Last reviewed: July 2020
Last updated: November  2017



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • facial or generalised oedema
  • age >1 year but <8 years

Other diagnostic factors

  • normal BP
  • absence of haematuria
  • hx of recent viral illness
  • dyspnoea
  • hx of lymphoma or leukemia

Risk factors

  • age >1 year but <8 years
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • leukemia
  • recent viral illness
  • hepatitis B or C infection
  • low birth weight (LBW)

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urinalysis
  • 24-hour urine protein
  • urine protein/creatinine ratio
  • serum albumin level
  • serum lipid profile
  • serum complement levels
  • serum electrolyte panel
  • GFR
  • serum LFTs
  • renal ultrasound
More 1st investigations to order

Treatment algorithm


Mehul P. Dixit

Professor and Chief Medical Director

Pediatric Dialysis & Renal Transplantation

Pediatric Nephrology

Department of Pediatrics

Blair E. Batson Hospital for Children

University of Mississippi Medical Center




MPD has acted as a consultant for Retrophin Pharmaceuticals and Alexion Pharmaceuticals.

Dr Mehul P. Dixit would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Robert Mathias, a previous contributor to this monograph. RM is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Paediatrics and Paediatric Nephrologist

Department of Maternal and Child Health

Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine

University of KwaZulu-Natal


South Africa


RB is an author of a reference cited in the monograph.

Professor of Pediatrics

Vice Chairman for Affiliate & Network Affairs

Chief, Section on Nephrology

Division of Pediatric Nephrology

Children's Hospital at Montefiore of Albert Einstein College of Medicine

New York



FJK declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer