Characterised by anaemia and evidence of immune system activation.
Anaemia is mainly due to decreased red blood cell production; may be aggravated by shortened red blood cell survival.
Commonly found in acute and chronic infections; autoimmune disorders; chronic diseases; malignancy; after major trauma, surgery, or critical illness; and among older adults.
Physical examination findings are those of the underlying disorder.
Therapeutic approach is primarily treatment of the underlying disorder, although treatment of the anaemia itself is sometimes appropriate.
Laboratory studies, which collectively identify the syndrome, typically show normocytic normochromic or microcytic hypochromic anaemia, relatively low absolute reticulocyte count, low serum iron, low total iron-binding capacity, low to normal percent transferrin saturation, and elevated ferritin.
History and exam
- absent history of high alcohol intake
- absent history of exposure to chemicals and radiation
- absent history of drugs known to be associated with risk of anaemia
- absent history of poor nutrition
- decreased exercise tolerance
- shortness of breath with exercise
- erythrocyte sedimentation rate
- serum B12
- serum folate
- thyroid function tests
- indirect and direct bilirubin
- haemoglobin electrophoresis
- bone marrow biopsy
- soluble transferrin receptor
- ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to log ferritin
Professor of Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University
EHK declares that he has no competing interests.
The Ohio State University James Comprehensive Cancer Center
MH declares that she has no competing interests.
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Medical Oncology
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
KK declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Eric Kraut, Dr Marium Husain, and Dr Kiranveer Kaur would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Alice Ma, Dr Damon Houghton, Dr Marco Giovannini, Dr Pasquale Niscola, Dr Karen D. Serrano, and Dr Robert D. Woodson, previous contributors to this topic. AM, DH, MG, PN, KDS, and RDW declare that they have no competing interests.
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Eastern Virginia Medical School
SRL declares that he has no competing interests.
Associate Professor of Medicine
Innsbruck Medical University
CP declares that he has no competing interests.
Department of Medical Oncology
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
RC declares that he has no competing interests.
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