Trachoma

References

Key articles

World Health Organization. Primary health care level management of trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1993:WHO/PBL/93.33.Full text

World Health Organization. Primary health care level management of trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1993:WHO/PBL/93.33.Full text

World Health Organization. Trachoma control: a guide for programme managers. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2006.Full text

Dawson CR, Schachter J, Sallam S, et al. A comparison of oral azithromycin with topical oxytetracycline/polymyxin for the treatment of trachoma in children. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Mar;24(3):363-8. Abstract

Lietman T, Porco T, Dawson C, et al. Global elimination of trachoma: how frequently should we administer mass chemotherapy. Nat Med. 1999 May;5(5):572-6. Abstract

Ejere HO, Alhassan MB, Rabiu M. Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 20;(2):CD003659.Full text  Abstract

Ngondi J, Onsarigo A, Matthews F, et al. Effect of 3 years of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change) strategy for trachoma control in southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2006 Aug 12;368(9535):589-95. Abstract

Bowman RJ, Faal H, Myatt M, et al. Longitudinal study of trachomatous trichiasis in the Gambia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar;86(3):339-43.Full text  Abstract

Reacher M, Foster A, Huber J. Trichiasis surgery for trachoma: the bilamellar tarsal rotation procedure. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1998;WHO/PBL/93.29.Full text

West ES, Munoz B, Imeru A, et al. The association between epilation and corneal opacity in eye with trachomatous trichiasis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Feb;90(2):171-4.Full text  Abstract

Evans JR, Solomon AW, Kumar R, et al. Antibiotics for trachoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 26;9:CD001860.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. World Health Organization. Trachoma: fact sheet. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

2. Polack S, Brooker S, Kuper H, et al. Mapping the global distribution of trachoma. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Dec;83(12):913-9.Full text  Abstract

3. West SK, Munoz B, Mkocha H, et al. Progression of active trachoma to scarring in a cohort of Tanzanian children. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2001 Jul;8(2-3):137-44. Abstract

4. Bowman RJ, Jatta B, Cham B, et al. Natural history of trachomatous scarring in the Gambia: results of a 12-year longitudinal follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2001 Dec;108(12):2219-24. Abstract

5. Munoz B, Aron J, Turner V, et al. Incidence estimates of late stages of trachoma among women in a hyperendemic area of central Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health. 1997 Nov;2(11):1030-8.Full text  Abstract

6. Schemann JF, Sacko D, Malvy D, et al. Risk factors for trachoma in Mali. Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;31(1):194-201.Full text  Abstract

7. Taylor HR, West SK, Mmbaga BB, et al. Hygiene factors and increased risk of trachoma in central Tanzania. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Dec;107(12):1821-5. Abstract

8. West SK, Congdon N, Katala S, et al. Facial cleanliness and risk of trachoma in families. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991 Jun;109(6):855-7. Abstract

9. West SK, Munoz B, Lynch M, et al. Risk factors for constant, severe trachoma among preschool children in Kongwa, Tanzania. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Jan 1;143(1):73-8.Full text  Abstract

10. Wright HR, Turner A, Taylor HR. Trachoma and poverty: unnecessary blindness further disadvantages the poorest people in the poorest countries. Clin Exp Optom. 2007 Nov;90(6):422-8.Full text  Abstract

11. Habtamu E, Wondie T, Aweke S, et al. Trachoma and relative poverty: a case-control study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Nov 23;9(11):e0004228.Full text  Abstract

12. Miller K, Pakpour N, Yi E, et al. Pesky trachoma suspect finally caught. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Jun;88(6):750-1.Full text  Abstract

13. West S, Lynch M, Turner V, et al. Water availability and trachoma. Bull World Health Organ. 1989;67(1):71-5.Full text  Abstract

14. Emerson PM, Lindsay SW, Alexander N, et al. Role of flies and provision of latrines in trachoma control: cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Apr 3;363(9415):1093-8. Abstract

15. World Health Organization. Report of the 2nd global scientific meeting on trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2003:WHO/PBD/GET 03.1.Full text

16. Oldenburg CE. One size does not fit all: achieving trachoma control by 2030. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Dec;101(6):1189-90.Full text  Abstract

17. Greenland K, White S, Sommers K, et al. Selecting behaviour change priorities for trachoma 'F' and 'E' interventions: A formative research study in Oromia, Ethiopia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Oct;13(10):e0007784.Full text  Abstract

18. World Health Organization. Primary health care level management of trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1993:WHO/PBL/93.33.Full text

19. Solomon AW, Foster A, Mabey DC. Clinical examination versus Chlamydia trachomatis assays to guide antibiotic use in trachoma control programmes. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;6(1):5-6. Abstract

20. Michel CE, Solomon AW, Magbanua JP, et al. Field evaluation of a rapid point-of-care assay for targeting antibiotic treatment for trachoma control: a comparative study. Lancet. 2006 May 13;367(9522):1585-90. Abstract

21. World Health Organization. Primary health care level management of trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1993:WHO/PBL/93.33.Full text

22. World Health Organization. Report of the 3rd global scientific meeting on trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010:WHO/PBD/2.10.Full text

23. World Health Organization. Trachoma control: a guide for programme managers. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2006.Full text

24. Stelmach RD, Flueckiger RM, Shutt J, et al. The costs of monitoring trachoma elimination: Impact, surveillance, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT)-only surveys. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Sep;13(9):e0007605.Full text  Abstract

25. Negrel AD, Taylor HR, West S. Guidelines for rapid assessment for blinding trachoma. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization and International Trachoma Initiative; 2001.Full text

26. Senyonjo L, Aboe A, Bailey R, et al. Operational adaptations of the trachoma pre-validation surveillance strategy employed in Ghana: a qualitative assessment of successes and challenges. Infect Dis Poverty. 2019 Aug 27;8(1):78.Full text  Abstract

27. Liu B, Cowling C, Hayen A, et al. Relationship between community drug administration strategy and changes in trachoma prevalence, 2007 to 2013. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 6;10(7):e0004810.Full text  Abstract

28. West SK, Bailey R, Munoz B, et al. A randomized trial of two coverage targets for mass treatment with azithromycin for trachoma. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Aug 29;7(8):e2415.Full text  Abstract

29. Yohannan J, Munoz B, Mkocha H, et al. Can we stop mass drug administration prior to 3 annual rounds in communities with low prevalence of trachoma?: PRET Ziada trial results. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;131(4):431-6.Full text  Abstract

30. House JI, Ayele B, Porco TC, et al. Assessment of herd protection against trachoma due to repeated mass antibiotic distributions: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2009 Mar 28;373(9669):1111-8. Abstract

31. Bailey RL, Arullendran P, Whittle HC, et al. Randomised controlled trial of single-dose azithromycin in treatment of trachoma. Lancet. 1993 Aug 21;342(8869):453-6. Abstract

32. Tabbara KF, Abu el-Asrar AM, Al-Omar O, et al. Single-dose azithromycin in the treatment of trachoma. Ophthalmology. 1996 May;103(5):842-6. Abstract

33. Dawson CR, Schachter J, Sallam S, et al. A comparison of oral azithromycin with topical oxytetracycline/polymyxin for the treatment of trachoma in children. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Mar;24(3):363-8. Abstract

34. Bowman RJ, Sillah A, Van Dehn C, et al. Operational comparison of single-dose azithromycin and topical tetracycline for trachoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Dec;41(13):4074-9.Full text  Abstract

35. Porco TC, Gebre T, Ayele B, et al. Effect of mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control on overall mortality in Ethiopian children: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009 Sep 2;302(9):962-8.Full text  Abstract

36. Fry AM, Jha HC, Lietman TM, et al. Adverse and beneficial secondary effects of mass treatment with azithromycin to eliminate blindness due to trachoma in Nepal. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 15;35(4):395-402.Full text  Abstract

37. Lietman T, Porco T, Dawson C, et al. Global elimination of trachoma: how frequently should we administer mass chemotherapy. Nat Med. 1999 May;5(5):572-6. Abstract

38. Melese M, Alemayehu W, Lakew T, et al. Comparison of annual and biannual mass antibiotic administration for elimination of infectious trachoma. JAMA. 2008 Feb 20;299(7):778-84.Full text  Abstract

39. Gebre T, Ayele B, Zerihun M, et al. Comparison of annual versus twice-yearly mass azithromycin treatment for hyperendemic trachoma in Ethiopia: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2012 Jan 14;379(9811):143-51. Abstract

40. Hsieh YH, Bobo LD, Quinn TC, et al. Risk factors for trachoma: 6-year follow-up of children aged 1 and 2 years. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Aug 1;152(3):204-11.Full text  Abstract

41. Ejere HO, Alhassan MB, Rabiu M. Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 20;(2):CD003659.Full text  Abstract

42. Ngondi J, Onsarigo A, Matthews F, et al. Effect of 3 years of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change) strategy for trachoma control in southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2006 Aug 12;368(9535):589-95. Abstract

43. Khandekar R, Ton TK, Do Thi P. Impact of face washing and environmental improvements on reduction of active trachoma in Vietnam - a public health intervention study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006 Feb;13(1):43-52. Abstract

44. Haile M, Tadesse Z, Gebreselassie S, et al. The association between latrine use and trachoma: a secondary cohort analysis from a randomized clinical trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Oct;89(4):717-20.Full text  Abstract

45. Abdou A, Munoz BE, Nassirou B, et al. How much is not enough? A community randomized trial of a Water and Health Education programme for trachoma and ocular C. trachomatis infection in Niger. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jan;15(1):98-104.Full text  Abstract

46. Emerson PM, Lindsay SW, Walraven GE, et al. Effect of fly control on trachoma and diarrhoea. Lancet. 1999 Apr 24;353(9162):1401-3. Abstract

47. West SK, Emerson PM, Mkocha H, et al. Intensive insecticide spraying for fly control after mass antibiotic treatment for trachoma in a hyperendemic setting: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2006 Aug 12;368(9535):596-600. Abstract

48. Frick KD, Melia BM, Buhrmann RR, et al. Trichiasis and disability in a trachoma-endemic area of Tanzania. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Dec;119(12):1839-44.Full text  Abstract

49. Dhaliwal P, Nagpal G, Bhatia MS. Health-related quality of life in patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006 Feb;13(1):59-66. Abstract

50. Bowman RJ, Faal H, Myatt M, et al. Longitudinal study of trachomatous trichiasis in the Gambia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar;86(3):339-43.Full text  Abstract

51. Habtamu E, Wondie T, Aweke S, et al. Posterior lamellar versus bilamellar tarsal rotation surgery for trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Mar;4(3):e175-84.Full text  Abstract

52. Habtamu E, Wondie T, Tadesse Z et al. Posterior lamellar versus bilamellar tarsal rotation surgery for trachomatous trichiasis: Long-term outcomes from a randomised controlled trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2019 Nov 1 [Epub ahead of print].Full text

53. Reacher M, Foster A, Huber J. Trichiasis surgery for trachoma: the bilamellar tarsal rotation procedure. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1998;WHO/PBL/93.29.Full text

54. Reacher M, Munoz B, Alghassany A, et al. A controlled trial of surgery for trachomatous trichiasis of the upper lid. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 May;110(5):667-74. Abstract

55. Zhang H, Kandel RP, Atakari HK, et al. Impact of oral azithromycin on recurrence of trachomatous trichiasis in Nepal over 1 year. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Aug;90(8):943-8.Full text  Abstract

56. West S, Lynch M, Munoz B, et al. Predicting surgical compliance in a cohort of women with trichiasis. Int Ophthalmol. 1994;18(2):105-9. Abstract

57. Oliva MS, Munoz B, Lynch M, et al. Evaluation of barriers to surgical compliance in the treatment of trichiasis. Int Ophthalmol. 1997-1998;21(4):235-41. Abstract

58. Courtright P. Acceptance of surgery for trichiasis among rural Malawian women. East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):803-4. Abstract

59. Rabiu MA, Abiose A. Magnitude of trachoma and barriers to uptake of lid surgery in a rural community of northern Nigeria. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2001 Jul;8(2-3):181-90. Abstract

60. Bowman RJ, Faal H, Jatta B, et al. Longitudinal study of trachomatous trichiasis in The Gambia: barriers to acceptance of surgery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Apr;43(4):936-40.Full text  Abstract

61. West SK, West ES, Alemayehu W, et al. Single-dose azithromycin prevents trichiasis recurrence following surgery: randomized trial in Ethiopia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Mar;124(3):309-14. Abstract

62. Nagpal G, Dhaliwal U, Bhatia MS. Barriers to acceptance of intervention among patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion presenting to a teaching hospital. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006 Feb;13(1):53-8. Abstract

63. Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, et al. Interventions for trachoma trichiasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 13;(11):CD004008.Full text  Abstract

64. West ES, Munoz B, Imeru A, et al. The association between epilation and corneal opacity in eye with trachomatous trichiasis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Feb;90(2):171-4.Full text  Abstract

65. Rajak SN, Habtamu E, Weiss HA, et al. Surgery versus epilation for the treatment of minor trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled noninferiority trial. PLoS Med. 2011 Dec;8(12):e1001136.Full text  Abstract

66. Habtamu E, Rajak SN, Tadesse Z, et al. Epilation for minor trachomatous trichiasis: four-year results of a randomised controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 13;9(3):e0003558.Full text  Abstract

67. Evans JR, Solomon AW, Kumar R, et al. Antibiotics for trachoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 26;9:CD001860.Full text  Abstract

68. Rajak SN, Habtamu E, Weiss HA, et al. Absorbable versus silk sutures for surgical treatment of trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2011 Dec;8(12):e1001137.Full text  Abstract

69. Cochereau I, Goldschmidt P, Goepogui A, et al. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double-masked clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 May;91(5):667-72.Full text  Abstract

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