-77. Abstract

98. Harris AG, Naidoo C, Murrell DF. Skin needling as a treatment for acne scarring: an up-to-date review of the literature. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2015 Apr 10;1(2):77-81.Full text  Abstract

99. Bonati LM, Epstein GK, Strugar TL. Microneedling in all skin types: a review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017 Apr 1;16(4):308-13. Abstract

100. Alster TS, Graham PM. Microneedling: a review and practical guide. Dermatol Surg. 2018 Mar;44(3):397-404. Abstract

101. Ramaut L, Hoeksema H, Pirayesh A, et al. Microneedling: where do we stand now? A systematic review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2018 Jan;71(1):1-14. Abstract

102. American Academy of Dermatology Association. Isotretinoin: the truth about side effects. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

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