Approach

Bladder cancer most commonly presents with gross or microscopic haematuria.[45] Gross haematuria is characteristically intermittent, often leading to the incorrect conclusion that an intervention such as antibiotic administration has been effective. Frequency, commonly but not invariably associated with dysuria, may also occur.

All patients suspected of having bladder cancer require a thorough history and physical examination, although the examination is often unremarkable, particularly in patients with early disease.

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