Key articles

Levett P. Leptospirosis. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2006:2495-500.

Vijayachari P, Sugunan AP, Shriram AN. Leptospirosis: an emerging global, public health problem. J Biosci. 2008 Nov;33(4):557-69. Abstract

World Health Organization. Human leptospirosis: guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.Full text

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) 2013 case definition. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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53. De Brito T, Aiello VD, da Silva LF, et al. Human hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: pathological findings and pathophysiological correlations. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 12;8(8):e71743.Full text  Abstract

54. Selvarajah S, Ran S, Roberts NW, et al. Leptospirosis in pregnancy: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep;15(9):e0009747.Full text  Abstract

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56. Public Health England. Guidance: national leptospirosis service. Jun 2018 [internet publication].Full text

57. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leptospirosis: fact sheet for clinicians. Jan 2018 [internet publication].Full text

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59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) 2013 case definition. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

60. Levett PN, Branch SL, Whittington CU, et al. Two methods for rapid serological diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Mar;8(2):349-51.Full text  Abstract

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67. Chawalparit O, Charoensak A, Niwattayakul K, et al. Radiographic chest findings and clinical correlations in leptospirosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 May;90(5):918-24. Abstract

68. Dursun B, Bostan F, Artac M, et al. Severe pulmonary haemorrhage accompanying hepatorenal failure in fulminant leptospirosis. Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Jan;61(1):164-7. Abstract

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73. Griffith ME, Hospenthal DR, Murray CK. Antimicrobial therapy of leptospirosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Dec;19(6):533-7. Abstract

74. Tullu MK, Karande S. Leptospirosis in children: a review for family physicians. Indian J Med Sci. 2009 Aug;63(8):368-78. Abstract

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76. Guerrier G, Lefèvre P, Chouvin C, et al. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction among patients with leptospirosis: incidence and risk factors. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Apr;96(4):791-4.Full text  Abstract

77. Suputtamongkol Y, Niwattayakul K, Suttinont C, et al. An open, randomized, controlled trial of penicillin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime for patients with severe leptospirosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15;39(10):1417-24.Full text  Abstract

78. Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Vibhaqool A, et al. Ceftriaxone compared with sodium penicillin g for treatment of severe leptospirosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 15;36(12):1507-13.Full text  Abstract

79. Sheony VV, Nagar VS, Chowdhury AA, et al. Pulmonary leptospirosis: an excellent response to bolus methylprednisolone. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Sep;82(971):602-6. Abstract

80. Rodrigo C, Lakshitha de Silva N, Goonaratne R, et al. High dose corticosteroids in severe leptospirosis: a systematic review. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Dec;108(12):743-50. Abstract

81. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Brief report: Leptospirosis after flooding of a university campus - Hawaii, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Feb 10;55(5):125-7.Full text  Abstract

82. Lindow JC, Wunder EA Jr, Popper SJ, et al. Cathelicidin insufficiency in patients with fatal leptospirosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Nov;12(11):e1005943.Full text  Abstract

83. Oliveira PN, Courrol DS, Chura-Chambi RM, et al. Inactivation of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by pathogenic Leptospira. Microb Pathog. 2021 Jan;150:104704. Abstract

84. Fonseka CL, Lekamwasam S. Role of plasmapheresis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of leptospirosis complicated with pulmonary hemorrhages. J Trop Med. 2018 Dec 2;2018:4520185.Full text  Abstract

85. Doudier B, Garcia S, Quennee V, et al. Prognostic factors associated with severe leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Apr;12(4):299-300.Full text  Abstract

86. Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Thinkamrop B. Prognostic factors of death in leptospirosis: a prospective cohort study in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Int J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar;6(1):52-9.Full text  Abstract

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88. Abgueguen P, Delbos V, Blanvillain J, et al. Clinical aspects and prognostic factors of leptospirosis in adults. Retrospective study in France. J Infect. 2008 Sep;57(3):171-8. Abstract

89. Carrillo-Larco RM, Altez-Fernandez C, Acevedo-Rodriguez JG, et al. Leptospirosis as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of observational studies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 May;13(5):e0007458.Full text  Abstract

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