Preterm labor

References

Key articles

Alfirevic Z, Stampalija T, Medley N. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in singleton pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 6;6(6):CD008991.Full text  Abstract

Honest H, Bachmann LM, Gupta JK, et al. Accuracy of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test in predicting risk of spontaneous preterm birth: systematic review. BMJ. 2002 Aug 10;325(7359):301.Full text  Abstract

Berghella V, Saccone G. Fetal fibronectin testing for reducing the risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 29;7(7):CD006843.Full text  Abstract

Crowther CA, Brown J, McKinlay CJ, et al. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 15;(8):CD001060.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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24. Peaceman AM, Andrews WW, Thorp JM, et al. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of preterm birth in patients with symptoms: a multicenter trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177:13-18. Abstract

25. Gyetvai K, Hannah ME, Hodnett ED, et al. Tocolytics for preterm labor: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:869-877. Abstract

26. Dodd JM, Jones L, Flenady V, et al. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth in women considered to be at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(7):CD004947.Full text  Abstract

27. Ananth CV, Getahun D, Peltier MR, et al. Recurrence of spontaneous versus medically indicated preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Sep;195(3):643-50. Abstract

28. Arbyn M, Kyrgiou M, Simoens C, et al. Perinatal mortality and other severe adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Sep 18;337:a1284.Full text  Abstract

29. Castanon A, Brocklehurst P, Evans H, et al; PaCT Study Group. Risk of preterm birth after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women attending colposcopy in England: retrospective-prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Aug 16;345:e5174.Full text  Abstract

30. Smaill FM, Vazquez JC. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Nov 25;2019(11):CD000490.Full text  Abstract

31. Shennan A, Crawshaw S, Briley A, et al. A randomised controlled trial of metronidazole for the prevention of preterm birth in women positive for cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin: the PREMET Study. BJOG. 2006 Jan;113(1):65-74.Full text  Abstract

32. Shennan A, Jones G, Hawken J, et al. Fetal fibronectin test predicts delivery before 30 weeks of gestation in high risk women, but increases anxiety. BJOG. 2005 Mar;112(3):293-8.Full text  Abstract

33. Cnattingius S. The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Apr;6(suppl 2):S125-40.Full text  Abstract

34. Hendler I, Goldenberg RL, Mercer BM, et al. The Preterm Prediction Study: association between maternal body mass index and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Mar;192(3):882-6. Abstract

35. Hincz P, Wilczynski J, Kozarzewski M, et al. Two-step test: the combined use of fetal fibronectin and sonographic examination of the uterine cervix for prediction of preterm delivery in symptomatic patients. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002 Jan;81(1):58-63. Abstract

36. Levine LD, Sammel MD, Hirshberg A, et al. Does stage of labor at time of cesarean delivery affect risk of subsequent preterm birth? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Mar;212(3):360.e1-7.Full text  Abstract

37. Watson HA, Carter J, David AL, et al. Full dilation cesarean section: a risk factor for recurrent second-trimester loss and preterm birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 Sep;96(9):1100-5.Full text  Abstract

38. Cong A, de Vries B, Ludlow J. Does previous caesarean section at full dilatation increase the likelihood of subsequent spontaneous preterm birth? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018 Jun;58(3):267-73. Abstract

39. Althuisius SM, Dekker GA, Hummel P, et al. Final results of the Cervical Incompetence Prevention Randomized Cerclage Trial (CIPRACT): therapeutic cerclage with bed rest versus bed rest alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Nov;185(5):1106-12. Abstract

40. Alfirevic Z, Stampalija T, Medley N. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in singleton pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 6;6(6):CD008991.Full text  Abstract

41. Berghella V, Rafael TJ, Szychowski JM, et al. Cerclage for short cervix on ultrasonography in women with singleton gestations and previous preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Mar;117(3):663-71. Abstract

42. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Preterm labour and birth. 2 August 2019 [internet publication].Full text

43. Berghella V, Keeler SM, To MS, et al. Effectiveness of cerclage according to severity of cervical length shortening: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr;35(4):468-73.Full text  Abstract

44. Blikman MJ, Le TM, Bruinse HW, et al. Ultrasound-predicated versus history-predicated cerclage in women at risk of cervical insufficiency: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2008 Dec;63(12):803-12. Abstract

45. Simcox R, Seed PT, Bennett P, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cervical scanning vs history to determine cerclage in women at high risk of preterm birth (CIRCLE trial). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jun;200(6):623.e1-6. Abstract

46. To MS, Alfirevic Z, Heath VC, et al. Cervical cerclage for prevention of preterm delivery in women with short cervix: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Jun 5;363(9424):1849-53. Abstract

47. Berghella V, Daly SF, Tolosa JE, et al. Prediction of preterm delivery with transvaginal ultrasonography of the cervix in patients with high-risk pregnancies: does cerclage prevent prematurity? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Oct;181(4):809-15. Abstract

48. Burger NB, Brölmann HA, Einarsson JI, et al. Effectiveness of abdominal cerclage placed via laparotomy or laparoscopy: systematic review. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):696-704. Abstract

49. Simcox R, Shennan A. Cervical cerclage in the prevention of preterm birth. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Oct;21(5):831-42. Abstract

50. Lesser KB, Childers JM, Surwit EA. Transabdominal cerclage: a laparoscopic approach. Obstet Gynecol. 1998 May;91(5 Pt 2):855-6. Abstract

51. Novy MJ. Transabdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage: a reappraisal 25 years after its introduction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jun;164(6 Pt 1):1635-41; discussion 1641-2. Abstract

52. Shennan A, Chandiramani M, Bennett P, et al. MAVRIC: a multicenter randomized controlled trial of transabdominal vs transvaginal cervical cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Mar;222(3):261.e1-261.e9. Abstract

53. Ehsanipoor RM, Seligman NS, Saccone G, et al. Physical examination-indicated cerclage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jul;126(1):125-35. Abstract

54. Olatunbosun OA, al-Nuaim L, Turnell RW. Emergency cerclage compared with bed rest for advanced cervical dilatation in pregnancy. Int Surg. 1995 Apr-Jun;80(2):170-4. Abstract

55. Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Nicolaides K, et al. Vaginal progesterone vs. cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix, previous preterm birth, and singleton gestation: a systematic review and indirect comparison metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):42.e1-42.e18.Full text  Abstract

56. Heath VC, Southall TR, Souka AP, et al. Cervical length at 23 weeks of gestation: prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;12(5):312-7. Abstract

57. Nygren P, Fu R, Freeman M, et al. Evidence on the benefits and harms of screening and treating pregnant women who are asymptomatic for bacterial vaginosis: an update review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Feb 5;148(3):220-33.Full text  Abstract

58. Shennan AH, Chandiramani M. Antibiotics for spontaneous preterm birth. BMJ. 2008 Dec 30;337:a3015. Abstract

59. Shlossman PA, Manley JS, Sciscione AC, et al. An analysis of neonatal morbidity and mortality in maternal (in utero) and neonatal transports at 24-34 weeks' gestation. Am J Perinatol. 1997 Sep;14(8):449-56. Abstract

60. Michalowicz BS, Hodges JS, DiAngelis AJ, et al. OPT Study. Treatment of periodontal disease and the risk of preterm birth. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 2;355(18):1885-94.Full text  Abstract

61. Sanchez-Ramos L, Delke I, Zamora J, et al. Fetal fibronectin as a short-term predictor of preterm birth in symptomatic patients: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Sep;114(3):631-40. Abstract

62. Kuhrt K, Smout E, Hezelgrave N, et al. Development and validation of a predictive tool for spontaneous preterm birth incorporating cervical length and quantitative fetal fibronectin in asymptomatic high-risk women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan;47(1):104-9. Abstract

63. Kuhrt K, Hezelgrave N, Foster C, et al. Development and validation of a tool incorporating quantitative fetal fibronectin to predict spontaneous preterm birth in symptomatic women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb;47(2):210-6. Abstract

64. Lewis DF, Major CA, Towers CV, et al. Effects of digital vaginal examinations on latency period in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Oct;80(4):630-4. Abstract

65. Boots AB, Sanchez-Ramos L, Bowers DM, et al. The short-term prediction of preterm birth: a systematic review and diagnostic metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jan;210(1):54.e1-54.e10.Full text  Abstract

66. Berghella V, Saccone G. Cervical assessment by ultrasound for preventing preterm delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 25;9(9):CD007235.Full text  Abstract

67. Honest H, Bachmann LM, Gupta JK, et al. Accuracy of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test in predicting risk of spontaneous preterm birth: systematic review. BMJ. 2002 Aug 10;325(7359):301.Full text  Abstract

68. Brownfoot FC, Gagliardi DI, Bain E, et al. Different corticosteroids and regimens for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 29;(8):CD006764.Full text  Abstract

69. Berghella V, Saccone G. Fetal fibronectin testing for reducing the risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 29;7(7):CD006843.Full text  Abstract

70. Bruijn MM, Kamphuis EI, Hoesli IM, et al. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Dec;215(6):793.e1-793.e8. Abstract

71. Bruijn M, Vis JY, Wilms FF, et al. Quantitative fetal fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery in symptomatic women. BJOG. 2016 Nov;123(12):1965-71.Full text  Abstract

72. Abbott DS, Radford SK, Seed PT, et al. Evaluation of a quantitative fetal fibronectin test for spontaneous preterm birth in symptomatic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb;208(2):122.e1-6.Full text  Abstract

73. Deshpande SN, van Asselt AD, Tomini F, et al. Rapid fetal fibronectin testing to predict preterm birth in women with symptoms of premature labour: a systematic review and cost analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2013 Sep;17(40):1-138.Full text  Abstract

74. Abbott DS, Hezelgrave NL, Seed PT, et al. Quantitative fetal fibronectin to predict preterm birth in asymptomatic women at high risk. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 May;125(5):1168-76. Abstract

75. Esplin MS, Elovitz MA, Iams JD, et al. Predictive accuracy of serial transvaginal cervical lengths and quantitative vaginal fetal fibronectin levels for spontaneous preterm birth among nulliparous women. JAMA. 2017 Mar 14;317(10):1047-1056. Abstract

76. van Schalkwyk J, Yudin MH, Infectious Disease Committee. Vulvovaginitis: screening for and management of trichomoniasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 Mar;37(3):266-74.Full text  Abstract

77. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin No. 130: Prediction and prevention of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Oct;120(4):964-73. Abstract

78. Yoon BH, Park CW, Chaiworapongsa T. Intrauterine infection and the development of cerebral palsy. BJOG. 2003 Apr;110(suppl 20):124-7.Full text  Abstract

79. Kenyon S, Pike K, Jones DR, et al. Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with spontaneous preterm labor: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE II trial. Lancet. 2008 Oct 11;372(9646):1319-27. Abstract

80. Abenhaim HA, Morin L, Benjamin A. Does availability of fetal fibronectin testing in the management of threatened preterm labor affect the utilization of hospital resources? J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2005 Jul;27(7):689-94. Abstract

81. Watts DH, Krohn MA, Hillier SL, et al. Characteristics of women in preterm labor associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Oct;82(4 Pt 1):509-14. Abstract

82. Lewis DF, Adair CD, Weeks JW, et al. A randomized clinical trial of daily nonstress testing versus biophysical profile in the management of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec;181(6):1495-9. Abstract

83. Kenyon S, Boulvain M, Neilson JP. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 2;(12):CD001058.Full text  Abstract

84. Combs CA, McCune M, Clark R, et al. Aggressive tocolysis does not prolong pregnancy or reduce neonatal morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun;190(6):1723-8; discussion 1728-31. Abstract

85. Morris JM, Roberts CL, Bowen JR, et al. Immediate delivery compared with expectant management after preterm pre-labour rupture of the membranes close to term (PPROMT trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Jan 30;387(10017):444-52. Abstract

86. Bond DM, Middleton P, Levett KM, et al. Planned early birth versus expectant management for women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes prior to 37 weeks' gestation for improving pregnancy outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 3;3(3):CD004735.Full text  Abstract

87. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Care of women presenting with suspected preterm prelabour rupture of membranes from 24+0 weeks of gestation. Green-top Guideline No. 73. June 2019 [internet publication].Full text

88. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 764: Medically indicated late-preterm and early-term deliveries. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb;133(2):e151-55.Full text  Abstract

89. The American Collage of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 765: Avoidance of nonmedically indicated early-term deliveries and associated neonatal morbidities. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb;133(2):e156-63.Full text  Abstract

90. Roberts D, Brown J, Medley N, et al. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 21;3(3):CD004454.Full text  Abstract

91. Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee Opinion No. 713: Antenatal corticosteroid therapy for fetal maturation. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug;130(2):e102-9. Abstract

92. Elimian A, Garry D, Figueroa R, et al. Antenatal betamethasone compared with dexamethasone (betacode trial): a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul;110(1):26-30. Abstract

93. Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Thom EA, Blackwell SC, et al. Antenatal betamethasone for women at risk for late preterm delivery. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 7;374(14):1311-20. Abstract

94. Saccone G, Berghella V. Antenatal corticosteroids for maturity of term or near term fetuses: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 2016 Oct 12;355:i5044.Full text  Abstract

95. Murphy KE, Hannah ME, Willan AR, et al. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth (MACS): a randomised controlled trial. MACS Collaborative Group. Lancet. 2008 Dec 20;372(9656):2143-51. Abstract

96. Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Hiller JE, et al; Australasian Collaborative Trial of Repeat Doses of Steroids (ACTORDS) Study Group. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome after repeat exposure to antenatal corticosteroids: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Jun 10;367(9526):1913-9. Abstract

97. Crowther CA, McKinlay CJ, Middleton P, et al. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 5;2015(7):CD003935.Full text  Abstract

98. McKinlay CJ, Crowther CA, Middleton P, et al. Repeat antenatal glucocorticoids for women at risk of preterm birth: a Cochrane Systematic Review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Mar;206(3):187-94.Full text  Abstract

99. Althabe F, Belizán JM, McClure EM, et al. A population-based, multifaceted strategy to implement antenatal corticosteroid treatment versus standard care for the reduction of neonatal mortality due to preterm birth in low-income and middle-income countries: the ACT cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2015 Feb 14;385(9968):629-39. Abstract

100. Neilson JP, West HM, Dowswell T. Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 5;(2):CD004352.Full text  Abstract

101. Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Papatsonis DN, et al. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 5;2014;(6):CD002255.Full text  Abstract

102. Flenady V, Reinebrant HE, Liley HG, et al. Oxytocin receptor antagonists for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 6;(6):CD004452.Full text  Abstract

103. van Vliet EO, Nijman TA, Schuit E, et al. Nifedipine versus atosiban for threatened preterm birth (APOSTEL III): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 May 21;387(10033):2117-24. Abstract

104. Khan K, Zamora J, Lamont RF, et al. Safety concerns for the use of calcium channel blockers in pregnancy for the treatment of spontaneous preterm labour and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010 Sep;23(9):1030-8. Abstract

105. Papatsonis D, Flenady V, Liley H. Maintenance therapy with oxytocin antagonists for inhibiting preterm birth after threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 13;(10):CD005938.Full text  Abstract

106. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Group B streptococcal disease, early-onset. Green-top Guideline No. 36. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

107. Goya M, Pratcorona L, Merced C, et al; Pesario Cervical para Evitar Prematuridad (PECEP) Trial Group. Cervical pessary in pregnant women with a short cervix (PECEP): an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 May 12;379(9828):1800-6. Abstract

108. Liem S, Schuit E, Hegeman M, et al. Cervical pessaries for prevention of preterm birth in women with a multiple pregnancy (ProTWIN): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013 Oct 19;382(9901):1341-9. Abstract

109. Nicolaides KH, Syngelaki A, Poon LC, et al. A randomized trial of a cervical pessary to prevent preterm singleton birth. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 17;374(11):1044-52.Full text  Abstract

110. Nicolaides KH, Syngelaki A, Poon LC, et al. Cervical pessary placement for prevention of preterm birth in unselected twin pregnancies: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan;214(1):3.e1-9. Abstract

111. Saccone G, Maruotti GM, Giudicepietro A, et al. Effect of cervical pessary on spontaneous preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies and short cervical length: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Dec 19;318(23):2317-24.Full text  Abstract

112. Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, UoA. Antenatal magnesium sulphate prior to preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus, infant and child. March 2010 [internet publication].

113. US Food and Drug Administration. Magnesium sulfate: drug safety communication - recommendation against prolonged use in pre-term labor. May 2013 [internet publication].Full text

114. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Magnesium sulfate: risk of skeletal adverse effects in the neonate following prolonged or repeated use in pregnancy. 17 May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

115. Crowther CA, Brown J, McKinlay CJ, et al. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 15;(8):CD001060.Full text  Abstract

116. da Fonseca EB, Bittar RE, Carvalho MH, et al. Prophylactic administration of progesterone by vaginal suppository to reduce the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth in women at increased risk: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Feb;188(2):419-24. Abstract

117. Dodd JM, Jones L, Flenady V, et al. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth in women considered to be at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 31;(7):CD004947.Full text  Abstract

118. O'Brien JM, Adair CD, Lewis DF, et al. Progesterone vaginal gel for the reduction of recurrent preterm birth: primary results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Oct;30(5):687-96. Abstract

119. DeFranco EA, O'Brien JM, Adair CD, et al. Vaginal progesterone is associated with a decrease in risk for early preterm birth and improved neonatal outcome in women with a short cervix: a secondary analysis from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Oct;30(5):697-705.Full text  Abstract

120. Fonseca EB, Celik E, Parra M, et al. Progesterone and the risk of preterm birth among women with a short cervix. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 2;357(5):462-9.Full text  Abstract

121. Romero R, Nicolaides K, Conde-Agudelo A, et al. Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity: a systematic review and metaanalysis of individual patient data. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb;206(2):124.e1-19.Full text  Abstract

122. Norman JE, Marlow N, Messow CM, et al. Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2016 May 21;387(10033):2106-16.Full text  Abstract

123. Meis PJ, Klebanoff M, Thom E, et al. Prevention of recurrent preterm delivery by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 12;348(24):2379-85.Full text  Abstract

124. Grobman WA, Thom EA, Spong CY, et al; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) Network. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent prematurity in nulliparas with cervical length less than 30 mm. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Nov;207(5):390.e1-8.Full text  Abstract

125. Winer N, Bretelle F, Senat MV, et al. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate does not prolong pregnancy or reduce the rate of preterm birth in women at high risk for preterm delivery and a short cervix: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Apr;212(4):485.e1-485.e10. Abstract

126. Maher MA, Abdelaziz A, Ellaithy M, et al. Prevention of preterm birth: a randomized trial of vaginal compared with intramuscular progesterone. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 Feb;92(2):215-22. Abstract

127. Northern AT, Norman GS, Anderson K, et al. Follow up of children exposed in utero to 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate compared with placebo. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Oct;110(4):865-72. Abstract

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