Clinical history, presentation, and findings include fatigue, pallor, dyspnoea on exertion, and pica.
Microcytic, hypochromic anaemia; low reticulocyte count.
Characteristics include low serum iron, increased total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), less than 16% transferrin saturation, and low serum ferritin.
The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia necessitates investigation of the underlying cause.
Initial treatment includes oral iron.
The WHO defines anaemia as haemoglobin <130 g/L (13 g/dL) in men older than age 15 years, <120 g/L (12 g/dL) in non-pregnant women older than age 15 years, and <110 g/L (11 g/dL) in pregnant women.  Iron deficiency is a lack of iron in the body resulting from inadequate iron intake, increased iron loss, or excessive iron requirements of which iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the end-stage result.
Lysosomal Storage Disorders Unit
Department of Haematology
Royal Free Hospital
AM declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Atul Metha would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Martina Murphy, Dr Marc Zumberg, and Dr Rebecca Fischer Connor, the previous contributors to this monograph. MZ declares that he is medical director for NCF Diagnostics and DNA Technologies, as well as serving as a consultant for Alexion Pharmaceutics. MM and RFC declare that they have no competing interests.
Internal Medicine Instructor
Member of Evidence Based Medicine Unit
Catholic University of Chile
CA declares that he has no competing interests.
University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust
JM declares that he has no competing interests.
AK has received a fee for speaking about perioperative blood management from Ortho-Biotech and has also received reimbursement from medscape.com for the education webcast of the same presentation.
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