Last reviewed: 5 Jul 2021
Last updated: 26 Aug 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • haematological malignancy
  • pre-existing renal impairment
  • syncope/chest pain/dyspnoea
  • seizures

Other diagnostic factors

  • nausea and vomiting
  • anorexia
  • diarrhoea
  • muscle weakness
  • muscle cramps
  • lethargy
  • paraesthesia
  • lymphadenopathy
  • splenomegaly
  • hypertension/hypotension
  • oliguria/anuria/haematuria
  • solid tumour malignancy
  • tetany
  • Trousseau sign
  • Chvostek sign
  • laryngeal spasm
  • peripheral oedema

Risk factors

  • haematological malignancy
  • large tumour burden
  • chemosensitive tumours
  • recent chemotherapy
  • pre-existing renal impairment
  • dehydration
  • volume depletion
  • nephrotoxic medication
  • advanced age

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum uric acid
  • serum phosphate
  • serum potassium
  • serum calcium
  • FBC
  • lactate dehydrogenase
  • serum creatinine
  • serum urea
  • urine pH

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Tariq Mughal, MD, FRCP, FACP, FRCPath

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Tufts University Cancer Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

TM has consulted for Roche Foundation Medicine, Sangamo Therapeutics, Stemline Therapeutics, Novartis, and Sanofi.

Acknowledgements

Professor Tariq Mughal would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr James Larkin and Dr Anastasia Constantinidou, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

JL and AC declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Shereen Ezzat, MD

Professor of Medicine and Oncology

University of Toronto

Toronto

Ontario

Canada

Disclosures

SE declares that he has no competing interests.

David Landau, MB BS, MRCP, FRCR

Consultant Clinical Oncologist

Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS Trust

Honorary Senior Lecturer

Imaging Sciences Division

King's College Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

DL declares that he has no competing interests.

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