Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

References

Key articles

Parent S, Newton PO, Wenger DR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: etiology, anatomy, natural history, and bracing. Instr Course Lect. 2005;54:529-36. Abstract

Yaszay B, Newton PO. Idiopathic scoliosis. In: Weinstein SL, Flynn JM, Crawford HA, eds. Lovell and Winter's Pediatric Orthopaedics. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2021:659-720.

Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a new classification to determine extent of spinal arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Aug;83(8):1169-81. Abstract

Cheng JC, Castelein RM, Chu WC, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Sep 24;1:15030. Abstract

Harrop JS, Birknes J, Shaffrey CI. Noninvasive measurement and screening techniques for spinal deformities. Neurosurgery. 2008 Sep;63(3 Suppl):46-53. Abstract

Negrini S, Donzelli S, Aulisa AG, et al. 2016 SOSORT guidelines: orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 2018;13:3.Full text  Abstract

Yawn B, Yawn RA. Efficacy of school scoliosis screening. Orthopedics. 2001 Apr;24(4):317. Abstract

Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Spratt KF, et al. Health and function of patients with untreated idiopathic scoliosis: a 50-year natural history study. JAMA. 2003 Feb 5;289(5):559-67.Full text  Abstract

Weinstein SL. Idiopathic scoliosis. Natural history. Spine. 1986 Oct;11(8):780-3. Abstract

Dickson JH, Mirkovic S, Noble PC, et al. Results of operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995 Apr;77(4):513-23. Abstract

Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH 3rd, et al. Comparison of anterior and posterior instrumentation for correction of adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1999 Feb 1;24(3):225-39. Abstract

Danielsson AJ, Nachemson AL. Back pain and function 22 years after brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case-control study-part I. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Sep 15;28(18):2078-85; discussion 2086. Abstract

Edgar MA, Mehta MH. Long-term follow-up of fused and unfused idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1988 Nov;70(5):712-6.Full text  Abstract

Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Cheng JC, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Lancet. 2008 May 3;371(9623):1527-37. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Parent S, Newton PO, Wenger DR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: etiology, anatomy, natural history, and bracing. Instr Course Lect. 2005;54:529-36. Abstract

2. Yaszay B, Newton PO. Idiopathic scoliosis. In: Weinstein SL, Flynn JM, Crawford HA, eds. Lovell and Winter's Pediatric Orthopaedics. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2021:659-720.

3. King HA, Moe JH, Bradford DS, et al. The selection of fusion levels in thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983 Dec;65(9):1302-13. Abstract

4. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, et al. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the classification of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Aug;80(8):1097-106. Abstract

5. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Clements D, et al. Curve prevalence of a new classification of operative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: does classification correlate with treatment? Spine. 2002 Mar 15;27(6):604-11. Abstract

6. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Haher TR, et al. Multisurgeon assessment of surgical decision-making in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: curve classification, operative approach, and fusion levels. Spine. 2001 Nov 1;26(21):2347-53. Abstract

7. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a new classification to determine extent of spinal arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Aug;83(8):1169-81. Abstract

8. Konieczny MR, Senyurt H, Krauspe R. Epidemiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Child Orthop. 2013 Feb;7(1):3-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Kane WJ. Scoliosis prevalence: a call for a statement of terms. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1977 Jul-Aug;(126):43-6. Abstract

10. Montgomery F, Willner S. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis. Incidence of treatment in 15 cohorts of children born between 1963 and 1977. Spine. 1997 Apr 1;22(7):772-4. Abstract

11. Cheng JC, Castelein RM, Chu WC, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Sep 24;1:15030. Abstract

12. Lenssinck ML, Frijlink AC, Berger MY, et al. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents: a systematic review of clinical trials. Phys Ther. 2005 Dec;85(12):1329-39.Full text  Abstract

13. Bunnell WP. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis before skeletal maturity. Spine. 1986 Oct;11(8):773-6. Abstract

14. Hadley Miller N. Spine update: genetics of familial idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2000 Sep 15;25(18):2416-8. Abstract

15. Kesling KL, Reinker KA. Scoliosis in twins. A meta-analysis of the literature and report of six cases. Spine. 1997 Sep 1;22(17):2009-14. Abstract

16. Lowe TG, Edgar M, Margulies JY, et al. Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Aug;82(8):1157-68. Abstract

17. Chan V, Fong GC, Luk KD, et al. A genetic locus for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis linked to chromosome 19p13.3. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Aug;71(2):401-6.Full text  Abstract

18. Justice CM, Miller NH, Marosy B, et al. Familial idiopathic scoliosis: evidence of an X-linked susceptibility locus. Spine. 2003 Mar 15;28(6):589-94. Abstract

19. Salehi LB, Mangino M, De Serio S, et al. Assignment of a locus for autosomal dominant idiopathic scoliosis (IS) to human chromosome 17p11. Hum Genet. 2002 Oct;111(4-5):401-4. Abstract

20. Wise CA, Barnes R, Gillum J, et al. Localization of susceptibility to familial idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2000 Sep 15;25(18):2372-80. Abstract

21. Morcuende JA, Minhas R, Dolan L, et al. Allelic variants of human melatonin 1A receptor in patients with familial adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2003 Sep 1;28(17):2025-8. Abstract

22. Leet AI, Magur E, Lee JS, et al. Fibrous dysplasia in the spine: prevalence of lesions and association with scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Mar;86(3):531-7. Abstract

23. Mancini F, Corsi A, De Maio F, et al. Scoliosis and spine involvement in fibrous dysplasia of bone. Eur Spine J. 2009 Feb;18(2):196-202. Abstract

24. Risser JC. The Iliac apophysis; an invaluable sign in the management of scoliosis. Clin Orthop. 1958;11:111-9. Abstract

25. Lonstein JE, Carlson JM. The prediction of curve progression in untreated idiopathic scoliosis during growth. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984 Sep;66(7):1061-71. Abstract

26. Peterson LE, Nachemson AL. Prediction of progression of the curve in girls who have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of moderate severity. Logistic regression analysis based on data from The Brace Study of the Scoliosis Research Society. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995 Jun;77(6):823-7. Abstract

27. Sanders JO, Khoury JG, Kishan S, et al. Predicting scoliosis progression from skeletal maturity: a simplified classification during adolescence. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Mar;90(3):540-53. Abstract

28. Sanders JO, Little DG, Richards BS. Prediction of the crankshaft phenomenon by peak height velocity. Spine. 1997 Jun 15;22(12):1352-6. Abstract

29. Harrop JS, Birknes J, Shaffrey CI. Noninvasive measurement and screening techniques for spinal deformities. Neurosurgery. 2008 Sep;63(3 Suppl):46-53. Abstract

30. US Preventive Services Task Force., Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018 Jan 9;319(2):165-72.Full text  Abstract

31. Dunn J, Henrikson NB, Morrison CC et al. Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2018 Jan. Report No.: 17-05230-EF-1.Full text  Abstract

32. Negrini S, Donzelli S, Aulisa AG, et al. 2016 SOSORT guidelines: orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 2018;13:3.Full text  Abstract

33. Scoliosis Research Society. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

34. Grossman TW, Mazur JM, Cummings RJ. An evaluation of the Adams forward bend test and the scoliometer in a scoliosis school screening setting. J Pediatr Orthop. 1995 Jul-Aug;15(4):535-8. Abstract

35. Ashworth MA, Hancock JA, Ashworth L, et al. Scoliosis screening. An approach to cost/benefit analysis. Spine. 1988 Oct;13(10):1187-8. Abstract

36. Bunnell WP. An objective criterion for scoliosis screening. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984 Dec;66(9):1381-7. Abstract

37. Zaoussis AL, James JI. The iliac apophysis and the evolution of curves in scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1958 Aug;40-B(3):442-53.Full text  Abstract

38. Hawary RE, Zaaroor-Regev D, Floman Y, et al. Brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: risk factors for failure-a literature review. Spine J. 2019 Dec;19(12):1917-25.Full text  Abstract

39. Cobb JR. The problem of the primary curve. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960 Dec;42-A:1413-25. Abstract

40. Yawn B, Yawn RA. Efficacy of school scoliosis screening. Orthopedics. 2001 Apr;24(4):317. Abstract

41. Yawn BP. School-screening for scoliosis. A prospective epidemiological study in northwestern and central Greece. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Aug;80(8):1244. Abstract

42. Yawn BP. Reassessing scoliosis screening: new definitions, new criteria. Adm Radiol J. 2000;19(8):14-7. Abstract

43. Yawn B, Yawn RA. The estimated cost of school scoliosis screening. Spine. 2000 Sep 15;25(18):2387-91. Abstract

44. Hresko MT, Talwalkar V, Schwend R, et al. Early detection of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016 Aug 17;98(16):e67. Abstract

45. Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Wright JG, et al. Effects of bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 17;369(16):1512-21.Full text  Abstract

46. Lonstein JE. Why school screening for scoliosis should be continued. Spine. 1988 Oct;13(10):1198-200. Abstract

47. Fong DY, Lee CF, Cheung KM, et al. A meta-analysis of the clinical effectiveness of school scoliosis screening. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 May 1;35(10):1061-71. Abstract

48. Sabirin J, Bakri R, Buang SN, et al. School scoliosis screening programme-a systematic review. Med J Malaysia. 2010 Dec;65(4):261-7.Full text  Abstract

49. Scoliosis Research Society. Position statement - screening for the early detection for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. Sept 2015 [internet publication].Full text

50. Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Spratt KF, et al. Health and function of patients with untreated idiopathic scoliosis: a 50-year natural history study. JAMA. 2003 Feb 5;289(5):559-67.Full text  Abstract

51. Bagnall KM, Beuerlein M, Johnson P, et al. Pineal transplantation after pinealectomy in young chickens has no effect on the development of scoliosis. Spine. 2001 May 1;26(9):1022-7. Abstract

52. Goldberg MS, Mayo NE, Poitras B, et al. The Ste-Justine Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Cohort Study. Part II: Perception of health, self and body image, and participation in physical activities. Spine. 1994 Jul 15;19(14):1562-72. Abstract

53. Weinstein SL. Idiopathic scoliosis. Natural history. Spine. 1986 Oct;11(8):780-3. Abstract

54. Weinstein SL, Ponseti IV. Curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983 Apr;65(4):447-55. Abstract

55. Weinstein SL, Zavala DC, Ponseti IV. Idiopathic scoliosis: long-term follow-up and prognosis in untreated patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981 Jun;63(5):702-12. Abstract

56. Sponseller PD. Bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in practice today. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Jan-Feb;31(1 Suppl):S53-60. Abstract

57. Kotwicki T, Durmala J, Czaprowski D, et al. Conservative management of idiopathic scoliosis: guidelines based on SOSORT 2006 Consensus. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2009 Sep-Oct;11(5):379-95. Abstract

58. Roye BD, Simhon ME, Matsumoto H, et al. Establishing consensus on the best practice guidelines for the use of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2020 Aug;8(4):597-604. Abstract

59. Negrini S, Minozzi S, Bettany-Saltikov J, et al. Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 18;(6):CD006850.Full text  Abstract

60. Dickson JH, Mirkovic S, Noble PC, et al. Results of operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995 Apr;77(4):513-23. Abstract

61. Kim YJ, Lenke LG, Kim J, et al. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in posterior spinal fusion of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2006 Feb 1;31(3):291-8. Abstract

62. Lenke LG. Debate: Resolved, a 55 degrees right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliotic curve should be treated by posterior spinal fusion and segmental instrumentation using thoracic pedicle screws: Pro: Thoracic pedicle screws should be used to treat a 55 degrees right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 May-Jun;24(3):329-34. Abstract

63. Suk SI, Lee CK, Kim WJ, et al. Segmental pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1995 Jun 15;20(12):1399-405. Abstract

64. Suk SI, Lee SM, Chung ER, et al. Selective thoracic fusion with segmental pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis: more than 5-year follow-up. Spine. 2005 Jul 15;30(14):1602-9. Abstract

65. Muschik MT, Kimmich H, Demmel T. Comparison of anterior and posterior double-rod instrumentation for thoracic idiopathic scoliosis: results of 141 patients. Eur Spine J. 2006 Jul;15(7):1128-38. Abstract

66. Turi M, Johnston CE 2nd, Richards BS. Anterior correction of idiopathic scoliosis using TSRH instrumentation. Spine. 1993 Mar 15;18(4):417-22. Abstract

67. Newton PO. The use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Instr Course Lect. 2005;54:551-8. Abstract

68. Newton PO, Faro FD, Gollogly S, et al. Results of preoperative pulmonary function testing of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. A study of six hundred and thirty-one patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Sep;87(9):1937-46. Abstract

69. Newton PO, Marks M, Faro F, et al. Use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to reduce perioperative morbidity in scoliosis surgery. Spine. 2003 Oct 15;28(20):S249-54. Abstract

70. Newton PO, Parent S, Marks M, et al. Prospective evaluation of 50 consecutive scoliosis patients surgically treated with thoracoscopic anterior instrumentation. Spine. 2005 Sep 1;30(17 Suppl):S100-9. Abstract

71. Newton PO, Wenger DR, Mubarak SJ, et al. Anterior release and fusion in pediatric spinal deformity. A comparison of early outcome and cost of thoracoscopic and open thoracotomy approaches. Spine. 1997 Jun 15;22(12):1398-406. Abstract

72. Newton PO, White KK, Faro F, et al. The success of thoracoscopic anterior fusion in a consecutive series of 112 pediatric spinal deformity cases. Spine. 2005 Feb 15;30(4):392-8. Abstract

73. Reddi V, Clarke DV Jr, Arlet V. Anterior thoracoscopic instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Aug 15;33(18):1986-94. Abstract

74. Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH 3rd, et al. Comparison of anterior and posterior instrumentation for correction of adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1999 Feb 1;24(3):225-39. Abstract

75. Lenke LG. Anterior endoscopic discectomy and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2003 Aug 1;28(15 Suppl):S36-43. Abstract

76. Lowe TG, Alongi PR, Smith DA, et al. Anterior single rod instrumentation for thoracolumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with and without the use of structural interbody support. Spine. 2003 Aug 1;28(15 Suppl):S36-43. Abstract

77. Mayo NE, Goldberg MS, Poitras B, et al. The Ste-Justine Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Cohort Study. Part III: back pain. Spine. 1994 Jul 15;19(14):1573-81. Abstract

78. Collis DK, Ponseti IV. Long-term follow-up of patients with idiopathic scoliosis not treated surgically. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969 Apr;51(3):425-45. Abstract

79. Danielsson AJ, Nachemson AL. Back pain and function 22 years after brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case-control study-part I. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Sep 15;28(18):2078-85; discussion 2086. Abstract

80. Ascani E, Bartolozzi P, Logroscino CA, et al. Natural history of untreated idiopathic scoliosis after skeletal maturity. Spine. 1986 Oct;11(8):784-9. Abstract

81. Nachemson A. A long term follow-up study of non-treated scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand. 1968;39(4):466-76. Abstract

82. Branthwaite MA. Cardiorespiratory consequences of unfused idiopathic scoliosis. Br J Dis Chest. 1986 Oct;80(4):360-9. Abstract

83. Edgar MA, Mehta MH. Long-term follow-up of fused and unfused idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1988 Nov;70(5):712-6.Full text  Abstract

84. Pehrsson K, Bake B, Larsson S, et al. Lung function in adult idiopathic scoliosis: a 20 year follow up. Thorax. 1991 Jul;46(7):474-8.Full text  Abstract

85. Pehrsson K, Danielsson A, Nachemson A. Pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 25 year follow up after surgery or start of brace treatment. Thorax. 2001 May;56(5):388-93.Full text  Abstract

86. Dolan LA, Weinstein SL, Abel MF, et al. Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST): development and validation of a prognostic model in untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the simplified skeletal maturity system. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov;7(6):890-8.e4.Full text  Abstract

87. Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Cheng JC, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Lancet. 2008 May 3;371(9623):1527-37. Abstract

88. Dickson RA. Spinal disorders and low back pain. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999 May;81(3):378-9.Full text  Abstract

89. Murphy RF, Mooney JF 3rd. Complications following spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2016 Dec;9(4):462-9. Abstract

90. Newton PO, Upasani VV, Lhamby J, et al. Surgical treatment of main thoracic scoliosis with thoracoscopic anterior instrumentation. a five-year follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Oct;90(10):2077-89. Abstract

91. Lehman RA Jr, Lenke LG, Keeler KA, et al. Operative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with posterior pedicle screw-only constructs: minimum three-year follow-up of one hundred fourteen cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Jun 15;33(14):1598-604. Abstract

92. Fan Y, Ren Q, To MKT, et al. Effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises for alleviating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2020 Jul 27;21(1):495.Full text  Abstract

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