The diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is one of exclusion and is made after ruling out other causes of spinal deformity, such as neuromuscular, congenital, or syndromic disorders.

When evaluating a patient who is suspected to have scoliosis, the focus of investigation should centre on 3 main topics: exclusion of other causes of spinal deformity; estimation of remaining growth potential; and determination of the degree of truncal decompensation (severe, clinically apparent deformity in which the trunk is no longer centred over the pelvis, resulting from coronal imbalance in severe curves) and asymmetry caused by the curvature.[27]

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