Epidemiology

Major international epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of DED ranges from 5% to 50% worldwide. The large variation in studies is attributed to heterogeneous patient cohort, inclusion criteria, diagnostic criteria, and study design.[2] The condition is more prevalent in females than males, ranging from 1.33 to 1.74 times higher,[2][3][4] and older adults are affected more than younger people.[2][5] One report suggests that symptoms are reported in 6% of US women under 50 years and 10% of US women under 75 years, with an age-adjusted prevalence of 8% or 3.23 million US women over 50 years.[3] Another study suggests the age-adjusted prevalence may be as high as 17% in women and 11% in men.[4]

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