Chronic atrial fibrillation

References

Key articles

Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N, et al. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J. 2021 Feb 1;42(5):373-498.Full text  Abstract

January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 2;64(21):e1-76.Full text  Abstract

January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 2;64(21):e1-76.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Atrial fibrillation: diagnosis and management. NG196. April 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Lip GY, Skjøth F, Rasmussen LH, et al. Oral anticoagulation, aspirin, or no therapy in patients with nonvalvular AF with 0 or 1 stroke risk factor based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Apr 14;65(14):1385-94. Abstract

Kuck KH, Brugada J, Furnkranz A, et al; FIRE AND ICE Investigators. Cryoballoon or radiofrequency ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jun 9;374(23):2235-45.Full text  Abstract

Luik A, Radzewtiz A, Kieser M, et al. Cryoballoon versus open irrigated radiofrequency ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: the prospective, randomized, controlled, noninferiority FreezeAF Study. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1311-9.Full text  Abstract

Sharma M, Cornelius VR, Patel JP, et al. Efficacy and harms of direct oral anticoagulants in the elderly for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2015 Jul 21;132(3):194-204.Full text  Abstract

Del-Carpio Munoz F, Gharacholou SM, Munger TM, et al. Meta-analysis of renal function on the safety and efficacy of novel oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2016 Jan 1;117(1):69-75. Abstract

Lip GY, Haguenoer K, Saint-Etienne C, et al. Relationship of the SAMe-TT₂R₂ score to poor-quality anticoagulation, stroke, clinically relevant bleeding, and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation. Chest. 2014 Sep;146(3):719-26. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N, et al. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J. 2021 Feb 1;42(5):373-498.Full text  Abstract

2. January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 2;64(21):e1-76.Full text  Abstract

3. Marini C, De Santis F, Sacco S, et al. Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke: results from a population-based study. Stroke. 2005 Jun;36(6):1115-9.Full text  Abstract

4. Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Caso V, et al. Atrial fibrillation in patients with first-ever stroke: frequency, antithrombotic treatment before the event and effect on clinical outcome. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Jun;3(6):1218-23.Full text  Abstract

5. Stewart S, Hart CL, Hole DJ, et al. Population prevalence, incidence, and predictors of atrial fibrillation in the Renfrew/Paisley study. Heart. 2001 Nov;86(5):516-21.Full text  Abstract

6. Murdoch DL, O'Neill K, Jackson J, et al. Are atrial fibrillation guidelines altering management? A community based study. Scott Med J. 2005 Nov;50(4):166-9. Abstract

7. Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Benjamin EJ, et al. Prevalence, incidence, prognosis, and predisposing conditions for atrial fibrillation: population-based estimates. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Oct 16;82(8A):2N-9N. Abstract

8. Heeringa J, van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, et al. Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. Eur Heart J. 2006 Apr;27(8):949-53.Full text  Abstract

9. Lloyd-Jones DM, Wang TJ, Leip EP, et al. Lifetime risk for the development of atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2004 Aug 31;110(9):1042-6.Full text  Abstract

10. Feinberg WM, Blackshear JL, Laupacis A, et al. Prevalence, age distribution and gender of patients with atrial fibrillation: analysis and implications. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Mar 13;155(5):469-73. Abstract

11. Hobbs FD, Fitzmaurice DA, Jowett S, et al. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study of systematic screening (targeted and total population screening) versus routine practice for the detection of atrial fibrillation in people aged 65 and over: the SAFE study. Health Technol Assess. 2005 Oct;9(40):iii-iv, ix-x, 1-74. Abstract

12. Psaty BM, Manolio TA, Kuller LH, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for atrial fibrillation in older adults. Circulation. 1997 Oct 7;96(7):2455-61.Full text  Abstract

13. Lip GY, Beevers DG. ABC of atrial fibrillation: history, epidemiology, and importance of atrial fibrillation. BMJ. 1995 Nov 18;311(7016):1361-3.Full text  Abstract

14. Allessie MA, Boyden PA, Camm AJ, et al. Pathophysiology and prevention of atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2001 Feb 6;103(5):769-77.Full text  Abstract

15. Kannel WB, Abbott RD, Savage DD, et al. Coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1983 Aug;106(2):389-96. Abstract

16. Captur G, Arbustini E, Bonne G, et al. Lamin and the heart. Heart. 2018 Mar;104(6):468-79.Full text  Abstract

17. Garrey WE. Auricular fibrillation. Physiol Rev. 1924 Apr;4(2):215-50.

18. Moe GK, Rheinboldt WC, Abildskov JA. A computer model of atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J. 1964 Feb;67:200-20. Abstract

19. Allessie MA, Bonke FI, Schopman FJ. Circus movement in rabbit atrial muscle as a mechanism of tachycardia. III. The "leading circle" concept: a new model of circus movement in cardiac tissue without the involvement of an anatomical obstacle. Circ Res. 1977 Jul;41(1):9-18.Full text  Abstract

20. Nattel S, Shiroshita-Takeshita A, Brundel BJ, et al. Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: lessons from animal models. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jul-Aug;48(1):9-28. Abstract

21. Cheung DW. Pulmonary vein as an ectopic focus in digitalis-induced arrhythmia. Nature. 1981 Dec 10;294(5841):582-4. Abstract

22. Cheung DW. Electrical activity of the pulmonary vein and its interaction with the right atrium in the guinea-pig. J Physiol. 1981 May;314:445-56.Full text  Abstract

23. Haissaguerre M, Jais P, Shah DC, et al. Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. N Engl J Med. 1998 Sep 3;339(10):659-66.Full text  Abstract

24. January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 2;64(21):e1-76.Full text  Abstract

25. Kannel WB, Abbott RD, Savage DD, et al. Epidemiologic features of atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Study. N Engl J Med. 1982 Apr 29;306(17):1018-22. Abstract

26. Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Vaziri SM, et al. Independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation in a population-based cohort: the Framingham heart study. JAMA. 1994 Mar 16;271(11):840-4. Abstract

27. Lokshyn S, Mewis C, Kuhlkamp V. Atrial fibrillation in coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol. 2000 Jan 15;72(2):133-6. Abstract

28. Chugh SS, Blackshear JL, Shen WK, et al. Epidemiology and natural history of atrial fibrillation: clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Feb;37(2):371-8.Full text  Abstract

29. Mukamal KJ, Tolstrup JS, Friberg J, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2005 Sep 20;112(12):1736-42.Full text  Abstract

30. Gallagher C, Hendriks JML, Elliott AD, et al. Alcohol and incident atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2017 Nov 1;246:46-52. Abstract

31. Koskinen P, Kupari M, Leinonen H. Role of alcohol in the recurrence of atrial fibrillation in persons less than 65 years of age. Am J Cardiol. 1990 Oct 15;66(12):954-8. Abstract

32. Rich EC, Siebold C, Campion B. Alcohol-related acute atrial fibrillation: a case control study and review of 40 patients. Arch Intern Med. 1985 May;145(5):830-3. Abstract

33. Chamberlain AM, Agarwal SK, Folsom AR, et al. Smoking and incidence of atrial fibrillation: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Aug;8(8):1160-6.Full text  Abstract

34. Toft AD. Clinical practice: subclinical hyperthyroidism. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 16;345(7):512-6. Abstract

35. Lip GY, Beevers DG, Singh SP, et al. ABC of atrial fibrillation: aetiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features. BMJ. 1995 Nov 25;311(7017):1425-8.Full text  Abstract

36. Flynn RW, Bonellie SR, Jung RT, et al. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and morbidity from cardiovascular disease and fractures in patients on long-term thyroxine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95(1):186-93. Abstract

37. Wang J, Liu L, Feng J, et al. Regional and functional factors determining induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation in dogs. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jul;271(1 Pt 2):H148-58. Abstract

38. Coumel P. Autonomic influences in atrial tachyarrhythmias. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1996 Oct;7(10):999-1007. Abstract

39. Pappone C, Santinelli V, Manguso F, et al. Pulmonary vein denervation enhances long-term benefit after circumferential ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2004 Jan 27;109(3):327-34.Full text  Abstract

40. Gami AS, Hodge DO, Herges RM, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Feb 6;49(5):565-71.Full text  Abstract

41. Aune D, Sen A, Schlesinger S, et al. Body mass index, abdominal fatness, fat mass and the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 Mar;32(3):181-92.Full text  Abstract

42. Congrete S, Bintvihok M, Thongprayoon C, et al. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea and its treatment of atrial fibrillation recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation: a meta-analysis. J Evid Based Med. 2018 Aug;11(3):145-51. Abstract

43. Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, et al. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2017 Sep 7;38(34):2621-8.Full text  Abstract

44. Elliott AD, Linz D, Mishima R, et al. Association between physical activity and risk of incident arrhythmias in 402 406 individuals: evidence from the UK Biobank cohort. Eur Heart J. 2020 Apr 14;41(15):1479-86.Full text  Abstract

45. Chung MK, Eckhardt LL, Chen LY, et al. Lifestyle and risk factor modification for reduction of atrial fibrillation: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020 Apr 21;141(16):e750-72.Full text  Abstract

46. Levin MG, Judy R, Gill D, et al. Genetics of height and risk of atrial fibrillation: a Mendelian randomization study. PLoS Med. 2020 Oct;17(10):e1003288.Full text  Abstract

47. Marott JL, Skielboe AK, Dixen U, et al. Increasing population height and risk of incident atrial fibrillation: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Heart J. 2018 Dec 1;39(45):4012-19.Full text  Abstract

48. Healey JS, Baranchuk A, Crystal E, et al. Prevention of atrial fibrillation with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jun 7;45(11):1832-9. Abstract

49. Wachtell K, Lehto M, Gerdts E, et al. Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Mar 1;45(5):712-9. Abstract

50. Olsson LG, Swedberg K, Ducharme A, et al. Atrial fibrillation and risk of clinical events in chronic heart failure with and without left ventricular systolic dysfunction: results from the Candesartan in Heart failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 May 16;47(10):1997-2004.Full text  Abstract

51. Young-Xu Y, Jabbour S, Goldberg R, et al. Usefulness of statin drugs in protecting against atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Dec 15;92(12):1379-83. Abstract

52. Siu CW, Lau CP, Tse HF. Prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence by statin therapy in patients with lone atrial fibrillation after successful cardioversion. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Dec 1;92(11):1343-5. Abstract

53. Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, et al. Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2004 Jul 27;110(4):368-73.Full text  Abstract

54. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Atrial fibrillation: diagnosis and management. NG196. April 2021 [internet publication].Full text

55. Marini C, De Santis F, Sacco S, et al. Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke: results from a population-based study. Stroke. 2005 Jun;36(6):1115-9.Full text  Abstract

56. Chen LY, Norby FL, Gottesman RF, et al. Association of atrial fibrillation with cognitive decline and dementia over 20 years: the ARIC-NCS (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study). J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Mar 7;7(6):e007301.Full text  Abstract

57. Diener HC, Hart RG, Koudstaal PJ, et al. Atrial fibrillation and cognitive function: JACC review topic of the week. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Feb 12;73(5):612-9.Full text  Abstract

58. Lopez Perales CR, Van Spall HGC, Maeda S, et al. Mobile health applications for the detection of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Europace. 2021 Jan 27;23(1):11-28.Full text  Abstract

59. Guo Y, Wang H, Zhang H, et al. Mobile photoplethysmographic technology to detect atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Nov 12;74(19):2365-75.Full text  Abstract

60. Gladstone DJ, Spring M, Dorian P, et al. Atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2467-77.Full text  Abstract

61. Sanna T, Diener HC, Passman RS, et al. Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2478-86.Full text  Abstract

62. Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, et al. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA. 2001 Jun 13;285(22):2864-70.Full text  Abstract

63. Yarmohammadi H, Varr BC, Puwanant S, et al. Role of CHADS2 score in evaluation of thromboembolic risk and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing direct current cardioversion (from the ACUTE Trial Substudy). Am J Cardiol. 2012 Jul 15;110(2):222-6. Abstract

64. Lip GY, Skjøth F, Rasmussen LH, et al. Oral anticoagulation, aspirin, or no therapy in patients with nonvalvular AF with 0 or 1 stroke risk factor based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Apr 14;65(14):1385-94. Abstract

65. Chao TF, Liu CJ, Wang KL, et al. Should atrial fibrillation patients with 1 additional risk factor of the CHA2DS2-VASc score (beyond sex) receive oral anticoagulation? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 24;65(7):635-42. Abstract

66. Gage BF, Yan Y, Milligan PE, et al. Clinical classification schemes for predicting hemorrhage: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation (NRAF). Am Heart J. 2006 Mar;151(3):713-9. Abstract

67. Pisters R, Lane DA, Nieuwlaat R, et al. A novel user-friendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess 1-year risk of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation: the Euro Heart Survey. Chest. 2010 Nov;138(5):1093-100. Abstract

68. O'Brien EC, Simon DN, Thomas LE, et al. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2015 Dec 7;36(46):3258-64.Full text  Abstract

69. Gillis AM, Morck M. Atrial fibrillation after DDDR pacemaker implantation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002 Jun;13(6):542-7. Abstract

70. Andrade JG, Verma A, Mitchell LB, et al. 2018 Focused update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Can J Cardiol. 2018 Nov;34(11):1371-92.Full text  Abstract

71. Chen HS, Wen JM, Wu SN, et al. Catheter ablation for paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Apr 18;(4):CD007101.Full text  Abstract

72. January CT, Wann LS, Calkins H, et al. 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2019 Jul 9;140(2):e125-51.Full text  Abstract

73. Gillinov AM, Bagiella E, Moskowitz AJ, et al; CTSN. Rate control versus rhythm control for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 19;374(20):1911-21. Abstract

74. Chatterjee S, Sardar P, Lichstein E, et al. Pharmacologic rate versus rhythm-control strategies in atrial fibrillation: an updated comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013 Jan;36(1):122-33. Abstract

75. Al-Khatib SM, Allen LaPointe NM, Chatterjee R, et al. Rate- and rhythm-control therapies in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jun 3;160(11):760-73.Full text  Abstract

76. Prystowsky EN. Assessment of rhythm and rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Sep;17 Suppl 2:S7-10. Abstract

77. Lopes RD, Rordorf R, De Ferrari GM, et al. Digoxin and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Mar 13;71(10):1063-74.Full text  Abstract

78. Bressler R, Bahl JJ. Principles of drug therapy for the elderly patient. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec;78(12):1564-77. Abstract

79. Opie LH. Adverse cardiovascular drug interactions. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2000 Sep;25(9):621-76. Abstract

80. Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic drugs: from mechanisms to clinical practice. Heart. 2000 Sep;84(3):339-46.Full text  Abstract

81. Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Proarrhythmia. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Oct 16;82(8A):50N-8N. Abstract

82. Kuck KH, Brugada J, Furnkranz A, et al; FIRE AND ICE Investigators. Cryoballoon or radiofrequency ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jun 9;374(23):2235-45.Full text  Abstract

83. Luik A, Radzewtiz A, Kieser M, et al. Cryoballoon versus open irrigated radiofrequency ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: the prospective, randomized, controlled, noninferiority FreezeAF Study. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1311-9.Full text  Abstract

84. Singh BN, Connolly SJ, Crijns HJ, et al. Dronedarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation or flutter. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 6;357(10):987-99.Full text  Abstract

85. Le Heuzey J, De Ferrari GM, Radzik D, et al. A short-term, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dronedarone versus amiodarone in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: the DIONYSOS study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Jun 1;21(6):597-605. Abstract

86. Køber L, Torp-Pedersen C, McMurray JJ, et al; Dronedarone Study Group. Increased mortality after dronedarone therapy for severe heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 19;358(25):2678-87.Full text  Abstract

87. Hohnloser SH, Crijns HJ, van Eickels M, et al. Effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 12;360(7):668-78.Full text  Abstract

88. Marrouche NF, Brachmann J, Andresen D, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb; 378(5):417-27.Full text  Abstract

89. Briceño DF, Markman TM, Lupercio F, et al. Catheter ablation versus conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2018 Oct;53(1):19-29.Full text  Abstract

90. Elgendy AY, Mahmoud AN, Khan MS, et al. Meta-analysis comparing catheter-guided ablation versus conventional medical therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Am J Cardiol. 2018 Sep 1;122(5):806-13.Full text  Abstract

91. AlTurki A, Proietti R, Dawas A, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019 Jan 15;19(1):18.Full text  Abstract

92. Ahn J, Kim HJ, Choe JC, et al. Treatment strategies for atrial fibrillation with left ventricular systolic dysfunction - meta-analysis. Circ J. 2018 Jun 25;82(7):1770-7.Full text  Abstract

93. Chen S, Pürerfellner H, Meyer C, et al. Rhythm control for patients with atrial fibrillation complicated with heart failure in the contemporary era of catheter ablation: a stratified pooled analysis of randomized data. Eur Heart J. 2020 Aug 7;41(30):2863-73.Full text  Abstract

94. Valembois L, Audureau E, Takeda A, et al. Antiarrhythmics for maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 4;9:CD005049.Full text  Abstract

95. Brønnum Nielsen P, Larsen TB, Gorst-Rasmussen A, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage and subsequent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nationwide cohort study. Chest. 2015 Jun;147(6):1651-8. Abstract

96. Fang MC, Chen J, Rich MW. Atrial fibrillation in the elderly. Am J Med. 2007 Jun;120(6):481-7. Abstract

97. Iqbal MB, Taneja AK, Lip GY, et al. Recent developments in atrial fibrillation. BMJ. 2005 Jan 29;330(7485):238-43.Full text  Abstract

98. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al; RE-LY Steering Committee and Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009 Sep 17;361(12):1139-51.Full text  Abstract

99. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 8;365(10):883-91.Full text  Abstract

100. Halperin JL, Hankey GJ, Wojdyla DM, et al. Efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin among elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). Circulation. 2014 Jul 8;130(2):138-46.Full text  Abstract

101. Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 15;365(11):981-92.Full text  Abstract

102. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 28;369(22):2093-104.Full text  Abstract

103. Miller CS, Grandi SM, Shimony A, et al. Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2012 Aug 1;110(3):453-60.Full text  Abstract

104. Caldeira D, Rodrigues FB, Barra M, et al. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and major bleeding-related fatality in patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart. 2015 Aug;101(15):1204-11. Abstract

105. Sharma M, Cornelius VR, Patel JP, et al. Efficacy and harms of direct oral anticoagulants in the elderly for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2015 Jul 21;132(3):194-204.Full text  Abstract

106. Del-Carpio Munoz F, Gharacholou SM, Munger TM, et al. Meta-analysis of renal function on the safety and efficacy of novel oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2016 Jan 1;117(1):69-75. Abstract

107. Gallego P, Roldán V, Marin F, et al. SAMe-TT2R2 score, time in therapeutic range, and outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. Am J Med. 2014 Nov;127(11):1083-8.Full text  Abstract

108. Lip GY, Haguenoer K, Saint-Etienne C, et al. Relationship of the SAMe-TT₂R₂ score to poor-quality anticoagulation, stroke, clinically relevant bleeding, and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation. Chest. 2014 Sep;146(3):719-26. Abstract

109. Friberg L, Andersson T, Rosenqvist M. Less dementia and stroke in low-risk patients with atrial fibrillation taking oral anticoagulation. Eur Heart J. 2019 Jul 21;40(28):2327-35.Full text  Abstract

110. Cheng W, Liu W, Li B, et al. Relationship of anticoagulant therapy with cognitive impairment among patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis and systematic review. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2018 Jun;71(6):380-7.Full text  Abstract

111. Kantharia BK. Impact of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation on reduction of the risks of dementia and hospitalization. Int J Cardiol. 2020 Apr 1;304:47-9.Full text  Abstract

112. Glikson M, Wolff R, Hindricks G, et al. EHRA/EAPCI expert consensus statement on catheter-based left atrial appendage occlusion - an update. Europace. 2019 Aug 31;euz258.Full text  Abstract

113. Holmes DR, Reddy VY, Turi ZG, et al; PROTECT AF Investigators. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2009 Aug 15;374(9689):534-42. Abstract

114. Park JW, Bethencourt A, Sievert H, et al. Left atrial appendage closure with Amplatzer cardiac plug in atrial fibrillation: initial European experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011 Apr 1;77(5):700-6. Abstract

115. Bartus K, Han FT, Bednarek J, et al. Percutaneous left atrial appendage suture ligation using the LARIAT device in patients with atrial fibrillation: initial clinical experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jul 9;62(2):108-118.Full text  Abstract

116. Kar S, Doshi SK, Sadhu A, et al. Primary outcome evaluation of a next-generation left atrial appendage closure device: results From the PINNACLE FLX Trial. Circulation. 2021 May 4;143(18):1754-1762.Full text  Abstract

117. Whitlock RP, Belley-Cote EP, Paparella D, et al. LAAOS III Investigators. Left atrial appendage occlusion during cardiac surgery to prevent stroke. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jun 3;384(22):2081-2091.Full text  Abstract

118. Vos MA, Golitsyn SR, Stangl K, et al; Ibutilide/Sotalol Comparator Study Group. Superiority of ibutilide (a new class III agent) over DL-sotalol in converting atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Heart. 1998 Jun;79(6):568-75.Full text  Abstract

119. Oral H, Souza JJ, Michaud GF, et al. Facilitating transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation with ibutilide pretreatment. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jun 17;340(24):1849-54.Full text  Abstract

120. Li H, Natale A, Tomassoni G, et al. Usefulness of ibutilide in facilitating successful external cardioversion of refractory atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 1999 Nov 1;84(9):1096-8, A10. Abstract

121. Klein AL, Grimm RA, Murray RD, et al. Use of transesophageal echocardiography to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 10;344(19):1411-20.Full text  Abstract

122. Calkins H, Hindricks G, Cappato R, et al. 2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2018 Jan 1;20(1):e1-160.Full text  Abstract

123. McKenna C, Palmer S, Rodgers M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation in the United Kingdom. Heart. 2009 Apr;95(7):542-9.Full text  Abstract

124. Reynolds MR, Zimetbaum P, Josephson ME, et al. Cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation compared with antiarrhythmic drug therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009 Aug;2(4):362-9.Full text  Abstract

125. Gillinov AM, Gelijns AC, Parides MK, et al. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation during mitral-valve surgery. N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 9;372(15):1399-409.Full text  Abstract

126. Phan K, Xie A, La Meir M, et al. Surgical ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery: a cumulative meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Heart. 2014 May;100(9):722-30. Abstract

127. Damiano RJ Jr, Gaynor SL, Bailey M, et al. The long-term outcome of patients with coronary disease and atrial fibrillation undergoing the Cox maze procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Dec;126(6):2016-21.Full text  Abstract

128. Melby SJ, Kaiser SP, Bailey MS, et al. Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with bipolar radiofrequency ablation: mid-term results in one hundred consecutive patients. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2006 Dec;47(6):705-10. Abstract

129. Morillo CA, Verma A, Connolly SJ, et al. Radiofrequency ablation vs antiarrhythmic drugs as first-line treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (RAAFT-2): a randomized trial. JAMA. 2014 Feb 19;311(7):692-700.Full text  Abstract

130. Jons C, Hansen PS, Johannessen A, et al. The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial: clinical rationale, study design, and implementation. Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):917-23.Full text  Abstract

131. Mark DB, Anstrom KJ, Sheng S, et al. Effect of catheter ablation vs medical therapy on quality of life among patients with atrial fibrillation: the CABANA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Apr 2;321(13):1275-85.Full text  Abstract

132. Packer DL, Mark DB, Robb RA, et al. Effect of catheter ablation vs antiarrhythmic drug therapy on mortality, stroke, bleeding, and cardiac arrest among patients with atrial fibrillation: the CABANA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Apr 2;321(13):1261-74.Full text  Abstract

133. Cappato R, Calkins H, Chen SA, et al. Worldwide survey on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2005 Mar 8;111(9):1100-5.Full text  Abstract

134. Carlson MD, Ip J, Messenger J, et al; Atrial Dynamic Overdrive Pacing Trial (ADOPT) Investigators. A new pacemaker algorithm for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: results of the Atrial Dynamic Overdrive Pacing Trial (ADOPT). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Aug 20;42(4):627-33. Abstract

135. Kantharia BK, Freedman RA, Hoekenga D, et al; AOP Study Investigators. Increased base rate of atrial pacing for prevention of atrial fibrillation after implantation of a dual-chamber pacemaker: insights from the Atrial Overdrive Pacing Study. Europace. 2007 Nov;9(11):1024-30.Full text  Abstract

136. Saksena S, Prakash A, Ziegler P, et al; DAPPAF Investigators. Improved suppression of recurrent atrial fibrillation with dual-site right atrial pacing and antiarrhythmic drug therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Sep 18;40(6):1140-50. Abstract

137. Lip GYH, Banerjee A, Boriani G, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest. 2018 Nov;154(5):1121-201.Full text  Abstract

138. Heidenreich PA, Solis P, Estes NA 3rd, et al. 2016 ACC/AHA clinical performance and quality measures for adults with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Aug 2;68(5):525-68.Full text  Abstract

139. Lip GYH, Collet JP, Haude M, et al. 2018 joint European consensus document on the management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous cardiovascular interventions: a joint consensus document of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), and European Association of Acute Cardiac Care (ACCA) endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), Latin America Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS), and Cardiac Arrhythmia Society of Southern Africa (CASSA). Europace. 2019 Feb 1;21(2):192-3.Full text  Abstract

140. Lip GYH, Collet JP, Caterina R, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation associated with valvular heart disease: a joint consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, endorsed by the ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease, Cardiac Arrhythmia Society of Southern Africa (CASSA), Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), South African Heart (SA Heart) Association and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE). Europace. 2017 Nov 1;19(11):1757-8.Full text  Abstract

141. Holmqvist F, Kim S, Steinberg BA, et al. Heart rate is associated with progression of atrial fibrillation, independent of rhythm. Heart. 2015 Jun;101(11):894-9.Full text  Abstract

142. Batra G, Svennblad B, Held C, et al. All types of atrial fibrillation in the setting of myocardial infarction are associated with impaired outcome. Heart. 22016 Jun 15;102(12):926-33. Abstract

143. Krahn AD, Manfreda J, Tate RB, et al. The natural history of atrial fibrillation: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in the Manitoba Follow-Up Study. Am J Med. 1995 May;98(5):476-84. Abstract

144. Benjamin EJ, Wolf PA, D'Agostino RB, et al. Impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of death: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1998 Sep 8;98(10):946-52.Full text  Abstract

145. Cooper HA, Bloomfield DA, Bush DE, et al. Relation between achieved heart rate and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (from the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management [AFFIRM] Study). Am J Cardiol. 2004 May 15;93(10):1247-53. Abstract

146. Hagens VE, Ranchor AV, Van Sonderen E, et al. Effect of rate or rhythm control on quality of life in persistent atrial fibrillation: results from the Rate Control Versus Electrical Cardioversion (RACE) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Jan 21;43(2):241-7. Abstract

147. Pappone C, Rosanio S, Augello G, et al. Mortality, morbidity, and quality of life after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation for atrial fibrillation: outcomes from a controlled nonrandomized long-term study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jul 16;42(2):185-97.Full text  Abstract

148. Pawar PP, Jones LG, Feller M, et al. Association between smoking and outcomes in older adults with atrial fibrillation. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 Jul-Aug;55(1):85-90.Full text  Abstract

149. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Rothbart RM, et al. Stroke with intermittent atrial fibrillation: incidence and predictors during aspirin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Jan;35(1):183-7.Full text  Abstract

150. Lip GY, Lim HS. Atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Nov;6(11):981-93. Abstract

151. Hylek EM, Evans-Molina C, Shea C, et al. Major hemorrhage and tolerability of warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2007 May 29;115(21):2689-96.Full text  Abstract

152. Mant J, Hobbs, R, Fletcher K, et al. Warfarin versus aspirin for stroke prevention in an elderly community population with atrial fibrillation (the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Treatment of the Aged Study, BAFTA): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Aug 11;370(9586):493-503. Abstract

153. Adderley NJ, Nirantharakumar K, Marshall T. Risk of stroke and transient ischaemic attack in patients with a diagnosis of resolved atrial fibrillation: retrospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2018 May 9;361:k1717.Full text  Abstract

154. Cappato R, Calkins H, Chen SA, et al. Prevalence and causes of fatal outcome in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 May 12;53(19):1798-803.Full text  Abstract

155. Abed HS, Wittert GA, Leong DP, et al. Effect of weight reduction and cardiometabolic risk factor management on symptom burden and severity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Nov 20;310(19):2050-60.Full text  Abstract

156. Abdul-Aziz AA, Altawil M, Lyon A, et al. Lifestyle therapy for the management of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2018 May 1;121(9):1112-7.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer