HELLP syndrome

References

Key articles

Martin JN Jr, Blake PG, Perry KG Jr, et al. The natural history of HELLP syndrome: patterns of disease progression and regression. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jun;164(6 Pt 1):1500-9; discussion 1509-13. Abstract

Martin JN Jr, Brewer JM, Wallace K, et al. Hellp syndrome and composite major maternal morbidity: importance of Mississippi classification system. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Aug;26(12):1201-6. Abstract

Martin JN Jr, Rinehart BK, May WL, et al. The spectrum of severe preeclampsia: comparative analysis by HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count) syndrome classification. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;180(6 Pt 1):1373-84. Abstract

Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia: ACOG practice bulletin, number 222. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Jun;135(6):e237-60. Abstract

Sibai BM. Diagnosis and management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jul;102(1):181-92. Abstract

Martin JN Jr, Owens MY. Preeclampsia-eclampsia y syndrome de HELLP. In: Romero Arauz JF, Tena Alavez G, Jimenez Solis GA, eds. Preeclampsia - enfermedades hipertensivas del embarazo [in Spanish]. Mexico: McGraw Hill; 2012.

Sibai BL, Ramadan MK, Chari RS, et al. Pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets): subsequent pregnancy outcome and long-term prognosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):125-9. Abstract

Duley L, Meher S, Hunter KE, et al. Antiplatelet agents for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 30;2019(10):CD004659.Full text  Abstract

Martin JN Jr, Owens MY, Keiser SD, et al. Standardized Mississippi Protocol treatment of 190 patients with HELLP syndrome: slowing disease progression and preventing new major maternal morbidity. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2012;31(1):79-90. Abstract

Magee LA, Pels A, Helewa M, et al; Canadian Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Working Group. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: executive summary. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014 May;36(5):416-41.Full text  Abstract

Martin JN Jr. Milestones in the quest for best management of patients with HELLP syndrome (microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, hepatic dysfunction, thrombocytopenia). Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Jun;121(3):202-7. Abstract

Martin JN Jr, Thigpen BD, Moore RC, et al. Stroke and severe preeclampsia and eclampsia: a paradigm shift focusing on systolic blood pressure. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Feb;105(2):246-54. Abstract

Sibai BM. Diagnosis, controversies, and management of the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May;103(5 Pt 1):981-91. Abstract

O'Brien JM, Barton JR. Controversies with the diagnosis and management of HELLP syndrome. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jun;48(2):460-77. Abstract

Sibai BL, Ramadan MK, Chari RS, et al. Pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets): subsequent pregnancy outcome and long-term prognosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:125-129. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Sibai BM, Ramadan MK, Usta I, et al. Maternal morbidity and mortality in 442 pregnancies with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP syndrome). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Oct;169(4):1000-6. Abstract

2. Martin JN Jr, Blake PG, Perry KG Jr, et al. The natural history of HELLP syndrome: patterns of disease progression and regression. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jun;164(6 Pt 1):1500-9; discussion 1509-13. Abstract

3. Martin JN Jr, Magann EF, Blake PG, et al. Severe preeclampsia/eclampsia with HELLP syndrome in 454 pregnancies: comparative analysis using the 3-class system of classification. 1993 SMFM meeting abstract. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168:386.

4. Martin JN Jr, Brewer JM, Wallace K, et al. Hellp syndrome and composite major maternal morbidity: importance of Mississippi classification system. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Aug;26(12):1201-6. Abstract

5. Martin JN Jr, Rinehart BK, May WL, et al. The spectrum of severe preeclampsia: comparative analysis by HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count) syndrome classification. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;180(6 Pt 1):1373-84. Abstract

6. Brewer JM, Martin JN Jr, Canizaro A, et al. HELLP syndrome(s) and severe preeclampsia differentiation according to maternal outcomes: class 1 HELLP syndrome trumps all others. Abstract 773: 2012 SMFM meeting, Dallas, Texas, February 2012. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 2012;206:S341.

7. Maged AM, Elsherief A, Hassan H, et al. Maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes among different types of hypertensive disorders associating pregnancy needing intensive care management. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Jan;33(2):314-21. Abstract

8. Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia: ACOG practice bulletin, number 222. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Jun;135(6):e237-60. Abstract

9. Haram K, Svendsen E, Abildgaard U. The HELLP syndrome: clinical issues and management. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009 Feb 26;9:8.Full text  Abstract

10. Sibai BM. Diagnosis and management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jul;102(1):181-92. Abstract

11. Ducarme G, Bernuau J, Luton D, et al. Liver and preeclampsia [in French]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2010 Apr;29(4):e97-103. Abstract

12. Keiser SD, Owens MY, Parrish MR, et al. HELLP syndrome with and without eclampsia. Am J Perinatol. 2011 Mar;28(3):187-94. Abstract

13. Noubiap JJ, Bigna JJ, Nyaga UF, et al. The burden of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2019 Apr;21(4):479-88.Full text  Abstract

14. Kongwattanakul K, Saksiriwuttho P, Chaiyarach S, et al. Incidence, characteristics, maternal complications, and perinatal outcomes associated with preeclampsia with severe features and HELLP syndrome. Int J Womens Health. 2018;10:371-7.Full text  Abstract

15. Martin JN Jr, Owens MY. Preeclampsia-eclampsia y syndrome de HELLP. In: Romero Arauz JF, Tena Alavez G, Jimenez Solis GA, eds. Preeclampsia - enfermedades hipertensivas del embarazo [in Spanish]. Mexico: McGraw Hill; 2012.

16. Mentese A, Güven S, Demir S, et al. Circulating parameters of oxidative stress and hypoxia in normal pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018 Nov;27(11):1567-72.Full text  Abstract

17. Bean C, Spencer SK, Pabbidi MR, et al. Peripheral anti-angiogenic imbalance during pregnancy impairs myogenic tone and increases cerebral edema in a rodent model of HELLP syndrome. Brain Sci. 2018 Dec 6;8(12):216.Full text  Abstract

18. Hanff E, Ruben S, Kreuzer M, et al. Development and validation of GC-MS methods for the comprehensive analysis of amino acids in plasma and urine and applications to the HELLP syndrome and pediatric kidney transplantation: evidence of altered methylation, transamidination, and arginase activity. Amino Acids. 2019 Mar;51(3):529-47. Abstract

19. Berryman K, Buhimschi CS, Zhao G, et al. Proteasome levels and activity in pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia (HELLP) syndrome. Hypertension. 2019 Jun;73(6):1308-18.Full text  Abstract

20. Stefanovic V. The Extended use of eculizumab in pregnancy and complement activation - associated diseases affecting maternal, fetal and neonatal kidneys - the future is now? J Clin Med. 2019 Mar 24;8(3):407.Full text  Abstract

21. Yonekura Collier AR, Zsengeller Z, Pernicone E, et al. Placental sFLT1 is associated with complement activation and syncytiotrophoblast damage in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2019 Aug;38(3):193-9. Abstract

22. Wallace K, Harris S, Addison A, et al. HELLP syndrome: pathophysiology and current therapies. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018;19(10):816-26. Abstract

23. Kawabata L, Nakai A, Takeshita T. Prediction of HELLP syndrome with assessment of maternal dual hepatic blood supply by using Doppler ultrasound. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006 Aug;274(5):303-9. Abstract

24. Darby M, Martin JN Jr, Mitchell SQ, et al. Liver bleeding in patients with HELLP syndrome: pathogenesis and implications for preventive therapy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Oct;123(1):7-9. Abstract

25. Abildgaard U, Heimdal K. Pathogenesis of the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP): a review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013 Feb;166(2):117-23. Abstract

26. Wallace K, Martin JN Jr, Tam Tam K, et al. Seeking the mechanism(s) of action for corticosteroids in HELLP syndrome: SMASH study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):380;e1-8. Abstract

27. Mihu D, Costin N, Mihu CM, et al. HELLP syndrome: a multisystemic disorder. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007 Dec;16(4):419-24. Abstract

28. Wallace K, Bean C, Bowles T, et al. Hypertension, anxiety, and blood-brain barrier permeability are increased in postpartum severe preeclampsia/hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome rats. Hypertension. 2018 Oct;72(4):946-54.Full text  Abstract

29. Strand S, Strand D, Seufert R, et al. Placenta-derived CD95 ligand causes liver damage in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2004 Mar;126(3):849-58.Full text  Abstract

30. Martin JN Jr, Rose CH, Briery CM. Understanding and managing HELLP syndrome: the integral role of aggressive glucocorticoids for mother and child. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;195(4):914-34. Abstract

31. van Runnard Heimel PJ, Kavelaars A, Heijnen CJ, et al. HELLP syndrome is associated with an increased inflammatory response, which may be inhibited by administration of prednisolone. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2008;27(3):253-65. Abstract

32. Miranda ML, Macher HC, Muñoz-Hernández R, et al. Role of circulating cell-free DNA levels in patients with severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Am J Hypertens. 2013 Dec;26(12):1377-80.Full text  Abstract

33. Reimer T, Rohrmann H, Stubert J, et al. Angiogenic factors and acute-phase proteins in serum samples of preeclampsia and HELLP patients: a matched-pair analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Feb;26(3):263-9. Abstract

34. Sibai BM, Ewell M, Levine RJ, et al. Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women. The Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Nov;177(5):1003-10. Abstract

35. Sibai BL, Ramadan MK, Chari RS, et al. Pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets): subsequent pregnancy outcome and long-term prognosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):125-9. Abstract

36. Chames MC, Haddad B, Barton JR, et al. Subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a history of HELLP syndrome at ≤ 28 weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jun;188(6):1504-7; discussion 1507-8. Abstract

37. van Pampus MG, Wolf H, Mayruhu G, et al. Long-term follow-up in patients with a history of (H)ELLP syndrome. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2001;20(1):15-23. Abstract

38. Habli M, Eftekhari N, Wiebracht E, et al. Long-term maternal and subsequent pregnancy outcomes 5 years after hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Oct;201(4):385;e1-5. Abstract

39. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement: low-dose aspirin use for the prevention of morbidity and mortality from preeclampsia: preventive medication. 9 September 2014 [internet punlication].Full text

40. Duley L, Meher S, Hunter KE, et al. Antiplatelet agents for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 30;2019(10):CD004659.Full text  Abstract

41. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Hypertension in pregnancy: diagnosis and management. 25 June 2019 [internet publication].Full text

42. Sibai BM. Prevention of preeclampsia: a big disappointment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;179(5):1275-8. Abstract

43. Roberts JM, Myatt L, Spong CY, et al. Vitamins C and E to prevent complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1282-91.Full text  Abstract

44. Rodger MA, Paidas M, McLintock C, et al. Inherited thrombophilia and pregnancy complications revisited. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Aug;112(2 Pt 1):320-4. Abstract

45. Martin JN Jr, Thigpen BD, Rose CH, et al. Maternal benefit of high-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy for HELLP syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Sep;189(3):830-4. Abstract

46. Martin JN Jr, Owens MY, Keiser SD, et al. Standardized Mississippi Protocol treatment of 190 patients with HELLP syndrome: slowing disease progression and preventing new major maternal morbidity. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2012;31(1):79-90. Abstract

47. Sibai BM. The HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets): much ado about nothing? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Feb;162(2):311-6. Abstract

48. Weinstein L. Syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count: a severe consequence of hypertension in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Jan 15;142(2):159-67. Abstract

49. Tomsen TR. HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) presenting as generalized malaise. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jun;172(6):1876-8; discussion 1878-80. Abstract

50. Owens MY, Martin JN Jr, Wallace K, et al. Postpartum thrombotic microangiopathic syndrome. Transfus Apher Sci. 2013 Feb;48(1):51-7. Abstract

51. Sibai BM. Imitators of severe pre-eclampsia. Semin Perinatol. 2009 Jun;33(3):196-205. Abstract

52. Govindappagari S, Nguyen M, Gupta M, et al. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnancy mimicking HELLP syndrome. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Mar 25;2019:4325647.Full text  Abstract

53. Khangura RK, Williams N, Cooper S, et al. Babesiosis in pregnancy: an imitator of HELLP syndrome. AJP Rep. 2019 Apr;9(2):e147-52.Full text  Abstract

54. Sarkissian S, Khan Y, Farrell D, et al. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the setting of HELLP syndrome. Clin Case Rep. 2018 Dec;6(12):2466-70.Full text  Abstract

55. Castro MA, Fassett MJ, Reynolds TB, et al. Reversible peripartum liver failure: a new perspective on the diagnosis, treatment, and cause of acute fatty liver of pregnancy, based on 28 consecutive cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Aug;181(2):389-95. Abstract

56. Martin JN Jr, Bailey AP, Rehberg JF, et al. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in 166 pregnancies: 1955-2006. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:98-104. Abstract

57. George JN. Clinical practice. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 4;354(18):1927-35. Abstract

58. Hebisch G, Bernasconi MT, Gmuer J, et al. Pregnancy-associated recurrent hemolytic uremic syndrome with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in the placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Nov;185(5):1265-6. Abstract

59. Egerman RS, Witlin AG, Friedman SA, et al. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome in pregnancy: review of 11 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Oct;175(4 Pt 1):950-6. Abstract

60. Appenzeller S, Souza FH, Wagner Silva de Souza A, et al. HELLP syndrome and its relationship with antiphospholipid syndrome and antiphospholipid antibodies. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Dec;41(3):517-23. Abstract

61. Chien PF, Arnott N, Gordon A, et al. How useful is uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry in the prediction of pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal death? An overview. BJOG. 2000;107:196-208. Abstract

62. Magee LA, Pels A, Helewa M, et al; Canadian Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Working Group. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: executive summary. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014 May;36(5):416-41.Full text  Abstract

63. Martin JN Jr (ed). The 2015 compendium for HELLP syndrome: from bench to bedside. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2015.

64. Martin JN Jr. Milestones in the quest for best management of patients with HELLP syndrome (microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, hepatic dysfunction, thrombocytopenia). Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Jun;121(3):202-7. Abstract

65. Martin JN Jr, Thigpen BD, Moore RC, et al. Stroke and severe preeclampsia and eclampsia: a paradigm shift focusing on systolic blood pressure. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Feb;105(2):246-54. Abstract

66. Vigil-De Gracia P. Maternal deaths due to eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009 Feb;104(2):90-4. Abstract

67. Nassar AH, Adra AM, Chakhtoura N, et al. Severe preeclampsia remote from term: labor induction or elective cesarean delivery? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;179(5):1210-3. Abstract

68. Sibai BM. Diagnosis, controversies, and management of the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May;103(5 Pt 1):981-91. Abstract

69. Basaran A, Basaran M, Sen C. Choice of glucocorticoid in HELLP syndrome - dexamethasone versus betamethasone: revisiting the dilemma. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Dec;25(12):2597-600. Abstract

70. Katz L, Amorim M, Souza JP, et al. COHELLP: collaborative randomized controlled trial on corticosteroids in HELLP syndrome. Reprod Health. 2013 May 22;10:28.Full text  Abstract

71. Kanonge TI, Chamunyonga F, Zakazaka N, et al. Hepatic rupture from haematomas in patients with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia: a case series. Pan Afr Med J. 2018 Oct 4;31:86.Full text  Abstract

72. Horazeck C, Crockett CJ. Saved by the massive transfusion protocol: a case report of an obstetric patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome and glisson capsule rupture. A A Pract. 2019 Jun 1;12(11):409-11. Abstract

73. Kaltofen T, Grabmeier J, Weissenbacher T, et al. Liver rupture in a 28-year-old primigravida with superimposed pre-eclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2019 May;45(5):1066-1070. Abstract

74. Morgan J, Della Torre M, Whelan AR, et al. A case of massive hepatic infarction in a patient with HELLP syndrome. AJP Rep. 2019 Jan;9(1):e84-7.Full text  Abstract

75. Marinaş MC, Mogoș G, Drăgușin RC, et al. Postpartum spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma (SSHH) - conservative management. Case report and review of literature. Curr Health Sci J. 2018 Oct-Dec;44(4):387-91.Full text  Abstract

76. Ghorbanpour M, Makarchian HR, Yousefi B, et al. Conservative management of postpartum HELLP syndrome and intraparenchymal liver hematoma; a case report. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2019 Apr;7(2):196-8.Full text  Abstract

77. Pereira Herrera M, Oaks JB, Brensilver J. A case of acute pancreatitis in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. Cureus. 2018 Jun 25;10(6):e2877.Full text  Abstract

78. Takahashi A, Kita N, Tanaka Y, et al. Effects of high-dose dexamethasone in postpartum women with class 1 haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Apr;39(3):335-9. Abstract

79. Vidaeff AC, Carroll MA, Ramin SM. Acute hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct;33(10 Suppl):S307-12. Abstract

80. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Magnesium sulfate: risk of skeletal adverse effects in the neonate following prolonged or repeated use in pregnancy. 17 May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

81. Food and Drug Administration. FDA recommends against prolonged use of magnesium sulfate to stop pre-term labor due to bone changes in exposed babies. 30 May 2013 [internet publication].Full text

82. Sherwin CM, Balch A, Campbell SC, et al. Maternal magnesium sulphate exposure predicts neonatal magnesium blood concentrations. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Apr;114(4):318-22.Full text  Abstract

83. Abbassi-Ghanavati M, Alexander JM, McIntire DD, et al. Neonatal effects of magnesium sulfate given to the mother. Am J Perinatol. 2012 Nov;29(10):795-9.Full text  Abstract

84. Das M, Chaudhuri PR, Mondal BC, et al. Assessment of serum magnesium levels and its outcome in neonates of eclamptic mothers treated with low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen. Indian J Pharmacol. 2015 Sep-Oct;47(5):502-8.Full text  Abstract

85. Jansen MA, Pluymen LP, Dalmeijer GW, et al. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiometabolic outcomes in childhood: a systematic review. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2019 Nov;26(16):1718-47.Full text  Abstract

86. Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee Opinion no. 514: emergent therapy for acute-onset, severe hypertension with preeclampsia or eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Dec;118(6):1465-8. Abstract

87. Elatrous S, Nouira S, Ouanes Besbes L, et al. Short-term treatment of severe hypertension of pregnancy: prospective comparison of nicardipine and labetalol. Intensive Care Med. 2002 Sep;28(9):1281-6. Abstract

88. Magee LA, Cham C, Waterman EJ, et al. Hydralazine for treatment of severe hypertension in pregnancy: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003 Oct 25;327(7421):955-60.Full text  Abstract

89. O'Brien JM, Barton JR. Controversies with the diagnosis and management of HELLP syndrome. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jun;48(2):460-77. Abstract

90. Sibai BL, Ramadan MK, Chari RS, et al. Pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets): subsequent pregnancy outcome and long-term prognosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:125-129. Abstract

91. Chames MC, Haddad B, Barton JR, et al. Subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a history of HELLP syndrome at ≤ 28 weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:1504-1507. Abstract

92. van Pampus MG, Wolf H, Mayruhu G, et al. Long-term follow-up in patients with a history of (H)ELLP syndrome. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2001;20:15-23. Abstract

93. Habli M, Eftekhari N, Wiebracht E, et al. Long-term maternal and subsequent pregnancy outcomes 5 years after hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:385;e1-e5. Abstract

94. Fitzpatrick KE, Hinshaw K, Kurinczuk JJ, et al. Risk factors, management, and outcomes of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome and elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123:618-627. Abstract

95. Yildirim G, Gungorduk K, Gul A, et al. HELLP syndrome: 8 years of experience from a tertiary referral center in western Turkey. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2012;31(3):316-26. Abstract

96. Drakeley AJ, Le Roux PA, Anthony J, et al. Acute renal failure complicating severe preeclampsia requiring admission to an obstetric intensive care unit. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Feb;186(2):253-6. Abstract

97. Sibai BM, Ramadan MK. Acute renal failure in pregnancies complicated by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Jun;168(6 Pt 1):1682-7; discussion 1687-90. Abstract

98. Jacquemyn Y, Jochens L, Duiker E, et al. Long-term renal function after HELLP syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2004;57(2):117-20. Abstract

99. Ye W, Shu H, Yu Y, et al. Acute kidney injury in patients with HELLP syndrome. Int Urol Nephrol. 2019 Jul;51(7):1199-206. Abstract

100. Ye W, Shu H, Wen Y, et al. Renal histopathology of prolonged acute kidney injury in HELLP syndrome: a case series and literature review. Int Urol Nephrol. 2019 Jun;51(6):987-94. Abstract

101. Gilbert WM, Towner DR, Field NT, et al. The safety and utility of pulmonary artery catheterization in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun;182(6):1397-403. Abstract

102. Rinehart BK, Terrone DA, Magann EF, et al. Preeclampsia-associated hepatic hemorrhage and rupture: mode of management related to maternal and perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1999 Mar;54(3):196-202. Abstract

103. Woods JB, Blake PG, Perry KG Jr, et al. Ascites: a portent of cardiopulmonary complications in the preeclamptic patient with the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Jul;80(1):87-91. Abstract

104. Martin JN Jr, Files JC, Blake PG, et al. Postpartum plasma exchange for atypical preeclampsia-eclampsia as HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Apr;172(4 Pt 1):1107-25; discussion 1125-7. Abstract

105. Knapen MF, van Altena AM, Peters WH, et al. Liver function following pregnancy complicated by the HELLP syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;105(11):1208-10. Abstract

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